Keys in Flora of Bhutan:
1. Leaves deciduous, broadly elliptic to obovate; ﬂowers in lax terminal panicles . . . . .. 1. S. paniculata
+ Leaves evergreen, usually narrowly elliptic; ﬂowers in simple or branched axillary racemes or spikes, or axillary fascicles . . . . .. 2
2. Midrib prominent on upper leaf surface . . . . .. 2. S. lucida
+ Midrib impressed on upper leaf surface . . . . .. 3
3. Flowers in dense axillary fascicles or branched spikes . . . .. 4
+ Flowers in simple spikes or racemes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 5
4. Flowers in dense axillary fascicles . . . . . . .. 3. S. glomerata
+ Flowers in elongate branched spikes . .. . . .. 4. S. cochinchinensis
5. Leaves membranous or thinly coriaceous, long-acuminate, often caudate; margins serrulate almost to base; calyx pubescent . . . . .. 5. S. ramosissima
+ Leaves thick and rigid, obtuse, subacute, acute or acuminate, rarely caudate; margins entire (rarely crenate), or serrulate only towards apex; calyx usually glabrous. . . . . .. 6
6. Branchlets stout; leaves sharply and often abruptly acuminate, usually serrulate towards apex; ﬂowers and fruit on distinct pedicels 2-10mm . . . . .. 7
+ Branchlets slender; leaves gradually acuminate to acute, subacute or obtuse, entire, crenate or variably serrulate; ﬂowers and fruit subsessile or on short pedicels 1—4mm . . . . .. 8
7. Terminal buds large, 18-22mm, glabrous externally; lateral veins 9-16 pairs; racemes 4-10cm; stamens 40-50 . . . . .. 6. S. dryophila
+ Terminal buds small, 5-6mm, outermost scales pubescent at base; lateral veins 5-8 pairs; racemes 3-5cm; stamens 20-30 . . … 7. S. sumuntia
8. Branchlets glabrous; leafapex acute or gradually acuminate, margins entire or obscurely serrulate towards apex; racemes 1-3cm; stamens 30-35 ………….. 8. S. pyrifolia
+ Branchlets pubescent; leaf apex obtuse, subacute or acute, margins crenate to subentire; racemes 3—10cm; stamens 80-100 . . .. . . . ..9. S. racemosa
Symplocos cochinchinensis subsp. cochinchinensis (China (Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang), Taiwan, Tibet, Cambodia, Laos, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam, peninsular Malaysia (Penang Isl., Kelantan, Terengganu, Pahang, Negeri Sembilan, Melaka), Singapore, Ryukyu Isl., Japan (Kyushu, Yakushima Isl., Tanegashima Isl.), New Guinea (alpine), India, Darjeeling, Myanmar [Burma], Philippines, Andamans, Nepal, Vanuatu as per Catalogue of Life)
Symplocos cochinchinensis var. laurina (Retz.) Noot. (China (Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hunan, Jiangxi, Jiangsu, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang), Taiwan, Tibet, Cambodia, Ryukyu Isl., Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu), Laos, Australia (Queensland), Java, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Thailand, Sumatra, peninsular Malaysia (rare), Borneo, Sulawesi, Andamans (South Andamans), Bhutan, Darjeeling, India (West Bengal Duars), Myanmar [Burma] (Chin, Mon, Taninthayi, Kachin), Bangladesh as per Catalogue of Life)
Symplocos glomerata King ex C.B. Clarke (peninsular Malaysia (Terengganu), Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Vietnam, China (Hainan, Hongkong, Fujian, Guangdong, Hunan, Jiangxi, Yunnan, Zhejiang), Tibet, India, Bhutan, Darjeeling, Sikkim, Myanmar [Burma] (Kachin), Nepal, Bangladesh as per Catalogue of Life)
Symplocos hookeri C.B. Clarke (China (Yunnan), India, Laos, Myanmar [Burma], Thailand, Vietnam as per Catalogue of Life)
Symplocos lancifolia Siebold & Zucc. (Taiwan, Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu), Hongkong, Ryukyu Isl., Assam, N-India, Philippines (Luzon, Mindoro, Panay, Negros, Mindanao), China (Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang), Vietnam as per Catalogue of Life)
Symplocos macrophylla subsp. macrophylla (India (Assam, S-India), Sri Lanka as per Catalogue of Life)
Symplocos macrophylla subsp. rosea (Beddome) Nooteboom (Endemic to the Western Ghats- South and Central (Wayanad to Chikmagalur Region) Sahyadris as per India Biodiversity Portal)
Symplocos paniculata Miq. (China (Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang), Taiwan, Tibet, Bhutan, India, Japan (Honshu), Laos, Myanmar [Burma], Bangladesh, Vietnam, Nepal, Pakistan (Hazara), Jammu & Kashmir (Poonch, Kashmir, Jammu), USA (I) (Pennsylvania (I)) as per Catalogue of Life)
Symplocos pyrifolia Wall. ex G. Don (S-Tibet, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Darjeeling as per Catalogue of Life)
Symplocos racemosa Roxb. (China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Sichuan, Yunnan), India, Myanmar [Burma] (widespread), Bangladesh, Darjeeling, Thailand, Vietnam, Andamans (South Andamans), Nicobars (Central Nicobars, Great Nicobar Isl., Little Nicobar Isl.,), Nepal, Laos as per Catalogue of Life)
Symplocos ramosissima Wall. ex G. Don (China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Sichuan, Yunnan), Tibet, India, Myanmar [Burma] (Chin, Kachin), Nepal, Vietnam, Bhutan, Darjeeling, Sikkim as per Catalogue of life)
Symplocos theifolia D. Don (Distribution and habitat: Bhutan, Cambodia, China (south of the Yangtze River), India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, and Philippines occurring in mixed forests on slopes below 2600 m as per Taxonomic revision of the Symplocos nakaharae complex (Symplocaceae) with special reference to fruit morphology by Bo LIU Hai-Ning QIN- Journal of Systematics and Evolution 51 (1): 94–114 (2013))
SYMPLOCOS KOTHAYARENSIS (SYMPLOCACEAE), A NEW SPECIES FROM PENINSULAR INDIA by V. Sundaresan, S. Rajkumar, G.J. Jothi and V.S. Manickam- SIDA, Contributions to Botany Vol. 20, No. 3 (29 July 2003), pp. 927-930
Abstract: A new species of Symplocaceae, Symplocos kothayarensis Sundaresan, Jothi, Rajkumar & Manickam from the Southern Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India is described and illustrated.
Floral Database of Tamilnadu :
Species with description &
pictures in Flowers of India as
Symplocos anamallayana Bedd.
Symplocos cochinchinensis (Lour.) S. Moore
Forest trees of South India: Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Pondicherry, Andhra Pradesh and neighbouring states like Maharashtra (2004) by S. G. Neginhal –
Symplocos acuminata Bedd.
Symplocos anamallayana Bedd.
Symplocos barberi Gamble …
Symplocos hohenackeri C.B.Clarke …….
Symplocos laurina WALL. EX REHD. & E. H. WILS. = Symplocos cochinchinensis subsp. laurina (Retz.) Noot.
Symplocos macrophylla var. kurgensis (C.B. Clarke) Nooteboom
Symplocos obtusa Wall. ex G. Don
Forest Plants of Eastern India By Amal Bhusan Chaudhuri (1993)- p.348- Brief details with keys–
Symplocos : 1 post by 1 author.
I have updated eFI (efloraofindia) page on Symplocos
Attempts have been made to incorporate most of the species available in India & nearby areas with details & keys directly or through links as far as possible. It’s quite possible that there may be some discrepancy in the accepted names & synonyms taken from other links.
Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.
If someone can provide complete list of Indian species with source references it will be wonderful.
Any comments/ corrections are welcome.
Symplocos (Symplocaceae) page with images of species in efloraofindia : 2 posts by 2 authors.
I request you to pl. go through & point out mistakes, if any. I hope this will aid in identifications in future. If anybody can send images of other species of this genera (for incorporation in the website), if any, or can identify unidentified images, it will be really nice.