Keys in Flora of Bhutan:
33. Leaves araneous to lanate beneath or rays 1—5 … ..87. Synotis
+ Leaves (sub)glabrous beneath; rays c 8-13 . . . . . .. 89. Senecio
34. All leaves simple; Petiole dentate- or panduriform-winged; ray flowers 1-4; disc corollas 6.5-8mm .. 87. Synotis (S. acuminata)
+ Cauline leaves 1-2-pinnatifid or rays 6 to c 20 or disc corollas 3.5mm 89. Senecio
Keys in Flora of Bhutan (for Synotis):
1. Lower part of stem not or weakly developed. with most or all leaves clustered near base . . . .. 2
+ Leaves +/- equally distributed along stems . . . . .. 3
2. Leaves subrosulate or more scattered; petioles usually winged; female corollas filiform. 1-5mm or radiate with tube 2.5-3.5mm and ligulate 2.5-4mm .. 1. S. alata (In woods and coniferous forests or on gravel. 1850- 3950m. September-January)
+ Leaves always subrosulate; petioles unwinged; female corollas tubular -infundibular, 7-8mm or very rarely radiate with 6mm tube and 2mm ligule . .. 2. S. wallichii (ln forests, on rocks. l830- 3200m. August November)
3. Capitula 3-12-flowered** . . . . . . .. 4
+ Capitula more than 12-flowered** . . . . . 7
4. Capitula usually 4-flowered** . . . . . . . .. 5
+ Capitula usually 9- 12-flowered** . . . . .. 6
5. Leaves cuneate at base, petiole not more than 2cm . . . . .. 3. S. acuminata (Damp grassy swamps. 2550-4250m. June—October)
+ Leaves rounded at base. petiole up to 8cm . . . . ..4. S. tetrantha (Along moist banks and under trees. 2150—3960m. September—January)
6. Leaves cuneate at base, +/- sessile. coarsely toothed; inflorescence pubescent …. 5. S. triligulata (Shady woods. 1850-2000m. October -December)
+ Leaves rounded at base. petiole up to 1 cm. finely toothed: inflorescence glabrous .. . . . .. 6. S. vagans
7. Leaves sparsely araneous to nearly glabrous beneath; stems strongly ribbed and angled . . . . .. 7. S. bhot (Margin of forest and in open. 1220-1350m. October)
+ Leaves densely white tomentose beneath; stems angular or not . . . . .. 8
8. Leaves up to 18 >< 8cm. often auriculate at base; stems ribbed; achenes glabrous .. . . . .. 8. S. cappa (Under shrubs. 900- 1670m. October-March)
+ Leaves up to 7 >< 2.5c111. never auriculate at base: stems +/- smooth; achenes pubescent . . . .. 9. S. kunthiana
**(including ray and disc florets)
Keys in Flora of Bhutan (for Senecio):
1. Leaves simple. mostly serrate. rarely with few-lobed cauline leaves smaller than unlobed persistent basal leaves; perennials . . . . .. 2
+ Leaves divided or lobed; annuals or perennials . . . . .. 4
2. Capitula discoid . . . . .. 1. S. kumaonensis (syn. of Synotis penninervis (H.Koyama) T.J.Tong, M.Tang, C.Ren & Q.E.Yang)
+ Capitula radiate . . . .. 3
3. Stems leafy. usually scrambling. to 5m . . . .. 2. S. scandens
+ Stems subscapose_ to 60cm . . .. 3. S. nudicaulis (syn. of Jacobaea nudicaulis (Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don) B.Nord.)
4. Stems stout. mostly over 50cm: perennials . . . . . .. 5
+ Stems slender. herbaceous. to 45(-60) cm: annuals or scree-perennials with long slender rhizomes . . . . . .. 9
5. lnvolucre 3.5- 10mm diameter: ligules 5-12mm . . . . . . .. 6
+ lnvolucre 2-3mm diameter: ligules to 3mm . . . . . . .. 7
6. lnvolucre 5-10mm diameter; phyllaries 5-7.5mm: ligules 7-12 >< 2-4.5mm; pappus reddish. absent from ray ﬂowers or reduced and caducous …. 4. S. raphanifolius (syn. of Jacobaea raphanifolia (Wall. ex DC.) B.Nord.)
+ lnvolucre 3.5- 5mm diameter: phyllaries 3.5-5mm: ligules 4—7 >< l.5—2.5mm: pappus whitish or reddish. usually present and unreduced on ray ﬂowers . . . . .. 5. S. laetus (syn. of Jacobaea analoga (DC.) Veldkamp )
7. Leaves deeply lyrately divided. terminal segments much larger than laterals. triangular . . . . . .. 6. S. biligulatus
+ Leaves pinnatisect. terminal segments not or scarcely larger than laterals . . . . . .. 8
8. Ligules not longer than involucre . . . . . . .. 7. S. graciliﬂorus (syn. of Jacobaea graciliflora (DC.) Sennikov)
+ Ligules c 3mm longer than involucre . . . . .. 8. S. royleanus
9. Scree-perennial with long slender rhizomes; ligules 5—10mm ……. 9. S. albopurpureus
+ Annuals: ligules less than 2mm . . . . . .. 10
10. Ligules scarcely longer than involucre: phyllaries with 2 distinct brown veins . . . .. I0. S. ramosus
+ Ligules 12mm: phyllaries indistinctly veined . . . .. 11. S. tetrandrus
Synotis acuminata (Wall. ex DC.) C.Jeffrey & Y.L.Chen (India (C- & E-Himalaya, NE-India, Darjeeling), Sikkim, Nepal, Bhutan, Chumbi, Tibet as per Catalogue of Life)
Synotis cappa (Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don) C.Jeffrey & Y.L.Chen (China (Guangxi, Sichuan, Yunnan), Tibet, India (West Bengal, Darjeeling, Meghalaya), Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar [Burma] (widespread), Vietnam as per Catalogue of life)
Synotis lushaensis (C. E. C. Fisher) C. Jeffrey & Y. L. Chen (Assam (Mizoram) as per POWO)
Synotis vagans (Wall. ex DC.) C.Jeffrey & Y.L.Chen (India (C- to E-Himalaya), Nepal, Bhutan, Vietnam as per Catalogue of Life)
An important document for names, authority and distribution of Asteraceae (=Compositae) species in India is FLOWERING PLANTS OF
INDIA, DICOTYLEDONS, Vol-I (Acanthaceae-Avicenniaceae) authored by S.Karthikeyan, M.Sanjappa and S.Moorthy.
It is published by Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata in 2009.
As per this
document (Karthikeyan et al., 2009)
following species of Synotis occur in India:
1- Synotis acuminata,
15-S.rhabdos (“Rare” as per Red Data Book of Indian Plants),
Jeffrey and Chen (1984) separated Senecio subgenus Synotis of C.B.Clarke and raised its rank to genus. All the species belonging to this section are placed now in
FRLHT Indian Medicinal Plants Nomenclature Database with images/ herbarium, distribution, local names etc. :
Species with description & pictures in Flowers of India as on 3.2.14:
Senecio vagans is a synonym of Synotis vagans (Wall. ex DC.) C.Jeffrey & Y.L.Chen
Senecio wallichii is a synonym of Synotis wallichii (DC.) C.Jeffrey & Y.L.Chen
Floristic Diversity and Conservation Strategies in India: Angiosperms (selested groups) and ethnobotany by V. Mudgal, P. K. Hajra Botanical Survey of India, Ministry of Environment and Forests, 2001
….. Synotis lushaensis Mizoram
Synotis simonsii Assam
Synotis borii N.E. India
Synotis jowaienensis Meghalaya …
A contribution to the flora of Namdapha, Arunachal Pradesh by A. S. Chauhan, K. P. Singh, D. K. Singh Botanical Survey of India, 1996:
Synotis triligulata (Buch. – Ham. ex D.Don) C. Jaffery & Y. L. Chen
Synotis alata (Wallich ex DC.) C. Jeffrey & Y.L. Chen 288 90.
Synotis jowaiensis (Balakr.) R. Mathur 293 91.
Synotis kunthiana (Wallich ex DC.) C. Jeffrey & Y.L. Chen 294 92.
Synotis nagensium (C.B. Clarke) C. Jeffrey & Y.L. Chen 296 93.
Synotis triligulata (Buch. …
Senecio, Cissampelopsis, Curio, Jacobaea, Kleinia, Ligularia & Synotis : 5 posts by 2 authors.
Attempts have been made to incorporate most of the species available in India & nearby areas with details & keys directly or through links as far as possible. It’s quite possible that there may be some discrepancy in the accepted names & synonyms taken from other links.
Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.
Any comments/ corrections are welcome
Synotis page (Asteraceae (Compositae)) with images of species in efloraofindia : 1 post by 1 author.
If you find any mis-identification, pl. let us know.
If anybody can send images of other species of this genera (for incorporation in the website), it will be really nice. Also, if anybody is interested to take up the activity of inserting images on efloraofindia pages from efloraofindia posts, pl. let us know.