Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels, Bull. Bur. Pl. Industr. U.S.D.A. 248: 25 1912. (Syn: Calyptranthes capitellata Buch.-Ham. ex Wall. [Invalid]; Calyptranthes caryophyllifolia Willd.; Calyptranthes cumini (L.) Pers.; Calyptranthes cuminodora Stokes; Calyptranthes jambolana (Lam.) Willd.; Calyptranthes jambolifera Stokes; Calyptranthes oneillii Lundell; Caryophyllus corticosus Stokes; Caryophyllus jambos Stokes; Eugenia calyptrata Roxb. ex Wight & Arn.; Eugenia caryophyllifolia Lam.; Eugenia cumini (L.) Druce; Eugenia jambolana Lam. ..; Eugenia jambolifera Roxb. ex Wight & Arn.; Eugenia obovata Poir.; Eugenia obtusifolia Roxb.; Eugenia tsoi Merr. & Chun; Jambolifera chinensis Spreng.; Jambolifera coromandelica Houtt.; Jambolifera pedunculata Houtt.; Myrtus corticosa Spreng.; Myrtus cumini L.; Myrtus obovata (Poir.) Spreng.; Syzygium caryophyllifolium (Lam.) DC.; Syzygium cumini var. caryophyllifolium (Lam.) K.K.Khanna; Syzygium cumini var. obtusifolium (Roxb.) K.K.Khanna; Syzygium cumini var. tsoi (Merr. & Chun) H.T.Chang & R.H.Miao; Syzygium jambolanum (Lam.) DC.; Syzygium obovatum (Poir.) DC.; Syzygium obtusifolium (Roxb.) Kostel.);
siz-ZY-gee-um — from the Greek syzygos (joined), referring to the paired leaves
KOO-min-ee — from the Greek kyminon (cumin)
commonly known as: black plum, damson plum, duhat plum, Indian blackberry, jambolan, jambolan plum, Java plum, Malabar plum, Portuguese plum • Assamese: জামু jamu, ক’লা জামু kala jamu • Bengali: kala jam • Gujarati: જાંબુ jaambu • Hindi: जामुन jamun • Jaintia: dieng sohthongum • Kannada: ನೇರಳೆ nerale • Khasi: dieng ramai • Konkani: जांबुळ jambul • Malayalam: കാട്ടുചാമ്പ kaattucaampa, ഞാവല്‍ njaaval, ഞാറ njaara, പെരിഞാറ perinjaara • Manipuri: gulamchat, jam • Marathi: जांबूळ jambool • Mizo: hmuipui • Nepalese: जामुनु jamunu, फँड़िर् phanrir • Oriya: jamkoli • Pali: जम्बु jambu • Prakrit: जम्वुलो jambulo, जम्मुलो jammulo • Punjabi: ਜਾਮਣ jaman • Sanskrit: जम्बुलः jambulah, मेघमोदिनी meghamodini • Tamil: கொட்டைநாகம் kottai-nakam, நாவல் naval • Telugu: నేరేడు neredu • Tibetan: dzam-bu • Urdu: جامن jaman
China (Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Yunnan), Laos, Vietnam, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Thailand, Andaman Isl. (Middle Andaman Isl., South Andaman Isl.), Myanmar [Burma] (Bago, Kachin, Magway, Mandalay, Yangon), Bhutan, Darjeeling, Java, Pakistan (introduced), Philippines (widespread), Singapore (introduced), Maldives, Lakshadweep Isl. (Laccadives) (introduced), Queensland, South Africa (introduced), trop. Africa (introduced), Mozambique (introduced), Zimbabwe (introduced), Zambia (introduced), Jamaica (introduced), Haiti (introduced), Dominican Republic (introduced), Cuba (introduced), Taiwan (introduced), Fiji (introduced), New Caledonia (introduced), Guyana (introduced), Surinam (introduced), Belize (introduced), Panama (introduced), Lesser Antilles (introduced) (Antigua (introduced), Guadeloupe (introduced), Martinique (introduced), St. Vincent (introduced)), Venezuela (introduced), Brazil (introduced), Colombia (introduced), Bolivia (introduced), Trinidad & Tobago (introduced), Palau Isl. (introduced) (Babeldaob (introduced), Koror (introduced), Aulupse?el (introduced)), Southern Marianas (introduced) (Guam (introduced)), Tuamotu Arch. (introduced) (Rangiroa Atoll (introduced), Takapoto Atoll (introduced)), Marquesas Isl. (introduced), Society Isl. (introduced) (Tahaa (introduced), Maupiti (introduced)), Tonga (introduced) (Tongatapu (introduced)), Niue (introduced), Cook Isl. (introduced) (Rarotonga (introduced)), Mauritius (introduced), Réunion (introduced), Rodrigues (introduced), Madagascar (introduced), Hawaii (introduced) (Kauai (introduced), Oahu (introduced), Molokai (introduced), Lanai (introduced), Maui (introduced), Hawaii Isl. (introduced)), USA (introduced) (Florida (introduced)) as per Catalogue of Life;
Large tree with elliptic to obovate leaves, up to 12 cm long, branches gray; flowers white in few-flowered panicles; berry purplish-red, ovoid, 10-15 mm long, edible;


TSP-MAY2016-13-342: Images of Syzygium cumini (Myrtaceae) : 7 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (6)

It is my pleasure to share few images of Syzygium cumini (Myrtaceae 

Habit: Tree 

Habitat: Cultivated, Avenue plantation 

Sighting: Chikmagalur, Karnataka, about 1200 msl 

Date: 16-04-2014, 06-06-2014, 10-06-2014, 15-06-2014

Very good presentation. Thank you for sharing.

Wow never seen such a bright red colour in these flowers.

Jamun from Panipat



– NATIVE, WILD, CULTIVATED :: Myrtaceae (Myrtle family) » Syzygium cumini
Synonyms: Syzygium jambolana, Syzygium jambolanum, Eugenia cumini, Eugenia jambolana, Myrtus cumini

siz-ZY-gee-um — from the Greek syzygos (joined), referring to the paired leaves
KOO-min-ee — from the Greek kyminon (cumin)

commonly known as: black plum, damson plum, duhat plum, Indian blackberry, jambolan, jambolan plum, Java plum, Malabar plum, Portuguese plum • Assamese: জামু jamu, ক’লা জামু kala jamu • Bengali: kala jam • Gujarati: જાંબુ jaambu • Hindi: जामुन jamun • Jaintia: dieng sohthongum • Kannada: ನೇರಳೆ nerale • Khasi: dieng ramai • Konkani: जांबुळ jambul • Malayalam: കാട്ടുചാമ്പ kaattucaampa, ഞാവല്‍ njaaval, ഞാറ njaara, പെരിഞാറ perinjaara • Manipuri: gulamchat, jam • Marathi: जांबूळ jambool • Mizo: hmuipui • Nepalese: जामुनु jamunu, फँड़िर् phanrir • Oriya: jamkoli • Pali: जम्बु jambu • Prakrit: जम्वुलो jambulo, जम्मुलो jammulo • Punjabi: ਜਾਮਣ jaman • Sanskrit: जम्बुलः jambulah, मेघमोदिनी meghamodini • Tamil: கொட்டைநாகம் kottai-nakam, நாவல் naval • Telugu: నేరేడు neredu • Tibetan: dzam-bu • Urdu: جامن jaman
Native to: India, Indonesia
Attachments (4)



Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels of Myrtaceae



Fruits & Vegetables: Syzygium cumini, the Jamun: 3 images.
Syzygium cumini, the Jamun black plum or java plum. Ripe fruits are edible, also used for jams, jellies, preserves and squashes.

Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels
Syn: Eugenia cumini (L.) Druce
Jambolana, Jamun
Large tree with elliptic to obovate leaves, up to 12 cm long, branches gray; flowers white in few-flowered panicles; berry purplish-red, ovoid, 10-15 mm long, edible
Photographed from Delhi.

Well known jamun which cures diabetes and it is a NTFP

Kindly confirm if this is Jamun (syzygium cumini?) or otherwise. Taken at Mulshi, Pune, March11.

– Yes I think the first picture is Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels in U.S. Dept. Agr. Bur. Pl. Ind. Bull. 248: 25. 1912. We call it Duwet or Jamblang. It has a distinctive long peduncle with several pairs of horizontal branches and small flowers forming dense heads at the end of the branchlets.

– Yes Sir Jamun

Link: Incase you are interested! Hindu


ID 220911 SB: 4 images.
Location Mumbai
Seems to by member of Myrtaceae
Most probably Syzygium sps (may be Jamun as well)
Was in vegetative stage only.
Need further confirmation

Location- Place, Altitude, GPS-Pune
Habitat- Garden/ Urban/ Wild/ Type-Private garden
Plant Habit- Tree/ Shrub/ Climber/ Herb- Tree
Height/Length- 2 feet

I too agree for Jambhul.


Matheran Myrtaceae ID help.:
The attached photos were taken at Matheran, Maharashtra on 18 March 2012.
The tree was approximately 12 feet tall and the leaves were approximately 5 inches long with a prominent wavy entire margin.
Any ID help is appreciated.

Most probably Syzygium cumini 

The leaves were much broader than S. cumini.
We saw a S. cumini plant there as well, but the plant photographed and the S. cumini plant were quite distinct.

S.cumini shows lots of  variation in leaf size and shape from place to place.
In Bangalore, in front of the major bus station there (Majestic) has few individuals of S. cumini  the leaves are extremely big in size.  Further at different age the same individual show size variation of leaves.
If you still doubtful, please share the entire plant and leaf picture for more clarity.

This is Syzygium caryophyllifolia [S.gibsonii]. It is fairly common in Matheran, Mahabaleshwar & Khandala.

I hope … meant to say Syzygium caryophyllatum.
I think it is not Syzygium caryophyllatum, considering the long petiole and the shape of the leaf (I imagined the rest of the leaf with the available leaf in the given picture).
Please have refer the link Biotik to have a detailed look @ Syzygium caryophyllatum

I reiterate that this is Syzygium caryophyllifolia [S.gibsonii] which is distinct from S. caryophyllatum.

I am not known to  Syzygium caryophyllifolia [S.gibsonii]  But as per the plant list, I could find a similar one, ie. Syzygium caryophyllifolium (Lam.) DC. which is now a synonym of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels . 
If we look at Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels @ the plant list, we can see lots of synonyms.
It might be because of the variation especially in leaves. 

Have followed Dr. Almeida’s classification in his ‘Flora of Maharashtra’, Vol 2.  Accordingly S. caryophyllifolia is distinct from S.cuminiQuoting ” Leaves ovate, acuminate. Fruit sbout 1 cm.long, irregular in shape. In all other characters it resembles S.cumini [L.] Skeels”.

Yes this plant is quite different from S. cumini, some author treat them seperate species,, and some treat as synonym..

… I laughed when you wrote..”.I am not known to Syzygium caryophyllifolia [S. gibsonii] “…   I tenderly tend to my plants and talk to them, and feed etc.. they perhaps know me… but how could a tree in Matheran know you !!! tell me that…just kidding….

Is ID here based on any features seen in attached image or just from the location? What are leaves and fruits of S. cumini said to be as against this species?

I agree with …, that is S. cumini because it has some horizontal pairs of peduncle branches.

It was the slender, long petiole of the leaf, leaf venation (whatever seen in the picture), inflorescence and typical flowers that made me to think of S. cumini.

As mentioned in the title it is a Common Bronzeback Tree Snake [Dendrelaphis tristis]. It is a diurnal, arboreal, fast moving non-venomous snake. [ For the record – Poison is drunk, Venom has to be injected to be effective eg. snake bites, scorpion stings etc.].

To elaborate further…. Venom is not poisonous, which means that if you drink snake venom it is not going to be effective [unless you have ulcers in your mouth or GI tract].

Here’s a pic of one curious BronzeBack Tree Snake hiding under the roof of our cottage at Jungle Lodges, Bhadra Tiger Reserve, Lakkavally, Karnataka. There were 2 of them there – according to our helpful guide!



efloraindia: 041111 BRS112: 2 images.
After the good rainfall, I have noticed some internal growth from the stem of Syzygium cumini trees. (out of 40 S. cumini trees 6 trees having this kind of growth)
Is there any kind of disease or gall or else.

These are adventitious roots. Have noticed them on several of my trees including Asana [Bridelia spinosa], Karmal [Dillenia pentagyna], Jarul [Lagerstroemia speciosa] and even Mohua [Madhuca longifolia var. latifolia].
My photographs are available at this link

Seen in Mahabaleshwar, Maharashtra on 16 & 17 April,09.
Fruits much smaller than the Jamuns we get in the market.
Some other species?

This is Syzygium cumini of Myrtaceae family.


Crassulaceae, Combretaceae and Myrtaceae Fortnight : Myrtaceae : Syzygium cumini : Mahabaleshwar : 23DEC14 : AK-68 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (3)
Syzygium cumini from Mahabaleshwar.
Posted earlier, identified by …



Flora of Madhya Pradesh: Syzygium cumini from Narsinghpur Area near Sher River: 4 images.

Syzygium cumini from Narsinghpur Area near Sher River
After searching a lot on two plants namely Jamun and Jamoya, I reached on following conclusion
1. A fruit generally comes in market in the month of June and July called as Jamun or rai Jamun, bigger in size about 3-4 cm long is botanically S. nervosum
2. fruit generally not sold in market, smaller in size about 1.5 to 2 cm, allmost rounded botanically known as S cumini
At few places i could find the name S cumini var microcarpa for smaller fruit plant called as jamoya in north india
Here I am attaching pics of Jamoya
Expert’s comments pls

Interesting observation. If you don’t mind, I would like to know the photograph of S. cumini var. microcarpa, because this var is not included in the IPNI and WCSP. Thank you.

pls see the link
to me S cumini and S cumini var microcarpa are same thing. The plant treated as S cumini in above link may be S nervosum

Syzygium cuminiJamun
(Commonly called in Marathi as ‘Lendi Jambhul’ found in abundance near Kas lake and Mahabaleshwar, the height of the tree is hardly 7 to 8 feet so one can easily pluck the fruits, much sweeter than normal large size jamuns)

Syzygium cumini :: Crassulaceae, Combretaceae and Myrtaceae Fortnight (NSJ-04) : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (3).
Syzygium cumini (Jamun), Photos taken at Satara


Appears to be Syzygium cumini


Syzygium cumini:
This evergreen tree was observed in flowering on 3rd Feb., 2012 at Matheran.


Syzigium cumini—for sharing and validation(Repost): 1 image.
Pic of Jamun Buds taken at ambyvalley rd. mulshi/lonavala pune in may12.

Compared to black S. cumini, the white one is sweeter, not astringent, rare, and more potential for medicine.


Fruit Trees of Bangalore – RA – Syzygium Cumini – Jamun Tree: The evergreen jamun plant is originally from Indonesia and India. Indian mythology describes the Indian subcontinent as an island, ‘situated in the centre of the world’, called Jambudweep. Because of a majority of Jamun (black berry) trees, this island was named as Jambudweep.

An evergreen tropical tree, 50 to 100 ft. tall, with oblong opposite leaves that are smooth, glossy and having a terpentine smell.
Jamun has fragrant white flowers in branched clusters at stem tips and purplish-black oval edible berries. The leaves are antibacterial, and are used for strengthning the teeth and gums.
The fruit and seeds are sweet, acrid, sour, tonic, and cooling, and are used in diabities, diarrhoea and ringworm.
The bark is astringent, sweet sour, diuretic, digestive and anthelmintic.
Ref. Syzygium cumini – Jamun – Flowers of India


Hooghly Today : Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels : Attachments (10).  3 posts by 2 authors.
We have several JAAM (JAMUN) species, cultivated and wild. This seems to be the Eugenia jambolana Lam.


Syzygium tree for identification 260613MK01 : Attachments (11). 4 posts by 3 authors.

Please help me in identifying this tree species commonly seen in higher altitudes and wet forests of Nilgiris. The tree height was about 7 m tall.
Leaf: 15cm long
Fruit: 1.5cm long (smaller than S.cuminii)
Location: Kodanad, Nilgiris, TN
Alt.: 2000 m asl
Date: 20 June 2013

To me, it is Syzygium claviflorum (Roxb.) Wall. ex A.M.Cowan & Cowan

Sorry, this is not S. claviflorum, it is Syzygium cumini only. There are a lot of variations in S. cuminii, this is one among them often found it in the higer altitude mountains.


Syzygium from Matheran for id: Attachments (7). 3 posts by 2 authors.

This Syzygium is one of the dominant species at Matheran. In places it is one of the largest trees.
Can it be Syzygium cumini?
It differs mainly in size and shape of leaves and smaller fruit from the common S. cumini found at lower elevations.

This looks like Syzygium caryophyllifolia [S.gibsonii].
Another common species found there is S.zeylanicum. Will send a photograph of it in a separate mail.

Thank you for your reply. I have seen your mention of this in another post. and have read Dr Almeida’s reference to it in his Flora of Mah.
Many authors consider S. caryophyllifolia as a synonym of S.cumini.
Since this tree has been bothering me for some time I thought it was time to see if there are any more suggestions from experts.


Requesting ID of this tree – Jijamata Udyan – Feb 2014 :: 05032014 :: ARK-09 : 5 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (4).
Requesting to please ID this tree captured in Jijamata Udyan, Mumbai in February 2014. Is this some Syzygium?

efi page on Syzygium 

Not clear, but I think it is Syzygium cumini


Myrtaceae : Syzygium sp. for ID : 4 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (2).
Location : Lengpui, Mizoram. Altitude : ca.400 m. Date : 22-04-2014.
Habit : Middle sized evergreen tree. Habitat : Wild. Note : Fruit small, rounded, edible.

Can be Syzygium cumini

I think, although slightly different, it is still in a range of Syzygium cumini, because it is very variable.


Tree for ID (iv) : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (11).
FRLHT, Bangalore 3rd May

Syzygium cumini (Jamun).


SYMBIOSIS : 578 :  1 image.
Attaching an image of a male Common Emigrant butterfly on the flowers of Syzygiium cumini.


Syzygium sp. for ID : 11 posts by 5 authors. Attachments (2 + 3 + 1).
Date : Flowers – 22-04-2014 and fruits – 04-06-2014. Place : Lengpui, Mizoram (c.400 alt.).
Habit : Middle-sized tree with small edible fruits. Note : It grows wild.

This is very close to Syzygium fruticosum



Attaching herewith the fruits and leaves of same sp.
3 images.


Fruit : 7-9 mm dia. edible. Date : 14-06-2014

Without close-up of entire flowers and some size stat. I am unable to suggest anything.
Instead, I copy a few words from ‘Bengal Plant’ – i) bark of twigs brown; branchlets of inflorescence sharply 4-angled; fruit the size of a pea = fruticosa;
FBI notes – leaves similar to those of jambolana, variable. FoC notes ripe fruit red –
ii) bark of twigs white; branchlets of inflorescence bluntly 4-angled; fruit as large as an olive = jambolana (cumini). FoC notes fruit red to black –

I may be wrong, but in my opinion Theichhawl.JPG is close to Syzygium fruticosum, while DSC_0321.JPG is very like Syzygium cumini

The plant resembles to Syzygium cuminii


MS April, 2016 / 07 Syzygium sp. for ID : 7 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (2)

Location : Lengpui, Mizoram
Altitude : ca. 400 m.
Date : 22/04/2014
Habit : middle-sized evergreen tree
Habitat : Wild
Note : Fruit small. almost rounded, edible.

Syzygium species in eFloraofindia (with details/ keys from published papers/ regional floras/ FRLHT/ FOI/ Biotik/ efloras/ books etc., where ever available on net)

This resembles Syzygium fruticosum

This looks like S. cumini based on the numerous secondary veins, lateral inflorescences, flowers in clusters up to 8 and oblong –elliptic leaves.

Yes it is like S. cumini because the inflorescence branches are horizontal. But the inflorescence branches in the pictures are grooved not terete. The leaf apex is acuminate, not rounded to obtuse and with a short cusp.  May be I am wrong. I send you S. cumini for comparison.

Thanks, …, As per WCSP, Syzygium fruticosum DC., Prodr. 3: 260 (1828) is a syn. of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels, Bull. Bur. Pl. Industr. U.S.D.A. 248: 25 (1912).

I am sorry I didn’t read WCSP, in Syzygium fruticosum DC. is an accepted name. We can see the differences of both in some floras. There should be some agreement which concept is suitable. In a broad sense, they can be lumped because there are only some minor differences. S. cumini itself is variable, it can be small, big, variable leaves, with red or white fruits etc.


Syzygium cumini—for sharing and validation : 5 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (2)- 1 mb each.
Pic taken in Mar14, at ambyvalley rd., lonavala, pune

Yes it is nice flowers of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels, please resize your future uploads.

why resize? what’s wrong with these
nice and crisp well done pictures is what I am seeing

The images are 1.6MB big size. It floods the mails and sometimes takes time to open.

ok. I didn’t realize. opened very quickly here. so the possibility did not strike me


Combretaceae and Myrtaceae Fortnight: Myrtaceae- Syzygium sp?? at Malvan-PKA-DEC58: : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (3).
Syzygium sp?? from Malvan, Maharashtra.

Is it a big tree or a shrub?

Photograps seems to Syzgium cumini

Its a big tree. I too think this could be S. cumini. Thanks …


Crassulaceae, Combretaceae and Myrtaceae Fortnight:: Myrtaceae:: Syzygium cumini from Kaithal- NS 43 : 5 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (4)
This is a valuable tree with edible and medicinal fruits, locally known as “Jamun” this is one of the few fruits which is not available “off the season” in our markets..
Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels

Wow, beautiful..

seeds are an important med for blood sugar regulation
tasty fruit too.

What tree?/ABDEC43 : 3 posts by 2 authors.
Taking it further from yesterday, I found this small tree in lower Dharamshala. Looks a little like Jamun (Syzygium cumini) but the leaf shape is odd. Please advise.
Dharamshala, HP
21 December 2014

This is “Jamun” only, as you suggested, leaf abnormalities are very common in this tree, due to growing in tough growing conditions and insect attacks..


Crassulaceae, Combretaceae and Myrtaceae Fortnight: December 11- 24,2014 SN 16 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3).
Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels, (elongated bigger fruit variety- jambu naval) is a cultivated as well as wild tree along river banks, the fruits are having more commercial value and tasty, planted as avenue tree in Bengaluru


Crassulaceae, Combretaceae and Myrtaceae Fortnight :: Myrtaceae :: Syzygium cumini :: Jijamata Udyan :: ARKDEC-36 : 8 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (5).
Attached are pictures of Syzygium cumini captured at Mumbai, Jijamata Udyan in February 2013/2014.

I think picture 3, 5, & 7 are correct. But picture 1 and 2 are from different species.

Thanks … for the correction… As you mentioned, the first 2 pics have a different time from the 3rd pic.

The 5th and 7th have a different date/time.
All these trees are in the same cultivated government garden.
If the 1st and 2nd pic are not S. cumini, could you please provide the ID for the same? Attaching some cropped pics…
Attachments (3)

Are both from the same tree? If so, then I am wrong. But why the leaves are different? Let’s see the following cropped pics.
Picture A has very clear major lateral veins and intramarginal vein. While picture B doesn’t.
I think picture A is hybrid of S. samarangense and S. aqueum.

Thanks very much … for the detailed analysis…
I now realise that pics 1 & 2 belong to a different tree and may not be S. cumini. I will now visit the garden and get some new pics….

quickest would be to look at the times you took the pictures if from the same tree they would be within the same minute of close by if a different tree would be separated by the time it took you and the group to walk to the next tree or trees and group leader to tell you what you were looking at…
this will save another trip … so tell us what you find in this method

Thanks … for the tips…
I did check this out, pics 1 & 2 have a different date/time than the rest… the challenge for me now is to locate the exact tree in the garden which has many S.cumini


Sharing some photographs of the flowers, fruits, and the leaves of Syzygium cumini in the wild.
Photographed on Madh Hill (North Mumbai) in March 2015.

Excellent pics again …

FLOWERS/PLANTS MENTIONED BY TAGORE IN HIS SONGS ; JAM -1/AAM -3/ KAASH -3 : 1 post by 1 author. 1 correct image as above.
Attaching translated version of another song of Tagore, in which JAM , AAM , KAASH are mentioned.


ANMAR52/74 Syzygium cumini var. axillare : 7 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (9)

Family: Myrtaceae
Date: 24th March 2015
Place: Mullayanagiri, Chikamagaluru, Karnataka

Habit: Tree
Identified by: …

I think this is Syzygium gardneri Thwaites as per the key. Kindly validate

efi page on Syzygium gardneri ?

Yes, it looks like Syzygium gardneri to me.

S. cumini has a hypanthium about 2-3 x 2-2.5 mm. Inflorescences are lateral in axils of fallen leaves on older stems or less often terminal or axillary.
S. gardneri has a hypanthium about 4 mm long. Inflorescences terminal or axillary. Petioles are shorter generally in S. gardneri, ca. 1 cm.
Looking again… the inflorescence does look like it is in the axil of fallen leaves and has relatively long petioles – suggesting S. cumini

Thank you very much … If possible, I will visit again in the coming month in order to get clearer photographs of the inflorescence. In the meanwhile, would it be possible to provide any key for all the var. of S. cumini?

I am in the process of compiling a complete revision of Syzygium for India. Any input and/or images of species is always appreciated and contributions would be acknowledged and/or provided with co authorship.
With respect to S. cumini – personally it’s a morphological variable species across its range and I not in favour of recognising subspecific taxa (varieties or subspecies) at the moment. Cultivation and hybridisation also contribute to a morphologically heterogenous group and a poorly defined geographical distribution.  

Thanks, …, You may see images of Syzygium here (in efloraofindia) under different species by clicking on the threads (links) therein. If you require any, pl. let us know.

MS April,2016/18 Syzygium sp. for Id. : 7 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)

Location : Tuidam, Mizoram
Date : 12/04/2016
Habit : Tree (medium-sized tree ?)
Habitat : Wild

Syzygium species in eFloraofindia (with details/ keys from published papers/ regional floras/ FRLHT/ FOI/ Biotik/ efloras/ books etc., where ever available on net) 

Looks like a Syzygium species to me too.

It looks like the real jamun we call it duwet.  But wait until it fruits.

Fruits of Syzygium sp. Attachments (1)

To me it is Duwet cilik (small jamun).  Small S. cumini or S. fruticosum because the peduncle branches are sulcate, unlike the large S. cumini which is terete.


Kindly identify this Syzygium sp. The Digital Flora of Karnataka lists as many as 28 species of Syzygium. I could not decipher the keys.


Could this be Syzygium cumini…??? 

Habit: Tree 

Habitat: Wild, Semi-evergreen forest fringe. 

Sighting: Foothills of Mullaianagiri, Chikmagalur, Karnataka, about 1300 msl 

Date: 20-02-2016

Again S.cumini. There are different morphological forms at different altitude for this species

59-TSP-ID-09MAY2016-1: Syzygium sp (Myrtaceae) for ID : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (6)

Kindly identify this Syzygium sp (Myrtaceae) 

Habit: Tree 

Habitat: Wild, Shola forest fringe 

Sighting: Mullaianagiri, Chikmagalur, Karnataka, about 1700 msl 

Date: 26-03-2015

Syzygium cumini

Jamun tree S.cuminii severely affected by pest? : 2 posts by 1 author. Attachments (1)
Pl. Find the attached file contain photo of Jamun tree S.cuminii severely affected by pest?. Any one help further details of the same.

Location: Coimbatore
Date: 12.07.2016

Any clear pictures, …

Syzygium cumini—for sharing : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
Pic taken at Aambyvalley Rd., Lonavala pune in April 15


Another tree/ABDEC47 : 4 posts by 4 authors.

This one was also next to the other trees I posted before this.
The leaves are symmetrical and shiny. Please advise.
Dharamshala, HP
21 December 2014

The plant uploaded is beautiful but it is very difficult to identify the plant without its reproductive characters Kindly make it a point and inform every contributor to upload the plants along with reproductive characters especially with flower and fruits

Leaves look like syzigium cuminii

I think close to images at Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels


Syzygium cumini?/ABDEC44 : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments(3)
This is a more likely candidate for Jamun. Both the previous one and this were next to each other.

Jamun (Syzygium cumini)?–Please confirm.
Dharamshala, HP
21 December 2014

It seems to be Syzygium sp. but the fruits are main characteristic feature for identification of proper species. So please upload the fruits

I think close to images at Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels


Crassulaceae, Combretaceae and Myrtaceae Fortnight :: Myrtaceae :: Syzygium cumini :: Mumbai :: ARKDEC-38 :17 posts by 6 authors. Attachments (5)
Attached are pictures of Syzygium cumini captured at various cultivated gardens in Mumbai in February/March 2013.

What a nice complete set of pictures
enough to make a sensible diagnosis by a non-botanist like me
so ….
Not Syzygium cumini
if you got the name from a label on the tree its wrong

look at the fruits in the last picture and you will have your correct diagnosis
so now could you please tell us what your decision  that you yourself arrived at?
you have eaten these in summer months

Thank you … for your feedback…
However, I am now confused…the pics 1, 2 and 3 are from one location and 4 and 6 from another..
I have seen the fruiting of both these treese and they are very similar looking to the jamun that we get in the markets (oval to round shaped), except that they are a bit smaller in size.
As a result, I assumed its identity to be S. cumini….but now since they are not, requesting to please provide ID…

The fruits in pic “Syzygium cumini_3.jpg” do not look like S. cumini.
“Syzygium cumini_4.jpg” looks like S. cumini.

i was hoping  you would discover the id all on your own by now and be exhilarated by it…

Hint… … and a  someone else has shown these in last couple of years here and during this family episode also… but….  you perhaps don’t have time to look at other people’s cases…

SO here it goes…
Its syzygium jambos..
golap jaam in bangla at the local markets … very few show up for a couple of weeks only…  and those from the best trees do have a faint rose scent and taste… yummmmmm
and …:  flowers and leaves  often look very similar .. in all the jaams.. kalo jaam, saada jam and golap jaam…    esp. in PS shots… unless one looks at the fruits…  look at 5

I have both, GOLAP-JAM retains its calyx lobes, leaves are rather oblong, flowers are significantly bigger, whereas KALO-JAM fruits are not globose.
There are cultivars of both species. But fruits characters are more or less same, all matured jambos fruits retain calyx lobes.
The one with globose fruits in this set of pics maybe S. guineense but I ahve never seen that species.

There is another, but leaves are different – Wikipedia
yet another – Hindu

Thanks … for your feedback…. I still think this is not S. jambos, I have eaten jambos fruits…
As mentioned earlier, these fruits are just like jamun, only smaller and thinner in size and a great favourite of birds…also they have a pinkish purplish colour…
I am still googling, but have not found anything resembling the fruits here but not being S.cumini, my search is on…
….thanks for your feedback, I will search for the IDs mentioned by you….

… I think you may be on the right tract with s caryophyllatum.. the calyx lobes are subdued in the pic 5 above…
so  perhaps its not really s jambos … but s caryophyllatum
now … needs to perhaps visit the tree a few more times…
… now you have more homework!!!
hope you will give us  follow up info..

Based on the type specimens, I think picture no 3 is almost similar to Syzygium excavatum. But this name was considered as S. claviflorum which is much different.

Please do not rule out S. guineense also, there are several ssp., branches are often drooping, fruits are roundish to oval to elliptic and whitish green when immature and turning shiny purple-black, but the species grows in moist area.

Syzygium cumini in the Mumbai area displays a bewildering variation in size and shape of leaf, the size, shape and taste of fruit, the size of flowers and the time of flowering as well as the size of the tree and the bark.
I would have liked to see better pictures of the leaves in the last 2 pictures because one possibility is Syzygium heyneanum especially if it is growing near a water body (…, is that water in your 4th picture?) S. heyneanum has narrower and more rigid leaves and small, often rounded fruit like those in your last picture.
However I wouldn’t be surprised if all these images belong to S. cumini.

Thank you everyone for the feedback….

I really have a task on hand, these trees are in a cultivated garden maintained by my needs to take special permission to enter the premises…and that may not be easy
In any case, I will try to revisit this places for a few pics…
Yes, …, both the trees are just next to a small overlooking the lake and the other about 5 mts from the edge of the lake.

You are a treasure
love the way you analyzed this
So … has her work cut out for her… home work   more homework… don’t you love it?

I think close to images at Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels


Syzygium Species For ID : Nasik : 19MAY17 : AK-14 : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
A very old picture of mine, found while going through some folders.

Syzygium cumini?

Pl. check with images at Syzygium cumini

I think close to images at Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels


Syzygium for id : 4 images. 6 posts by 4 authors.
I had across this Syzygium in Bannerghatta forest near Bangalore growing on a rocky hill in a crack..
A local person tells me it is quite rare and grows only in such environments, the leaf is very thick and almost leathery..
The fruits are relished by the locals.

This could be Syzygium cordifolium

I think Syzygium cumini. I found S. cumini at Bennarghatta forests aplenty but with lots of variations.

Please refer the following sites.

Hooghly Today : JAAM PHATKAA, an eco friendly toy ! : Attachments (9).  8 posts by 4 authors.
I played with it and many of my friends too, of course not the city folk! All you need is KONCHI and some fruits of this wild JAMBUL tree. Now, what is the English of KONCHI ?! Well, it’s a slim part of a bamboo culm!
And … inspired me, indirectly, to sketch my toy! It is based on air pressure, fruits are used as bullets as well as the head of the piston!
As for the species, i am not sure. It is a wild medium sized tree, with numerous fruits, about 15cm leaves, and small flowers. Nobody eats this wild fruit and we call it BON-JAAM.
The species might be Eugenia fruticosa Roxb.

Oh! Very interesting piece of information. The photographs are also excellent. This is a new species for me.

Thank you Sir
The flowering twigs were out of my reach, otherwise i would’ve loved to take a few closeups.

To me, this is Syzygium assimile Thwaites

Thank you very much for id suggestion.
But, i could not find much data in the net. I’m not sure if this species can be S. assimile Thwaites.
Because –
1) as per Flora of British India, vol2, p493; Eugenia assimilis Thwaites is distributed in Srilanka
3) another variety is again in Srilanka –
4) a search for Syzygium assimile, in India yields nothing, except another post in our group.
So, please have a relook.

It is quite possible that this plant is some other than S. fruticosum. All i could find is a few herbarium –
S. assimileEuropeana
S. fruticosum Roxb. ex DC. – Europeana
S. fruticosa DC – Europeana

Eugenia fruticosa (DC.) Roxb. is a syn. of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels, Bull. Bur. Pl. Industr. U.S.D.A. 248: 25 (1912).
To me also appear close to images at Syzygium cumini

Yes Sir, and thank you for the update.

Crassulaceae, Combretaceae and Myrtaceae Fortnight: December 11- 24,2014 SN 07 : 3 posts by 1 author. Attachments (1)
Syzygium laetum (Buch. – Ham.) Gandhi, fruits collected from Kundha area of Nilgiris, Tamilnadu

This the fruit of Syzygium caryophyllatum (L.) Alston and not Syzygium laetum (Buch. – Ham.) Gandhi, little confusion happen while uploading.

Sorry friends, the Id is still wrong it is Syzygium densiflorum Wall ex. Wight & Arn.

Looks different from images at Biotik

To me appears like fruits of highly variable species of Syzygium cumini as per images herein.

This is also called jamun, reported from 4 districts of Tamilnadu

This is a commonly planted tree, the fruits are acrid, smaller and ripe earlier here, than the valuable “Jamun” …
This is called “Jamoa” in our area..
Please validate, as the identification may require reconsideration, in light of some uploads from southern parts of India…
Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston


no … this is not rose apple or Syzygium jambos.

rose apple’s flower bearing stalk and hence fruit bearing stalk never forks into what looks like 90 deg imitating Christ on the cross pattern…
your figure number 4 this is something I dont see.. dont remember seeing… you may have to run the key for all syzygiums to find that one branching pattern … but now sure the keys ever mention things like that… that fig 4 remind sme of the Maltese cross so much…
I cant help .. dont have akey or how to go about getting it down to branching of the flower spike…
may be somebody from the south universities could see this and help

I think this is a cultivar of Syzygium cumini, but I am not sure because there is no leaf

I will post comparative pics of leaves of this cultivar as well the edible one in nearest available chance..

Syzygium jambos has free petals, in these pictures the patals are calyptrate. On the other hand, the stamens are too short for jambos. So I think it is not S. jambos. We should wait for the leaves and fruits.


Rai Jamun is a tree which is very simiar to Jamun.
It is a tree growing up to 15 m tall.
Bark is grayish brown, thick.
Leaf blade is oblong to elliptic, 11-17 cm long, 4.5-7 cm wide, thinly leathery. Jamun leaves, on the other hand, are more leathery. Number of secondary veins is much smaller than that in Jamun leaves.
Flowers arise on branches, in panicles, 6-12 cm long. Buds are oval, about 5 × 3.5 mm.
Buds of Jamun are more round.
Fruit is violet to black when mature, broadly ovoid.
Flowering: April-June.

This tree is called as Jamun in most part of North India and on this fruit appears before S cumini which is called as Jamoya rather than Jamun. On S cumini fruits appears in the month of August and September. Fruits of S nervosum are larger as compared to S cumini.
Members pls share any other observations regarding these trees.

Taking it as Syzium cumini as per discussions in thread: Syzigium


Syzigium : Attachments (4). 4 posts by 3 authors.
Attaching phtographs of Syzygium cumini and S nervosum for validation.
i think i have named them correctly. experts please validate. of late i have been very confused about the two.

I think the id is right … S. nervosum is the common “Jamun”, flowers and fruits earlier than S. cumini in our area, they are not to be confused even vegetatively.. as you can see in your pics, the leaves are broader in S. nervosum, moreover they are dark green compared to paler in S. cumini.
The fruits in “Jamun” and “Jamoya” (S. cumini) are different in size as well as palatability. They are smaller (nearly round) in S. cumini as well as they almost inedible..
may be experts can add more..

I have never seen the living S. nervosum. When I checked the type specimen of S. nervosum from Kew Herbarium, in fact the leaves are lanceolate like your first and second pictures, but I am sure everything may be variable.

On checking distribution of S. nervosum, it is not found in the area as per the following:
Also images look different at
On perusal of numerous posts/ images in efi at Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels & views of members and experts, this species shows lot of variation both in fruit & leaf shape & size.
Considering all this I feel we may take both the posted plants as Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels



SK759 27 SEP-2017:ID : 7 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (5)
Location : Pokhara, Nepal
Date : 8 August 2017
Elevation : 2600 ft.


Cleistocalyx operculatus

Thank you …!

Syzygium nervosum A.Cunn. ex DC.
Syn: Cleistocalyx operculatus (Roxb.) Merr. & L.M.Perry
Nepali Names : क्यामुना Kyaamunaa / फनीर Phaneer / फनेर Phaner

Taking it as Syzium cumini as per discussions in thread: Syzigium

Thank you …! Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels
Nepali Name :  जामुन Jaamun / जाम्बू Jamboo / कालो जामुन Kaalo Jaamun / फ़णिर Phanir 


Syzygium nervosum in FOI: 1 post by 1 author.
I think we should take Syzygium nervosum in FOI as Syzium cumini in view of discussions in thread: Syzigium

SK1025 18 MAR-2018 : 10 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (8) – around 500 kb each.
LocationSwayambhunath Temple, Kathmandu, Nepal 
Altitude: 5000 ft.
Date: 16 March 2018
Habit : Wild
Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels  ??

Seems to be Syzygium cumini.

But there is hardly any difference in 4000 ft. and 5000 ft.
Otherwise also elevation of Kathmandu may not matter as it may be cultivated.

OK …, thank you !
Nepali Names : जामुन Jaamun / कालो जामुन Kaalo Jaamun /  फ़णिर Phanir / जाम्बु Jaambu / जमुना Jamunaa

Syzygium densiflorum Wall. ex Wight & Arn. : 8 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1)
Wild tree near Sagara, Karnataka, fruits small, long

Thanks, …, We do not have this species so far in efi. It needs to be properly validated.
Do you have any other image?

No …, will try.

Does your image look similar to those at biotik
I am not sure.

Doubtful ID. Need to check the flowers & fruits

I think, this is smaller than densiflorum. To me it is closer to S cumini, which is very variable.

I don’t think … post  belongs to S.densiflorum. It looks like some forms of S. cuminii????

Syzygium cumini white unripened fryits : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (7)
Syzygium cumini?
Maagaanium RF Kanchipuram district Tamilnadu
Unripened fruits are white in color… And small in size

Yes I agree with … It is S. cumini


Syzygium cumini (l.) skeels : 14 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (7)- around 400 kb each.
Location: Kowloon Park, Hong Kong 
Date: 16 August 2018
Elevation:125 ft.
Habit : Cultivated
Nepali Name :  जामुन Jaamun

yes. nice catch: the flowers when the rest of the tree is already fruiting

I have infact never seen a Jamun in HK. May beit is planted somewhere, but this is not the season.

It was labelled … ! I shall show you the tree in my next visit 😁 !

Then it must be planted. But still as you know, this is not the season for jamun.

never say never. i have seen it in several places in southern California. one was a old orchard planted by an opthalmologist, long dead, even brought back a fallen fruit back home and planted it in california it sprouted, lived for a year or so, then died during severe santa ana winds from the pacific. so never say never somebody somewhere must have taken fruits, planted seeds by design or carelessly thrown a viable seed.
also hong kiong was british territory, they must have planted many many indian trees there, just as they brought the jackfruit and breadfruit here.
ps: about fruiting season, yes it has ended but my neighbour’s kalo jaam was still fruiting on august 23rd. i took a couple of pictures because it seemed out of season or the tail end. i just looked up the date.

mangoes brought to hong kong around 1900

Syzygium cumini brought to hong kong ??? no, apparently it has been there all along
it says fruits eaten in south china. hong kong is south china

I said never saw, because I had been looking for it. Because, of all the fruits that i love to eat, Jamun is one of them. But, it is only fruit which I have not even seen in market or in wild 🙂

sorry to hear that may be the book i referred to meant mainland south china


Mahabaleshwar’s Syzygium cumini : 6 posts by 3 authors.

Please take a look at –
… had shared pictures of Syzygium cumini from Mahabaleshwar.
Sorry for invoking the thread. There are few points about this Syzygium cumini tree which … posted and about kala jamun tree fruits we eat.

1. Why fruits of Syzygium cumini from Mahabaleshwar are so small ?. Is it because cultivated one has more nurishment provided or both are different species?
2. Do the one we eat as Jamun tree drops sticky drops in the morning? In Mahabaleshwar, this tree drops sticky drops.
3. One thing i heard from local that this tree in Mahabaleshwar grow very slow. But the jamun tree we eat fruits of grows very fast as per observation.

Pl. see efi page on this species.

There is so much of variation in this species.
Cultivated ones have larger fruits with more pulp to eat.


Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (9)

Location: Suryabinayak, Bhaktapur
Date: 28 April 2019
Elevation: 1519 m.
Habit : Wild 

JVPD Scheme/Andheri, Mumbai31/3/08; Kolkata- 6/4/08; occasional- in Pune- April first fortnight; Krishna Raja Nagar,Mysore dist. on 10/5/08; Pune- April’09; 10th Feb 2010, 08.10 a.m.- Kothrud,  Pune, Maharashtra; Mhow, Dist Indore, Madhya Pradesh
Syzigium cumini – indiantreepix | Google Groups Request for ID 10th Feb 2010 Pune Tree – efloraofindia | Google Groups etymology- Syzygium Cumini – efloraofindia | Google Groups

Syzygium for ID:: Ooty :: VK3 22 March 2019 : 5 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (2)- 1 mb each.

Location: Upper Bhavani, Ooty
Date: 22 March 2019
Elevation: 1895 m.
Habit : Wild

Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels ?

More likely to be Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels as per comparative images at Syzygium

Syzygium for ID:: Ooty :: VK3 22 March 2019 : 6 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (2)
Location: Upper Bhavani, Ooty
Date: 22 March 2019
Elevation: 1895 m.
Habit : Wild

Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels ?

More likely to be Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels as per comparative images at Syzygium


MS /April/2020/6 ID the plant Syzigium cuminii ? : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
Please ID the photograph. Looks like Syzigium cuminii. Photograph ed in Ooty last year.

May be as per Syzygium cumini. Pl. show us the complete leaf.

Sorry … The photo was received from a friend who wanted the ID. He has no other photos.


Syzygium Species for ID : Bangalore : 19OCT20 : AK-32 : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (5)
A huge tree with small round fruits.

Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels


MS, Jan., 2021/11 Syzygium sp. for id.: 2 images.
Location : Reiek, Mizoram
Date : 08-09-2015
Habit : Tree
Habitat : Wild

Syzygium cumini


Seen this tree at Pratapgad near Mahabaleshwar, MH in March 2020.
Requested to please ID.

Syzygium alternifolium Walp. ??

I think this is S.cumini only s per comparative images at Syzygium
Looks different from ‎Syzygium alternifolium Walp.


Syzygium sp. for id.:
Location : Tuidam, Mizoram

Date : 12-04-2016
Habit : Tree
Habitat : Wild

Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels

I think yes as per his earlier posts at
Myrtaceae : Syzygium sp. for ID

MS April, 2016 / 07 Syzygium sp. for ID
MS April,2016/18 Syzygium sp. for Id.
MS, Jan., 2021/11 Syzygium sp. for id.


MS,Jan.,2023/16 Syzygium sp. ? for id.: 3 images.
Location : Reiek, Mizoram

Altitude : ca.1,350 m
Date : 16-01-2023
Habit : Tree
Habitat : Wild

Pl. check

It is known as Gulab jamun in olden-days in Calcutta

It may be
Anyway, what are the species reported and keys from your area?

I think going by keys, it should be only.



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