Smilax perfoliata Lour., Fl. Cochinch. 622 1790. (Syn: Smilax annamensis Rendle; Smilax laurifolia Roxb. [Illegitimate]; Smilax laurina Kunth; Smilax prolifera Roxb.; Smilax siamensis T.Koyama);
Assam; Bangladesh; Cambodia; East Himalaya; Hainan; India; Laos; Myanmar; Nepal; Sri Lanka; Taiwan; Thailand; Vietnam; West Himalaya as per Catalogue of Life;


Found this climber yesterday, it is common in that place, was awaiting for its flowering-fruiting time.
Species : Smilax perfoliata Lour.?
H & H : climber with prickles, leaf-blades and apex variable
Date : 17/12/12
Place : Hooghly

May be Smilax bracteata or S. zeylanica.

Please check Smilax wightii or S. ovalifolia Roxb. ex D.Don

According to The Plant List 1) Smilax wightii, 2) S. ovalifolia Roxb. ex D.Don, 3) Smilax bracteata and 4) Smilax zeylanica ….. all are accepted names.
I copy the link of “Bengal Plants” which describes three Smilax species.
With its more than 3 ternate inflorescence could it be Smilax perfoliata Lour.?


Hooghly Today : Smilax perfoliata Lour.:
This seems to be the Smilax prolifera Roxb. of Bengal Plants ii. 1071., photographed today in Hooghly.


Smilax again Hooghly 13-01-13 sk3:
Found this climber in a thicket in rural area.

Species : UNKNOWN
H & H : prickly climber
Date : 11/1/13
Place : Hooghly

I think this is also Smilax prolifera Roxb. of “Bengal Plants”.


Jan2015sk19 Hooghly – Smilax prolifera Roxb. : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (6)
What I didn’t notice earlier is that flowers are beautifully scented in this species.


Creeper for Id (From Pashchimbanga) : 5 posts by 3 authors. 1 correct image.
Please identify this creeper from Chintamani kar bird sanctuary, Paschimbanga, April – 2015.

a piperaceae
i were playing numbers i would say piper longum may be.
chintamoni kar sanctuary has piper longum on many trees
what did the fruits look like? or the flowers?

The first pic, with auricled petiole and prickly stem is Smilax perfoliata Lour; rest of the pics are of Tiliacora acuminata Miers.

Thank you … this creeper was flower & fruitless. I think I have made mistake while taking images of several entangled creepers in that dense patch.

…, I learned from Haneesh K M of butterflyIndia that Smilax is a host plant of yamfly (I also have record of it); but I am yet to see any butterfly or moth on Tiliacora acuminata.

Smilax zeylanica is reported as larval food plant for several butterflies in India, yet to observe any larvae on Tiliacora acuminate

Yes, as per my observation goes Tiliacora acuminata¬†doesn’t host any butterfly or moth; flowers are pollinated by very small insects (I do not know insect id). The leaves of your other two photographs are Tiliacora acuminata as I’ve stated earlier.
Can you show any such leaf having indication of presence of any larva?

I did not searched meticulously for larvae on that particular creeper ūüôā & there was no such signs of bite-marks by larvae observed.

Here is my record of yamfly –¬†

Here is my record of Tiliacora acuminataefi thread
Here are my records of Piper longum¬†–
efi thread 3
I am yet to record Piper longum¬†as a host plant as well, …

Thanks for sharing these important links & wonderful images as well. Thank you … once again.
One of my friend documenting butterflies & early stages of Paschimbanga. He have many Lhp images to confirm from that region I think he should keep in touch with you. Just few days back he joined our eflora group.

Thank you …, I will try to id plant species to my capacity.

ID requested for this climber_DS03062011_SN1:
Please id this climber – it has bunches of fruits on it. Found in Chintamoni Kar Bird Sactuary- South 24 Pargana , West Bengal few days back.

The leaf size is 5-6 inches long. Will it be sufficient for sp. confirmation?

This could be either Smilax macrophylla (= S. ovalifolia) or S. perfoliata.

I would preferably stand for Smilax perfoliata as¬†… suggested because of the number of umbels per inflorescence, leaf size and venation.
Please check the following link.

Smilax zeylanica generally has one umbel per inflorescence.
Further, may be another discussion … According to “the plant list”, Smilax macrophylla and Smilax ovalifolia Roxb. ex D.Don are different species and Smilax macrophylla is become a synonym of Smilax guianensis Vitman.

Thanks …, you are also correct.
Willdenow’s S. macrophylla is synonym of S. guianensis. But, Roxburgh’s plant of S. macrophylla, which is dealt in most of our Indian Floras, is a synonym of S. ovalifolia Roxb.

Sending photo of uid climber possibly Smilax sp. near water streams, stems with spines.
Locality Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, Alt. 750 m 

Perhaps Smilax zeylanica L.

Smilax species.

Smilax zeylanica

Looks different from images and details at Smilax zeylanica L.
Can it be Smilax perfoliata Lour. as per images and details herein ?

Creeper from Mizoram: 2 images.
Came across this¬†creeper¬†at “Mizoram”.¬†The stem was shiny green with short thorns at regular interval.

I could be some northeastern species of¬†Smilax¬†since it has spines, I can also see tendrils and the leaf venation is also parallel”

Yes … this is sure to be¬†Smilax¬†sp. but picture details are not enough to ID upto Sps level.

i would have liked to have seen atleast one full leaf. any chance you have a picture?.

It’s looking like a fern to me.
Please share some clear photos of leaf, at present leaf are from Dioscorea sp.

Thanks, … It appears to be a smilax species.

Smilax to me !

Smilax perfoliata Lour. ??

Yes, …, You are are right as per images and details at¬†Smilax perfoliata

Attaching five images of Smilax ovalifolia (KUMARIKA). Hope to upload images of fruits, once they come up.

Details of stipules are not clear.
May I request you to pl. post a high resolution image of the 2nd photo, to check it.
It may come out to be Smilax perfoliata Lour. as per images and details herein. Looks different from Smilax ovalifolia Roxb. ex D.Don as per comparative images at Smilax

I guess you are right … !

Smilax perfoliata Lour.: 5 very high res. images.

Location: Badikhel, Lalitpur
Altitude: 1881 m.
Date: 24 November 2021
Habit : Wild


Smilax for id 240323MRC1: 2 high res. images.
Posting these images for id, as posted by … in another post (Smilax lanceifolia Roxb.),¬†for further discussion in a separate¬†post.


This looks like Smilax ovalifolia

It is Smilax perfoliata as per images and details at

As the species name perfoliata indicates, the leaf-stalks of Smilax perfoliata are supposed to have the interesting characteristic visible in the following image:
In the posted images this feature is not clearly visible.

I can see that in the posted images. Pl. have a close look.

I guess Smilax prolifera Roxb. !


Smilax perfoliata Lour.: 3 very high res. images.

Location: Panchase, Pokhara, Nepal
Date: 14 March 2024
Elevation: 882m.
Habitat: Wild 
ID confirmed by Mr. Sajan Subedi !





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