Solanum incanum L., Sp. Pl. 1: 188 188 1753. (Syn: Solanum floccosistellatum Bitter; Solanum hierochunticum Dun.; Solanum incanum var. unguiculatum (A. Rich.) S. Abedin, M. A. Al-Yahya, S. A. Chaudhary & J. S. Mossa; Solanum melongena var. incanum (L.) Kuntze; Solanum sanctum L.; (=) Solanum unguiculatum A. Rich.);
Native to: Afghanistan, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gabon, Gulf States, India, Iran, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Socotra, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe; Introduced into: Andaman Is., Taiwan, Vietnam as per POWO;
South Africa (Transvaal, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, Cape Prov.), Chad, Gabon, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Angola, D.R. Congo (Zaire), Congo (Brazzaville), Swaziland, Lesotho, Botswana, Senegal, Benin, Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, South Sudan, ?Togo, Sudan, Djibouti, Mauritania, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Central African Republic, Comores, Zanzibar, Kenya, Pemba Isl., Somalia, Tanzania, Zanzibar, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Mauritius, Madagascar, Socotra, Bahrain, Egypt (Desert Oases, Nile Delta, Nile Valley, SE-Egypt), Iran (S-Iran), Israel (Rift Valley), Oman (Dhofar, Mascat & Oman), Saudi Arabia (Hejaz, Rub al Khali, Asir), Jordania (E-Jordania), Yemen (Aden Desert, coastal Hadhramaut, Inner Hadhramaut, N-Inner Yemen, SW-Yemen, Tihama, W-Yemen), Afghanistan (Paktia / Khost), Pakistan (Karachi, Baluchistan, Kurram, Swat, Hazara, Pakistani Punjab, Murree, Rawalpindi), Vietnam, Taiwan, NW-India as per Catalogue of life;
Common name: Bitter Brinjal • Hindi: Dholi ringni • Kannada: Gulla badane • Malayalam: Valutina • Sanskrit: barhatam, brhati, sveta-brhati • Tamil: karimulli, cakarupakam • Telugu: Nidupu vanga, Niru vanga


Solanum incanum L. SN Nov 27 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3)
Solanum incanum L., an undershrub, preferable introduced from the out skirts of Bangalore.

Thanks … It provided me oppurtunity to update my key on the website.

Solanaceae Fortnight : Solanum incanum : Oman : 25FEB15 : AK-18 : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (6)
Native to Oman, found at higher elevations in the mountains.

I think it is Solanum incanum.

Please help to identify this Solanum sp. : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (4)
Help need to verify
Solanum sp.
1 March 20
Morena, M.P.

Resembles S. incanum,

Solanum aculeatissimum ? : 8 posts by 5 authors. Attachments (5)
Solanum aculeatissimum or Solanum khasianum or Solanum capsicoides or Solanum viarum ?
Mettur, Salem, Tamilnadu
Kindly confirm

I think close to images at Solanum viarum  

It is not Solanum viarum at least..

It could be S. incanum, because very close to that one rather than others, pointed characters: Habit, Leaf lobes, dense tomentose and spines,

yes, Solanum incanum

Yes, appears close as per Solanum incanum

Solanum Species For ID : Kenya : 13MAR16 : AK-5 : 05/05 : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (3)
Solanum Species seen by the roadside in Limuru, Kenya during a visit in Jan, 2009.
Found these while going through my pictures.
Are these the Common Egg Plant?

efi page on Solanum melongena

I also remember observing it in large numbers by roadside

We need to find the id. I will check further.

Could this be Solanum incanum?

I guess Solanum incanum L. should be correct ID !

Solanum for ID : Kenya : 010711 : AK-3 : 11 posts by 6 authors. Attachments (3)
Taken at Nairobi, Kenya on the 30th of Jan, 2009.
A cultivated plant….flowers look like Brinjal.
Height was 5-6 meters, unusually very high for normal Brinjal.
Fruits can be seen….both unripe and ripe.
Kindly id.

I think it  looks similar to “Solanum elaeagnifolium”

From another thread:
“I think this is Solanum violaceum Orteg.”

As per FoC the height of S. violaceum Ortega is 0.5 to 2 m.
The species here is more than twice as big and it is cultivated and comes from Africa. Why they would cultivate S. violaceum when they have their own S. anguivi Lam.?

Thanks for your feedback with possible ids.
The leaves do look like Solanum incanum.
Another Species I cam across in Google Images with similar looking leaves is Solanum burchelli.
Also, kindly amend the height of plant to approx 5-6 feet and not as previously mentioned since pictures were taken at eye level.

I didn’t mean your species is Solanum anguivi, … I simply asked why it had to be S. violaceum?

In fact fruits here look rather bigger and cultivated S. anguivi in Africa are now known as S. aethiopicum, I think.
The cultivated forms are very variable in Africa as can be seen in http://www.plantnames.unimelb.African-eggplants.html.
But I am not suggesting that your plant is S. aethiopicum, because I simply do not know which Solanum species are cultivated in Africa and for what purpose, ie. edible or medicinal or ornamental? Without resolving these questions, I think, it is impossible to find the correct ID.
Leaves of Solanum are very variable in many species, that too in cultivation. Why not your plant is S. campylacanthum?
There is a paper on African Solanum, KEY for identification can be found from page 251 onward –

Suggested as S. incanum

S.incanum seems to be correct ID.

Solanaceae Fortnight : Solanum For ID : Nairobi,Kenya : 20FEB15 : AK-7 : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (3)
Reposting under family fortnight.
Solanum plant taken in Nairobi, Kenya during visit in Jan,2009.

I think this is Solanum violaceum Orteg.

Thanks for the suggested id.
Hope to get it validated.

Many other species suggested in another thread.

Pl. check Solanum incanum

Yes. Looks close to Solanum incanum.


Solanum aculeatissimum ? : 8 posts by 5 authors. Attachments (5)
Solanum aculeatissimum or Solanum khasianum or Solanum capsicoides or Solanum viarum ?
Mettur, Salem, Tamilnadu
Kindly confirm

I think close to images at Solanum viarum

It is not Solanum viarum at least..

It could be S. incanum, because very close to that one rather than others, pointed characters: Habit, Leaf lobes, dense tomentose and spines,

yes, Solanum incanum

Yes, appears close as per Solanum incanum


Solanaceae Week: IDReq-01 10Apr2011AR02 from Karapuzha, Wayanad:
Solanaceae Week:  IDReq-01 10Apr2011AR02 from Karapuzha, Wayanad
prickles present on both stem and leaves straight with broad base( upto 4 prickles on the leaf mid rib, 2 on the leaf veins, Leaf – has minute hairs,  )
The above desciption points to S. violaceum Ortega. Pls Validate
/species/s/solanaceae/sola… on both stem and leaves; leaves lobed, unequal at base; corolla blue-purple, 2-2.5 cm across; berry globose, orange, 1 cm across30. S. violaceum Ortega

without the fruits it is difficult to identify. If not for the fur like growth on the leaves and tender shoots, I would think it is Solanum viarum. In any case, I will have a walk and try to find out if we have anything like
them with fruits. Flowers are white and the like the flowers of S viarum.
The prickles are like those on S. viarum but the hair like structures confuse me
. Shall revert back tomorrow.

Appears close to images at Solanum incanum L.


Confusion between Solanum incanum L. and Solanum insanum L.:
Both appear quite confusing as per details at
Solanum incanum L.
Solanum insanum L.
The publication says:
The publication (Solanum insanum L. (subgenus Leptostemonum Bitter, Solanaceae), the neglected wild progenitor of eggplant (S. melongena L.): a review of taxonomy, characteristics and uses aimed at its enhancement for improved eggplant breeding– Published: 22 November 2016- R. H. G. Ranil, J. Prohens, X. Aubriot, H. M. L. Niran, M. Plazas, R. M. Fonseka, S. Vilanova, H. H. Fonseka, P. Gramazio & S. Knapp) says
Solanum insanum is morphologically similar to the mostly African species S. incanum (distributed from northern Africa to Pakistan, see Vorontsova and Knapp 2016), but can be distinguished from it in its sparser pubescence, less robust and usually straighter prickles, larger flowers, and distribution in Asia (see Table 1; Vorontsova and Knapp 2016).
In view, should we consider our observations at Solanum incanum L. (except those from kenya and Oman) and Solanum insanum L. as Solanum insanum L.




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