Common name: Eastern Nettle Tree • Hindi: Khirk • Marathi: Brumaj • Tamil: Ada, Kona • Malayalam: Karukka, Garuka • Telugu: Jabjabal • Kannada: Aduva, Adona, Garuke, Hadhuwa, Kartige • Oriya: Korayi • Khasi: Dieng chini • Nepali: खरी Khari
Key to differentiate (based on Osmaston 1927)
Leaves coarsely serrate almost to the base; drupe purplish black ……….. C.australis
Leaves subentire or serrated above the middle;drupe orange red …………. C. tetrandra

Trees, to 30 m high, bark 0.6 cm, smooth, grey, lenticellate, wrinkled horizontally; blaze yellow; branchlets slender, pubescent. Leaves simple, alternate; stipules linear-lanceolate, lateral, free; petiole 3-10 mm, slender, pubescent, shallowly grooved above; lamina 5-14 x 2.5-7 cm, obliquely ovate or obliquely ovate-lanceolate; base oblique, apex acuminate, margin serrate from apex to below middle then entire, membranous, glabrous above, puberulent beneath; 3-nerved from base, prominent, lateral nerves 1-4 pairs, pinnate, prominent, intercostae scalariform, prominent. Flowers polygamous, yellow; male in axillary clusters, born on leafless shoots; pedicels 1 cm long, filiform; female flowers on leaf axils; tepals 4, 1.5 mm long, ciliate, concave, obtuse; stamens 4, inserted round a woolly torus; ovary sessile, obovoid, pubescent, 1-celled; style ciliate. Fruit a drupe, 7 x 6 mm, ovoid, glabrous.
Flowering and fruiting: February-March
Evergreen and shola forests


ID requeat – 01042014PC1 : Attachments (6). 5 posts by 3 authors.
Kindly identify this tree growing on side of Lodi road, New Delhi.
It flowers in the months of February-March. Flowers are about 5 mm in diameter. Fruits are about 2 – 2.5 cm in length.

Seems Celtis tetrandra (Ulmaceae).

Thank you … for the identification.

Very good pictures …
Thanks … for the ID. Another common Tree from Ulmaceae known to all of us is Holoptela integrifolia. I can see the similarity of flowers posted by you with it.

Celtis tetrandra/ABDEC51 : 10 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (8)
This one, I think, is Celtis tetrandra or the Eastern Nettle tree. Locally it is known as Khirk. Though I photographed this tree above Mcleodganj (only very few samples are found at this altitude), I am told that they are plentiful at lower altitudes.
Eastern Nettle Tree (Celtis tetrandra)–Please confirm.
Mcleodganj, Dharamshala, HP
28 December 2014.

Celtis species are more common in lower altitudes of Himalaya. The species here is C. tetrandra based on the leaf serrations restricted to upper half of leaves. Another species C. australis which is also known by the same vernacular name and very similar in appearance has serration all along the margin up to base as stated in Osmaston (1927).

This is a common tree in the temperate /Sub temperate Himalaya called as Khirak or Kaharak or kharik locally and is used as fodder, fuel and small timber. This is called as Celtis australis (C. caucasica). The leaves are serrated > 75 % of the leaf lamina. Variation can always be there.

efi page on Celtis tetrandra & Celtis australis ?

i think it is celtis australis..

It does look like Celtis tetrandra to me but I am not expert enough to identify plants without flowers.

Celtis tetrandra to me.

Key to differentiate (based on Osmaston 1927)
Leaves coarsely serrate almost to the base; drupe purplish black ……………………………………………C.australis
Leaves subentire or serrated above the middle; drupe orange red ……………………………………………C. tetrandra
Following links also:


NS-unid 01:Shrub for id from Yamunanagar:
This small tree or large shrub exists in my unidentified folder.. no flowers were seen…
branches regularly alternate, beaing alternate, slightly dentate leaves, apex acuminate.. fruits obovate.. approx. 2 cm in diameter… on long pedicels in the leaf axils
these shots are from near Yamunanagar…
help in id is requested

please check in Celtis genus (may be Celtis australis)

Please find the plant ID for link below:

Celtis tetrandra Roxb.
It is different for C. australis (leaves coarsely serrate to the base) while in C. tetrandra leaves sub-entire or serrate above the middle.


My Pending Identifications: Chakrata- Unid Shrub 4:: NS MARCH 11 : 6 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (4).
This one was also shot from Chakrata area, a small tree or a shrub, in fruits… your opinion for id please..

Seems a species of Celtis (Ulmaceae).
Three species are known in Uttarakhand- C. australis, C.tetrandra and C.eriocarpa.

Looks like Celtis tetrandra.

Celtis eriocarpa Decaisne or C. caucalis- Kharak, Kharik, Khirk

Please find plant ID for link below:

Celtis tetrandra Roxb.
Young drupes seated on a hairy disc, leaves thin, sub-entire or serrated above the middle.
In C. eriocarpa drupes densely tomentose, leaves thick.

Which species of Celtis? ID required. from Pakistan : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (5)- around 500 kb each.
I photographed this tree in university campus at Lahore Pakistan (Oct, 2016). Celtis tetrandra is also planted but it looks different to me than Celtis tetrandra mainly due to large leaf size. Leaves are 6-10 cm long and 5 cm wide. Is it some different species? i dont have its flower photos. Please identify the tree.

do not take only vegetative characters that is changed based on environmental factors (Elevation, Soil, Water etc.). this is my hypothesis only. thank you sir.

Pl. also check celtis species available in efi site so far at

To me appears close to Celtis tetrandra Roxb. as per comparative images at Celtis


MS,Dec ,2021/09 Celtis sp. for id.: 1 high res. image.
Location : Tlungvel, Mizoram

Altitude : ca.980 m.
Date : 09-08-2007
Habit : Medium- sized tree
Habitat : Wild

Celtis tetrandra Roxb.??

Yes, appears close as per images at Celtis tetrandra Roxb.
Is this the only species reported from Mizoram ? if more, keys pl.


identify this celtis species: 3 high res. images.

I think appears close to images at


Cannabaceae: Celtis tetrandra Roxb.: 1 high res. image.
synonyms: Celtis formosana Hayata, Celtis yunnanensis C.K.Schneid.
location/date: University of Agricultural Sciences campus, Bangalore, July 1997



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