Staurogyne spathulata (BI.) Koord., Cat. Hort. Bot. Bogor. 147 1844. (Syn: Adenosma spatulata Bl.; Ebermaiera glauca Nees (ambiguous synonym); Ebermaiera glauca var. spatulata (Blume) C. B. Clarke; Ebermaiera ligulata Bedd.; Ebermaiera spathulata (Bl.) Hassk.; Herpestis cochinchinensis Bonati; Ruellia obovata Vahl ex Nees (ambiguous synonym); Staurogyne candelabrum Bremek.; Staurogyne flexicaulis Bremek.; Staurogyne glauca (Nees) Kuntze; Staurogyne glauca var. siamensis (C. B. Cl.) Benoist; Staurogyne latibracteata Bremek.; Staurogyne leptocaulis Bremek. (ambiguous synonym); Staurogyne leptocaulis subsp. decumbens R. M. Barker; Staurogyne polycaulis Bremek.; Staurogyne siamensis C. B. Cl.));
Australia (Western Australia, Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia), India (E-, NE-India, peninsular India, Upper Gangetic Plains, Darjeeling), Bangladesh, Myanmar [Burma] (Taninthayi), Vietnam, Thailand, Sumatra, Laos, New Guinea (Papua New Guinea) as per Catalogue of Life;

O. Kuntze, Revis. Gen. v. 1 (1891) p. 497. Stem erect, 12-15 in. high, viscous-pubescent upwards. Leaves 1.1/2-2 by 1/2-5/8 in., the lower opposite, the upper alternate, or sometimes nearly all alternate, spathulate, obtuse, slightly viscous-pubescent or glabrous, base attenuated, running down into the petiole ; petioles 1/4-1/2 in. long. Spikes 2-6 in. long ; bracts at the base of the spike similar to the stem- leaves, gradually becoming smaller upwards ; bracteoles 2, beneath the calyx, 1/4 in. long, linear-oblong or slightly spathulate, obtuse, pubescent, with a strong mid-nerve. Calyx divided to the base or nearly so ; sepals glandular-hairy, the larger 1/3 in. long, linear-oblong, subobtuse, much broader than the other 4, which are 1/4 in. long and linear-subulate. Corolla 1/5-1/3 in. long, straight ; tube cyliudric ; lobes 5, rounded, 1/20 in. long. Filaments pubescent ; anther-cells muticous or very slightly apiculate at the base. Stigma of 2 unequal acute lobes, the lower one reflexed, sometimes 2-fid. Capsules membranous, 1/5 in. long, oblong, obtuse, shortly apiculate, glabrous, bearing seeds from the base nearly to the apex. Seeds minute, globose. Ebermaiera glauca, Nees, in DC. Prodr. v. 11 (1847) p. 73 ; C. B. Clarke, in Hook. f. Fl. B. I. v. 4, p. 395 : Dalz. & Gibs. p. 184 : Wight, Icon. t. 1488 ; Woodr, in Journ. Bomb. Nat. v. 12 (1899) p. 355.
Not common. Konkan : Stocks ! S. Konkan, Dalzell & Gibson.—Distrib. India (W. Peninsula, Bengal, Tenasserim).
(From The Flora of the Bombay Presidency (1903) from IBIS Flora)

Images by Anurag N. Sharma, Identified by Surajit Koley (Inserted by J.M.Garg)



ANJAN57 Hygrophila sp. for identification : 8 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (5)

Family: Acanthaceae
Date: 25th December 2014
Place: Agumbe, Karnataka

Habit: Herb

Nice pictures, …!
The number of stamens here (4?) makes me think that this is not Hygrophila polysperma (2 stamens) that I suggested earlier in … post.
I look forward to know its ID.

Many thanks … for this clarification.

The flower form doesn’t look like that of other Hygrophila we have seen so far. Here corolla is not markedly 2 lipped. Corolla tube is rather cylindric, marked with stripes. To me it looks more like Ebermaiera species than anything else. Bracts and bracteoles also conform.
I think this maybe Ebermaiera glauca Nees. Please check the probability. Please also note anthers in the illustration and the submitted picture (DSC_04061).


I agree with you sir.
While going through my photos from the same trip, I found another set of photos from another place (Hebri) we had been to.
I am attaching close ups of that set here. They show the characters much better than in the original uploads.
Please also see Flora of Karnataka image from the Flora of Udupi. Hebri, the place where this one was clicked lies in the Udupi district and hence the distribution also matches.
Attachments (9)

Thank you very much …, I had some hesitations regarding the loops of lateral veins at margin, but I think your picture DSC_0406 satisfies Wight illustration.

Please check my species which I think is Ebermaiera glutinosa Wall., I have two sets of pictures and this species grows on the margin of paddy field –
  1. efi thread
  2. efi thread 2

Thank you once again.

As far as I can find, there are only two species of Staurogyne/Ebermaiera found in Karnataka. Gamble too lists two species in the flora of Madras Presidency. Out of the two species that fall under them, S. zeylanica can be ruled out ( on the basis of lack of viscid structures which are very evident in the photos clicked by me and … which leaves S. glauca (Flora of Karnataka image). Both names are unresolved according to The Plant List.
At the very least, I think we can leave it at Staurogyne sp./Ebermaiera sp.
Thank you very much for your efforts sir. In this process, I have learnt about a few more species of plants!

I have doubt over the pictures in the link you have provided. A couple of pics look more like Lepidagathis to me.

Thank you sir. Yes, there do seem to be certain mistakes in the live specimen photographs on the portal.

Yes …, I think so.


Agumbe :: Phaulopsis FOR VALIDATION & ID :: DVJAN41 : 25 posts by 6 authors.
Agumbe Dakshina Kannada, Karnataka
Date: 25 DEC 2014 … Altitude: about 700 m asl
This plant could be Phaulopsis imbricata as suggested by … in …detailed post … ANDEC08/08.
Seemingly a herb; growing in damp area. The flower measured just about 2 – 3 mm across.
¿ Phaulopsis ? (family: Acanthaceae)

This seem to be different from the plant I have posted (Leaf shape as well as inflorescence differs).

Thank you very very much … for pointing to the error.
Dear friends, please ignore my note regarding Phaulopsis and relating it to … post.
Perhaps the posted photos are not at all sufficient to reach any ID.
This post may be ignored.

For me, it does not like Phaulopsis imbricata. My earlier posting in our group is here.

You are correct … My blunder. Not Phaulopsis at all. … has suggested possibility of Hygrophila polysperma. Many thanks to him.
It does look Hygrophila for sure.

Can it be Hygrophila polysperma?…just a guess…

Thank you very much … for this guess; some glimmer of a hope !!

efi page on Hygrophila polysperma 

This may be Hygrophila polysperma (Roxb.) T. Anderson, as have been suggested by Vijay Sir.

I am sure of my species because of the hairy tipped capsule.
Attached here a new set, recorded on 4/1/15, for your perusal. Attachments (5)
The problem is you don’t have a face/front photograph of the flower. And if you look into your Ebermaiera (Staurogyne) upload you will see side view is very deceiving. Some Ebermaiera grows in moist place too.
So, please note/check your flower size and decide yourself. Bracts and bracteoles seem to match with Hygrophila polysperma.

Thanks very much … for sharing pictures of Hygrophila polysperma and for the information. I am sure … would have read this post; he would post his pictures of the same plant in due time. We may get to see more aspects of that plant and flower.

…, I have clicked some photos of the front view of this flower. I have just posted it in a separate thread. Please do take a look.

From the FBI description of Ebermaiera zeylanica, I copy here the following words – “corolla, stamens and capsule nearly as of E. glauca

OK, … Thanks very much. Will check on this species later, after I am through with some other uploads.

Ebermaiera glauca Nees as per another post by …

Thank you very much … for pointing to update in … post. But not sure – your link leads to Plant Illustrations Org showing Ebermaiera glauca
In … post ANJAN57, the discussion has come to Ebermaiera glutinosa

In the discussion of … thread I brought in Ebermaiera glutinosa because I wanted to draw … attention about the fact that I took that herb as a Limnophila species. It was never to suggest that … post could be E. glutinosa.

FBI doesn’t indicate that E. glutinosa can be found in South India.
KEY to E. glauca, E. glutinosa, E. polybotrya can be found in “Bengal Plants” and “Botany of Bihar and Orissa”.
However, I am not telling that your species is an Ebermaiera (presently Staurogyne). Neither I am opposing your claim of either Phaulopsis or Hygrophila.

Thanks, … May I didn’t follow that thread properly.

Thanks … These small herbs are tricky and require many aspects to be shown in photos.
Yes, we have not arrived to any ID yet.

… thread features two set of photographs

Yes, … His post ANJAN57 initial set was from Agumbe, and second set was from the foothills, Hebri.

Thank you …, do you think both the set belong to same species?
Without using any scale/ruler isn’t it very unscientific to try to ID some tricky species?

I fully agree with you … in this regard. It is perfectly good to stop ID of any post for want of aspects and sizes. It saves lot of time – and can be well spent on other uploads.

Thank you …, I agree fully.


Staurogyne zeylanica Kuntze
along Chorla Ghat on February 18, 2012

Inflorescence and flowers look different in the 2nd and 3rd pictures than the rest, …

Indeed yes …!! Thank you very very much for pointing out the error. I made the mistake while labeling the uploads in flickr, and it did not strike me when I posted them here. The incorrectly labeled are Lepidagathis incurva. I have them corrected now in flickr. Thank you very much once again for your keen eyes !!

Thank you … for confirming, I noticed it first in Anurag Ji’s thread.

Nice pictures of Staurogyne zeylanica

On detailed checking, I will go for Staurogyne spathulata (BI.) Koord. (syn. Staurogyne glauca), as per Keys in Flora of Karnataka due to viscous-pubescent nature of the stem and non- trailing nature.
2nd and 3rd images are of Lepidagathis incurva


Flowers of IndiaDiscussions at efloraofindiamore views in flickrmore views on Google Earth
¿ sta-uh-ROH-gy-nee ? or ¿ sta-uh-roh-JY-nee ? — from the Greek stauros (cross) and gyne (female)
zey-LAN-ee-kuh — of or from Ceylon (Sri Lanka)
  … Dave’s Botanary
commonly known as: staurogyne
botanical names: Staurogyne zeylanica Kuntze … unresolved name … synonyms: Ebermaiera zeylanica Nees • Erythracanthus elongatus Dalzell & Gibson … The Plants List
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
Dear friends,

Not sure of this plant’s distribution status in our country – perhaps southern peninsula.
Please help with any name(s) in southern states of India.

Yes, it is Staurogyne zeylanica

On detailed checking, I will go for Staurogyne spathulata (BI.) Koord. (syn. Staurogyne glauca), as per Keys in Flora of Karnataka due to viscous-pubescent nature of the stem and non- trailing nature.

Small herb seen at “Chorla Ghat, Belgaum-Goa route”.
Bot. name: Staurogyne zeylanica
Family: Acanthaceae

On detailed checking, I will go for Staurogyne spathulata (BI.) Koord. (syn. Staurogyne glauca), as per Keys in Flora of Karnataka due to viscous-pubescent nature of the stem.


requires identification please : 13 posts by 5 authors. Attachments (3)
Seems to be Acanthaceae member. Grows on verticle soil slopes in hills. baramura Tripura 2018 December

… a wild guess: some Haplanthodes. Among the mix of leaves, the coarse dentate is probably Mikania sp.

Elatostemma sp.

Pl. also check comparative images at Acanthaceae 

Phaulopsis imbricata (Forssk.) Sweet ??

To me looks different from images at

Could not find a match as per comparative image at Haplanthodes

Not Elatostema at all.

Staurogyne glauca?

Thanks …  May be I am not sure. Pl. check

On detailed checking, I will go for Staurogyne spathulata (BI.) Koord. (syn. Staurogyne glauca), as suggested by …

Thank you all for help and discussion

ID of the sp. from Assam KD 12 Jan 2015 : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (5)
Attached images may be sp. of Scrophulariaceae. Please ID the plant 
Date :10.01.2015
Location: Assam
Family : Scrophulariaceae (??)
Genus & species : ??
Habitat: Grows wild on bank of the pond
Habit : Herb

Lepidagathis ??

I think this is Staurogyne spathulata


Staurogyne zeylanica in FoPI:
Images at Staurogyne zeylanica in FoPI by Dinesh ji are not correct.

Look different from specimens of Staurogyne zeylanica in GBIF.
Pl. correct.


Staurogyne zeylanica images of Dinesh ji in Flickr and Wikimedia Commons:

Your images of Staurogyne zeylanica in Flickr and Wikimedia Commons are of Staurogyne spathulata (BI.) Koord. (syn: S. glauca) as per images and details herein and as per keys in Flora of Peninsular India.
Look different from specimens of Staurogyne zeylanica in GBIF.
Pl. correct.

Thank you very very much …, for correcting this ID.
I have revised my notes at flickr. However at Wikimedia I am not conversant with making changes.
It is Staurogyne spatulata (Blume) Koord. at POWO and GBIF … I also find it written as spathulata at a few places but am not sure which is to be treated as correct.

Your Wikimedia Commons images at Wikimedia Commons, are still to be corrected.

I have given up correcting images at Wikimedia Commons; it’s too tedious for me. I tried once or twice for some other images.
Would you be able to revise it?

I have revised it now. Pl. check.

I think it is not difficult once you get used to it.

Could be easy, but I get a bit uneasy while going through the process.

If I come to know of any more such discrepancies, I will check with you.

ID KANNUR 07: 1 image.
Please identify this herb from Kannur district of Kerala. 12/6/21

Please check Lepidagathis.

Not Lepidagathis.
This is Staurogyne spathulata (BI.) Koord. as per images and details herein.

Yes, it is …


Staurogyne zeylanica in FOI:
Images at Staurogyne zeylanica in FOI by Prashant ji and Dinesh ji are of  Staurogyne spathulata (BI.) Koord. (syn: S. glauca) as per images and details herein and as per keys in Flora of Peninsular India.
Look different from specimens of Staurogyne zeylanica in GBIF.
Pl. correct.



291 ID wild plant: 12 high res. images.
Please ID wild plant,
Location: near Reserve Forest, Chathamattom, Ernakulam District, (Kochi) Kerala PIN:686671
Altitude: 1400fsl
Flower date: 30.03.2022, 01.10pm
Habitat: wild moisture
Plant habit: nice shrub, erect/obliquely, branches, slender weak angular stem 01.5mm base diameter, hairy, annual
Height: 08cm
Leaves: opposite, ovate, apex, hairy, size:05×2.5cm or less
Flower: racemose, diameter:03mm, white, non fragrant
Camera: CANON EOS1500D +reverse ring

Staurogyne zeylanica (Nees) Kuntze

Yes, it is Staurogyne spathulata, dear …, thank you very soon for ID my plant,



Catalogue of Life  The Plant List Ver.1.1 (Unresolved) Keys as per Flora of Karnataka  Plant Illustration  GBIF  (specimens)  High resolution specimen  India Biodiversity Portal  IBIS Flora  JSTOR (specimen) Kerala Plants 

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