Symplocos theifolia D. Don in Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 145. 1825. (Syn: Eugeniodes theifolium O. K.; Symplocos racemosa DC.; Symplocos phyllocalyx C. B. Clarke; Symplocos warburgii Brand; Symplocos discolor Brand; Symplocos wilsonii Brand; Symplocos ernestii Dunn; Symplocos loheri Brand; Symplocos xanthoxantha H. L´ev.; Symplocos coronigera H.L´ev.; Symplocos potaninii Gontsch.; Symplocos elephantis Guillaumin; Dicalix shinodanus Migo; Symplocos ernestii Dunn var. pubicalyx C. Chen) as per Taxonomic revision of the Symplocos nakaharae complex (Symplocaceae) with special reference to fruit morphology by Bo LIU Hai-Ning QIN- Journal of Systematics and Evolution 51 (1): 94–114 (2013);
.
Distribution and habitat: Bhutan, Cambodia, China (south of the Yangtze River), India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, and Philippines occurring in mixed forests on slopes below 2600 m as per Taxonomic revision of the Symplocos nakaharae complex (Symplocaceae) with special reference to fruit morphology by Bo LIU Hai-Ning QIN- Journal of Systematics and Evolution 51 (1): 94–114 (2013);
.
Small evergreen trees or shrubs, to 15 m high. Twigs green, glabrous, ridged. Petioles 6–12(–16) mm long; leaf blades leathery, 8–12×2–3 cm long, glabrous on both sides, base cuneate, margin subentire or serrated, apex long acuminate; midvein adaxially prominent, lateral veins 8–12 per side. Inflorescences simple or basally branched, axillary spikes, 0.8–2.5 cm long, axis puberulent; bracts and bracteoles persistent, broadly obovate, 1–3 mm long, often glabrous. Calyx glabrous or puberulent, margin ciliolate, lobes orbicular. Corolla white, 3–5 mm long, deeply 5-lobed. Stamens 15–50, pentadelphous or inconspicuous pentadelphous. Disc soft pilose. Drupes ellipsoidal, 6–15 × 4–7 mm, apex with erect or spread persistent calyx lobes, 3 loculed, 1 or 2 locules often fertile, mesocarp woody, endocarp surface smooth, chartaceous as per Taxonomic revision of the Symplocos nakaharae complex (Symplocaceae) with special reference to fruit morphology by Bo LIU Hai-Ning QIN- Journal of Systematics and Evolution 51 (1): 94–114 (2013);
.

/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/IMG_5753_15Jan2016.jpg/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/_MG_6879_02Jan2016.jpg/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/_MG_0109_12Nov14.jpg/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/_MG_6840_02Jan2016.jpg/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/IMG_5771_15Jan2016.jpg/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/IMG_5817_17Jan2016.jpg

Symplocos lucida ABJAN01/10 : 8 posts by 3 authors. 13 images.

I first shared photos of these trees growing around here in November 2014. I have been trying to find out the species without much success but I think I am quite close. I am very inclined now to think that this is S. lucida not least because this is the only species in the Himalayas that flowers/fruits in autumn/winter. The leaves are leathery, glossy and finely toothed. I could not find many drupes at this time in late winters but had enough to see their shape.
I am including earlier pictures too to have all in one place for reference. Please advise.S. lucida (S. theifolia previously)
Dal Lake, Dharamshala Cantt., HP
1800m

2014-15 and January 2016.


Forgot a couple of pictures. Apologies!

The bark.
The drupe. I tried to cut across to see the cross-section but the seed was hard.

2 images.


I had made a separate thread to include more photographs of the species here. I am forwarding it for your advice.


Thank you for posting more pictures with good details. It is Symplocos species. Leaf margin also confirms it. I will try to identify by next week and get back to you.


Thank you … I look forward to your advice eagerly.


i am not sure whether S. lucida has distribution this far in the NW
Himalaya. To me it comes closer to Neolitsea


Thank you … This one is proving difficult with experts divided in their opinion. I will study the Neolitsia family to see if we could get closer to a positive ID.


A reply in another thread by …:

“Your posts perfectly mach with the description of the species.”


As per Taxonomic revision of the Symplocos nakaharae complex (Symplocaceae) with special reference to fruit morphology by Bo LIU Hai-Ning QIN- Journal of Systematics and Evolution 51 (1): 94–114 (2013), Symplocos lucida (Thunberg) Siebold & Zuccarini, S. kuroki Nagam. and Symplocos theifolia D. Don, all are accepted species with only Symplocos theifolia D. Don found in our area.
So our tree is Symplocos theifolia D. Don only with syn. as per efi page at Symplocos theifolia


 /wp-content/uploads/2020/10/Symplocos%20lucida.jpg

Symplocos lucida (Thunb.) Siebold & Zucc. (Symplocaceae) from Sikkim : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)

Here is what I have identified as Symplocos lucida from Sikkim. An element of subtropical forests, seen up to 7000 feet altitude.

… is requested to comment.


Thank you very much for sharing this. The leaves and the drupes do look very similar to the ones here. I would be grateful for your advice on the species I posted. I found a good resource on S. lucida with illustrations here;

In which month was your photo taken?


Thank you.  This photo was taken from a twig collected by me from Fambonglho WLS, East Sikkim. Your posts perfectly mach with the description of the species.
Details that I have are pasted here. The photo was taken in the month of November.  BSI published the account of the family in a Fascicle of Flora of India long back. Please look at their website if it is available online.
I would like to point out that as per IPNI, this name is illegitimate which shows that it clashes with the name of that of Wall. ex G.Don.  The original date of publication of Fl. Japonica is to be checked.

Symplocos lucida (Thunb.) Siebold & Zucc., Fl. Jap. 1: 55, t. 24. 1835, excl. syn. Myrtus laevis; D.G. Long in Grierson & D.G. Long, Fl. Bhutan 2(2): 581. 1999. Laurus lucida Thunb. in Murray, Syst. Veg. ed. 14, 383. 1784.  Symplocos japonica DC., Prodr. 8: 255. 1844.  S. phyllocalyx C.B. Clarke in Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 3: 575. 1882.

Shrubs or trees, 3 – 10 m high, entirely glabrous.

Fl. & Fr.: Aug. – Nov.

Local names: Nep.: Kharani, Lekh kharane.

Habitat: Common in tropical, subtropical and temperate deciduous forests at 1500 – 2600 m altitudes.

Specimens examined: Pangthang, 8 Nov 2004, T. Chakrabarty 30606 (BSHC).  Takchi forest, 15 Dec 1981,  Krishna 2110 (BSHC).


Thank you very much once again. Someone once told me that the local name of this tree here is ‘paprain or papdain’ but I am unable to verify it.

IPNI does list it as ‘nom. illeg.’ but specimens at Kew continue to be listed under this nomenclature (and its previous S. theifolia) so perhaps we can use this name for the time being till further modification.
As per Taxonomic revision of the Symplocos nakaharae complex (Symplocaceae) with special reference to fruit morphology by Bo LIU Hai-Ning QIN- Journal of Systematics and Evolution 51 (1): 94–114 (2013), Symplocos lucida (Thunberg) Siebold & Zuccarini, S. kuroki Nagam. and Symplocos theifolia D. Don, all are accepted species with only Symplocos theifolia D. Don found in our area.

So our tree is Symplocos theifolia D. Don only with syn. as per efi page at Symplocos theifolia


.


Symplocos species from East Sikkim for Id please : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
Symplocos lucida ?

This was an abundant small tree, in a subtropical forest  at Fambong Lho WLS, East Sikkim at about 6500 feet altitude.


As per Taxonomic revision of the Symplocos nakaharae complex (Symplocaceae) with special reference to fruit morphology by Bo LIU Hai-Ning QIN- Journal of Systematics and Evolution 51 (1): 94–114 (2013), Symplocos lucida (Thunberg) Siebold & Zuccarini, S. kuroki Nagam. and Symplocos theifolia D. Don, all are accepted species with only Symplocos theifolia D. Don found in our area.

So our tree is Symplocos theifolia D. Don only with syn. as per efi page at Symplocos theifolia



/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/DSC_1058-9.JPG/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/DSC_1063-7.JPG/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/DSC_1061-5.JPG/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/_DSC0811-8.JPG/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/_DSC0812-2.JPG/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/DSC_1060-9.JPG

Symplocos lucida (Thunb.) Siebold & Zucc. ?? : 7 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (9)

Location: Nagarkot, Nepal
Altitude:6600 ft.

Date: 12 November 2017

Syn: Symplocos theifolia D. Don   ??

Also check with your images at SK466 31 MAR-2017:ID
as to me these looks a bit different from images of Symplocos lucida at

Symplocos lucida ABJAN01/10


I checked today and no more flowers noticed. According to flowering season as per the book (copy enclosed earlier) I guess it is S. lucida.

Expect opinion from others too !

Link


Same plant on 2 April 2018

ID validation ?
Attachments (3)

Yes to me also appear close as per images at Symplocos lucida


Thank you …!

Nepali Names : घोले Ghole  / हाकुलाल  Haakulaal  / बाकलपाती Baakalapaatee
The Plant list says S.lucida but the CofL says : Symplocos kuroki H. Nagamasu (accepted name)

OK


Symplocos lucida (Thunb.) Siebold & Zucc.
Location: Osho, Balaju, Raniban’ Nepal
Altitude : 4600 ft.
Date: 7 June 2018
Habit : Wild
/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/_DSC0037-4.JPG
/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/_DSC0036-0.JPG
/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/_DSC0035-5.JPG
/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/_DSC0031-0.JPG
/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/_DSC0030-1-5.JPG

Attachments (7)- around 600 kb each.


As per Taxonomic revision of the Symplocos nakaharae complex (Symplocaceae) with special reference to fruit morphology by Bo LIU Hai-Ning QIN- Journal of Systematics and Evolution 51 (1): 94–114 (2013), Symplocos lucida (Thunberg) Siebold & Zuccarini, S. kuroki Nagam. and Symplocos theifolia D. Don, all are accepted species with only Symplocos theifolia D. Don found in our area.

So our tree is Symplocos theifolia D. Don only with syn. as per efi page at Symplocos theifolia



/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/DSC_0836-1.JPG/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/DSC_0853%20-%20Copy-1.JPG

SK860 15 NOV-2017:ID : 16 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (7)

Location: Telkot, Nagarkot, Nepal  
Date: 12 November 2017
Altitude: 5400 ft.

It was in a distance so could not capture well !

Any idea about the family or the genus?

I guess now it could be some Symplocos.


Now, we need to close in to the correct ID.

Looks similar to one of your recent post on this genus.

efi thread


Yes appears similar to the images at the given efi thread.

We have recently identified a species of this genus based on specimen of gbif. Is it not the same ?

It is definitely Symplocos but difficult to decide the specific ID as the images are not so clear due to distant shot and the plant was not that tall 

compared to the the earlier one.

Ok

It does look like Symplocos sp

May be S. lucida as per your given thread.


I guess so !

As per Taxonomic revision of the Symplocos nakaharae complex (Symplocaceae) with special reference to fruit morphology by Bo LIU Hai-Ning QIN- Journal of Systematics and Evolution 51 (1): 94–114 (2013), Symplocos lucida (Thunberg) Siebold & Zuccarini, S. kuroki Nagam. and Symplocos theifolia D. Don, all are accepted species with only Symplocos theifolia D. Don found in our area.

So our tree is Symplocos theifolia D. Don only with syn. as per efi page at Symplocos theifolia



/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/_DSC0016%20-%20Copy.JPG/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/_DSC0027-5.JPG/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/_DSC0023%20-%20Copy.JPG/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/_DSC0914-3.JPG/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/_DSC0018%20-%20Copy%20-%20Copy.JPG/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/_DSC0017%20-%20Copy-2.JPG/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/_DSC0911-9.JPG/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/_DSC0910-5.JPG/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/_DSC0909-4.JPG/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/_DSC0019%20-%20Copy.JPG

SK937 07 JAN-2018 : 6 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (8)

Location: Surbinayak, Nepal  

Date: 7 January 2018
Elevation: 4600 ft.
Symplocos lucida (Thunb.) Siebold & Zucc.  ??
Syn: Symplocos theifolia D. Don

Link


Image given in the link is of Symplocos phyllocalyx Clarke

Thank you …!
Symplocos lucida (Thunb.) Siebold & Zucc.  
Syn: Symplocos theifolia D. Don
        Symplocos phyllocalyx C.B. Clarke
Nepali Names : घोले Ghole / बाकलपाती Baakalapaatee / हाकुलाल Haakulaal 

Ok


Same tree on 29 July 2018.

Attachments (5)- around 600 kb each.


Different links showing different accepted names, viz:
Looks like Symplocos lucida (Thunb.) Siebold & Zucc. is not the correct ID.
and did not find Symplocos lucida Wall. ex G.Don in CoL and GBIF.

Yes. For the time being, I am keeping Symplocos lucida only.


As per Taxonomic revision of the Symplocos nakaharae complex (Symplocaceae) with special reference to fruit morphology by Bo LIU Hai-Ning QIN- Journal of Systematics and Evolution 51 (1): 94–114 (2013), Symplocos lucida (Thunberg) Siebold & Zuccarini, S. kuroki Nagam. and Symplocos theifolia D. Don, all are accepted species with only Symplocos theifolia D. Don found in our area.
So our tree is Symplocos theifolia D. Don only with syn. as per efi page at Symplocos theifolia


/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/_DSC0852-7.JPG/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/_DSC0851-5.JPG/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/_DSC0850-9.JPG

SK1067 05 APR-2018 : 5 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (6)
Location: Shivapuri National Park, Nepal
Altitude: 7500 ft.
Date: 27 March 2018
Habit : Wild
Again Symplocos lucida (Thunb.) Siebold & Zucc. ??

Appears close to images in your another post on the same species at SK937 07 JAN-2018


As per Taxonomic revision of the Symplocos nakaharae complex (Symplocaceae) with special reference to fruit morphology by Bo LIU Hai-Ning QIN- Journal of Systematics and Evolution 51 (1): 94–114 (2013), Symplocos lucida (Thunberg) Siebold & Zuccarini, S. kuroki Nagam. and Symplocos theifolia D. Don, all are accepted species with only Symplocos theifolia D. Don found in our area.
So our tree is Symplocos theifolia D. Don only with syn. as per efi page at Symplocos theifolia


/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/_DSC0700-8-2.JPG/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/_DSC0716-5-8.JPG/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/_DSC0698-1.JPG

SK1496 10 Oct 2018 : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (5)- around 600 kb each.
Location:  Nagarkot
Date: 21 August 2018
Elevation:6800 ft.

Habit : Wild 

Symplocos lucida (Thunb.) Siebold & Zucc.    ??

To me also appear close to images at Symplocos lucida


As per Taxonomic revision of the Symplocos nakaharae complex (Symplocaceae) with special reference to fruit morphology by Bo LIU Hai-Ning QIN- Journal of Systematics and Evolution 51 (1): 94–114 (2013), Symplocos lucida (Thunberg) Siebold & Zuccarini, S. kuroki Nagam. and Symplocos theifolia D. Don, all are accepted species with only Symplocos theifolia D. Don found in our area.

So our tree is Symplocos theifolia D. Don only with syn. as per efi page at Symplocos theifolia


.


Tree for ID/ABDEC27 : 11 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (5)
This tree is growing near my house. It is about 20 feet tall. Please help identify it.
Could it be a Symplocos?
Mcleodganj, Dharamshala, HP
1750m

11 December 2014


Symplocos species in eFIoraofindia (with details/ keys from published papers/ regional floras/ FRLHT/ FOI/ efloras/ books etc., where ever available)


A couple of days ago I photographed more trees of the same species again. The bark is always dark with light spots. I checked at least 4-5 different trees. The colour of the leaves can vary between very deep green to lighter green but barks and berries are the same. I am putting in a couple of additional pictures here. Together with earlier pictures in this thread, can we attempt to identify it.
It’s more likely a Symplocos species as discussed earlier. I will be grateful for any advice.
Above Mcleodganj, Dharamshala, HP
1800m
2 January 2016
5 images

It looks like Neolitsea umbrosa


Thank you … I think my photos were insufficient for … to conclude that. I had assumed that they will be seen together with my earlier photos in the thread. I will repost this tree with photos showing different characteristics in one mail later.

We also have Neolitsea pallens which has long, narrow and entire leaves which are slightly cyan blue underneath. I am compiling photographs for that species too but I do not have a single photo of its berries so I may have to wait.


According to me it is not Symplocos but a member of the
Lauraceae… may be Neolitsea


It should be Symplocos sp. Fruits in the picture clearly shows that it could be Symplocos. Leaves in the picture do not show tri-nerved condition, a characteristic feature of Neolitsea. The leaves of Symplocos may not smell aromatic or pleasant. Fallen leaves of Symplocos will be yellow in color.


Thank you … I now strongly suspect it to be Symplocos lucida. The leaves do not smell like the Neolitsea but I haven’t verified the yellowing of fallen leaves yet. I will update soon.


A reply in another thread by …:

“Your posts perfectly mach with the description of the species.”


i.e. Symplocos lucida


As per Taxonomic revision of the Symplocos nakaharae complex (Symplocaceae) with special reference to fruit morphology by Bo LIU Hai-Ning QIN- Journal of Systematics and Evolution 51 (1): 94–114 (2013), Symplocos lucida (Thunberg) Siebold & Zuccarini, S. kuroki Nagam. and Symplocos theifolia D. Don, all are accepted species with only Symplocos theifolia D. Don found in our area.

So our tree is Symplocos theifolia D. Don only with syn. as per efi page at Symplocos theifolia



/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/DSC_0806%20copy.JPG/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/DSC_0809%20copy.JPG

SK 2196 26 September 2019 : 6 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (4)- 1 mb or more.
Location:  Indra Daha, Kathmandu
Altitude: 1543 m.
Date: 18 August 2019
Habit : Wild
Symplocos lucida (Thunb.) Siebold & Zucc. ??

Attachments (2) – 1 mb and 5 mb.


Attachments (1)- 6 mb.


by now you have photographed and shown us several of these shrubs.
so you know this botanical specimen more than we do you have seen them in real life.

we / /I have seen them in pictures only. so what is your opinion?


I have posted my guess. and think it is correct !

yes


As per Taxonomic revision of the Symplocos nakaharae complex (Symplocaceae) with special reference to fruit morphology by Bo LIU Hai-Ning QIN- Journal of Systematics and Evolution 51 (1): 94–114 (2013), Symplocos lucida (Thunberg) Siebold & Zuccarini, S. kuroki Nagam. and Symplocos theifolia D. Don, all are accepted species with only Symplocos theifolia D. Don found in our area.
So our tree is Symplocos theifolia D. Don only with syn. as per efi page at Symplocos theifolia


/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/DSC_0090%20copy-4.JPG

SK 2301 19 November 2019 : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3) – 1, 2 & 3 mb.
Location: Matatirtha, Kathmandu
Date: 19 October  2019
Elevation: 1724  m.

Habit : Wild

Symplocos lucida (Thunb.) Siebold & Zucc. ??
Syn :  Symplocos theifolia D. Don ??

Attachments (3) – 1, 2 & 3 mb.


Attachments (1)- 7 mb.


I also think close to images at Symplocos lucida


As per Taxonomic revision of the Symplocos nakaharae complex (Symplocaceae) with special reference to fruit morphology by Bo LIU Hai-Ning QIN- Journal of Systematics and Evolution 51 (1): 94–114 (2013), Symplocos lucida (Thunberg) Siebold & Zuccarini, S. kuroki Nagam. and Symplocos theifolia D. Don, all are accepted species with only Symplocos theifolia D. Don found in our area.

So our plant is Symplocos theifolia D. Don only with syn. as per efi page at Symplocos theifolia



/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/Symplocos%20sp.%20or%20Xylosma%20longifolium%20-2-.JPG
/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/Symplocos%20sp.%20or%20Xylosma%20longifolium%20-1-.JPG
MS Nov,2018/13 Symplocos sp. or Xylosma longifolium for ID. : 12 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (2)

Location : Ailawng, Mizoram

Altitude : ca. 1,100 m.
Habit : Tree
Habit : Wild
Mizo : Lei-dum

It is not Xylosma longifolia


To me also looks different from images at  Xylosma longifolia

Pl. check species available in efi site at Symplocos


I guess Symplocos sp.

Symplocos glomerata King ex C. B. Clarke ?? Image date?
Viburnum mullahaLei-dum
Is the local name correct ??

I think looks different from illustration of Symplocos glomerata at http://www.efloras.org/object_page.aspx?object_id=2681&flora_id=2


Can it be some Lauraceae? If Symplocos, i am unfamiliar with this spp.


What are the species of Symplocos, found in your area ?

Symplocos cochinchinensis subsp. cochinchinensis & laurina, S.hookeri, S.paniculata, S.raemosa & S.thaefolia are recorded in Mizoram state.

I will go with Symplocos kuroki H. Nagamasu (syn: S.thaefolia) only as per keys and comparative images at Symplocos

As per Taxonomic revision of the Symplocos nakaharae complex (Symplocaceae) with special reference to fruit morphology by Bo LIU Hai-Ning QIN- Journal of Systematics and Evolution 51 (1): 94–114 (2013), Symplocos lucida (Thunberg) Siebold & Zuccarini, S. kuroki Nagam. and Symplocos theifolia D. Don, all are accepted species with only Symplocos theifolia D. Don found in our area.

So our plant is Symplocos theifolia D. Don only with syn. as per efi page at Symplocos theifolia


.


Symplocos glomerata?/ABNOV14 : 3 posts by 2 authors. 2 images.

This is a tall tree well-spread like a mango tree. Is this Symplocos glomerata?

Clustered Sapphire Berry (Symplocos glomerata)–Please confirm.

Dal Lake, Above Mcleodganj, Dharamshala, HP
1750m approx.
12 November 2014.


A reply from another thread:

“Yes …, This is Symplocos sp. as we discussed and observed together, probably you are right in specific I’d too..”


Thank you … I did see that reply. … had kindly pointed it out to me during his Dharamshala visit too. But we were not sure of its ID at the species level. After looking at more trees, I am not so sure that it is glomerata, I am now leaning more towards Symplcos ramosissima and seeking expert help with this. Hence my new message. I am including here an attachment from eFlora of China for reference.


I will go for Symplocos kuroki H. Nagamasu rather than Symplocos ramosissima Wall. ex G. Don as per images and details herein.


As per Taxonomic revision of the Symplocos nakaharae complex (Symplocaceae) with special reference to fruit morphology by Bo LIU Hai-Ning QIN- Journal of Systematics and Evolution 51 (1): 94–114 (2013), Symplocos lucida (Thunberg) Siebold & Zuccarini, S. kuroki Nagam. and Symplocos theifolia D. Don, all are accepted species with only Symplocos theifolia D. Don found in our area.
So our plant is Symplocos theifolia D. Don only with syn. as per efi page at Symplocos theifolia

.


Symplocos/ABNOV14 and ABDEC21 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (6)

Please refer to my earlier posts of Nov 14 and Dec 21. Yesterday (19.12.14) evening I picked up small branches of both samples with leaves and flowers. Both are most likely Symplocos but may differ at the species level. The darker leaves with fresher white flowers is from my November 21 post and the sample with larger leaves (11cm) and yellowing flowers is from my more recent post. These photos hopefully show the venation, toothed margins, relative sizes/colours and the shape of flowers.

Please advise.


Pl. see earlier threads of Nov 12 (? Symplcos ramosissima) & Dec 12 

Symplocos – species in eFIoraofindia (with details/ keys from published papers/ regional floras/ FRLHT/ FOI/ efloras/ books etc., where ever available)


I will go for Symplocos kuroki H. Nagamasu rather than Symplocos ramosissima Wall. ex G. Don as per images and details herein.


As per Taxonomic revision of the Symplocos nakaharae complex (Symplocaceae) with special reference to fruit morphology by Bo LIU Hai-Ning QIN- Journal of Systematics and Evolution 51 (1): 94–114 (2013), Symplocos lucida (Thunberg) Siebold & Zuccarini, S. kuroki Nagam. and Symplocos theifolia D. Don, all are accepted species with only Symplocos theifolia D. Don found in our area.

So our plant is Symplocos theifolia D. Don only with syn. as per efi page at Symplocos theifolia



/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/DSC_0287-3-1.JPG/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/DSC_0293-9-9-6.JPG/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/CSC_0405.JPG/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/DSC_0211-3.JPG/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/DSC_0296-7.JPG/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/CSC_0403.JPG/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/DSC_0210-2.JPG/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/DSC_0212-2-0.JPG/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/DSC_0285-9.JPG/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/DSC_0214-2.JPG/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/DSC_0209-5.JPG

SK200NOV15-2016:ID : 19 posts by 5 authors. Attachments (15)
Location: Champadevi, Nepal
Altitude:  6000 ft.
Date: 12 November 2016

Have you checked Lauraceae?


Tried all Lauraceae listed in Nepal but could not come to the conclusion.


From the fruits and leaves it appeared to me to be Lauraceae which it is not as the number of stamens in Lauraceae rarely exceed 9 in number.


Any idea about the family ?


A species of Symplocos


Symplocaceae


Is it Symplocos glomerata King ex C. B. Cl.
I guess all description matching according to the link.

Also check with the following:

I think more closer to images & illustrations above to Symplocos ramosissima


I guess the flowering and fruiting period is matching to Symplocos glomerata King ex C. B. Cl. but not to Symplocos ramosissima Wallich on.

There is no mention of flowering and fruiting period in Checklist of Nepal as per the following:

If you are talking of Flora of China, it can not be relied in this matter as it varies from place to place.

What about other aspects as given in the illustrations ?


I guess you are correct.

Nepali Names: दब्दबे  Dabdabe/ खराने Kharaane / थब्थबे Thabthabe/ कौली Kauli

Enclosing the book print of Symplocos found in and around Kathmandu Valley to re confirm the ID validation.

I guess the description and the drawing matches with Symplocos glomerata King ex C.B. Clarke
according to the efn link Symplocos glomerata

Fruit images of Symplocos glomerata look different as per
GBIF specimen

I will go for Symplocos kuroki H. Nagamasu rather than Symplocos ramosissima Wall. ex G. Don as per images and details herein.


As per Taxonomic revision of the Symplocos nakaharae complex (Symplocaceae) with special reference to fruit morphology by Bo LIU Hai-Ning QIN- Journal of Systematics and Evolution 51 (1): 94–114 (2013), Symplocos lucida (Thunberg) Siebold & Zuccarini, S. kuroki Nagam. and Symplocos theifolia D. Don, all are accepted species with only Symplocos theifolia D. Don found in our area.

So our plant is Symplocos theifolia D. Don only with syn. as per efi page at Symplocos theifolia



/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/_DSC0730-1-5.JPG/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/_DSC0723-7.JPG/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/_DSC0727%20-%20Copy.JPG/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/_DSC0726%20-%20Copy.JPG/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/_DSC0729-9.JPG

SK1495 10 Oct 2018 : 5 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (7)- around 400 kb each.
Location:  Nagarkot
Date: 21 August 2018
Elevation:6800 ft.
Habit : Wild 
Is it Symplocos ? Which one ??

Pl. check species available at Symplocos and your earlier postings from Nepal.


I will go with Symplocos kuroki H. Nagamasu (syn: S.thaefolia) only as per keys and comparative images at Symplocos


As per Taxonomic revision of the Symplocos nakaharae complex (Symplocaceae) with special reference to fruit morphology by Bo LIU Hai-Ning QIN- Journal of Systematics and Evolution 51 (1): 94–114 (2013), Symplocos lucida (Thunberg) Siebold & Zuccarini, S. kuroki Nagam. and Symplocos theifolia D. Don, all are accepted species with only Symplocos theifolia D. Don found in our area.

So our plant is Symplocos theifolia D. Don only with syn. as per efi page at Symplocos theifolia


/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/DSC_0258%20copy-4.JPG/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/DSC_0256%20copy-9.JPG/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/DSC_0257%20copy-5.JPG/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/DSC_0260%20copy-9.JPG

SK 2333 20 December 2019 : 13 posts by 2 authors. 8 images- 6 to 8 mb each.
Location: Nagarkot, Bhaktapur
Date: 24 October 2019
Elevation: 2076m.
Habitat: Wild
According to the elevation and phenology, could it be one of Symplocos glomerata King ex C.B.Clarke or Symplocos sumuntia Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don ??

I guess this is the same plant!


May be.


Any suggestion about the ID as I proposed ?


Pl. also check species available at Symplocos and your earlier postings from Nepal.


Difficult!


I will go with Symplocos kuroki H. Nagamasu (syn: S.thaefolia) only as per keys and comparative images at Symplocos


As per Taxonomic revision of the Symplocos nakaharae complex (Symplocaceae) with special reference to fruit morphology by Bo LIU Hai-Ning QIN- Journal of Systematics and Evolution 51 (1): 94–114 (2013), Symplocos lucida (Thunberg) Siebold & Zuccarini, S. kuroki Nagam. and Symplocos theifolia D. Don, all are accepted species with only Symplocos theifolia D. Don found in our area.

So our plant is Symplocos theifolia D. Don only with syn. as per efi page at Symplocos theifolia


That includes Nepal as well I guess.

Thank you …!


Yes, …


/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/Magnolia%20sp%20-1--3.JPG

MS Sept., 2018/20 Magnolia sp. ?? for Id : 13 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (2)

Location : Ailawng, Mizoram

Altitude : ca. 1,200 m.

Date : 13-09-2018
Habit : Evergreen tree
Habitat : Wild

Pl. check comparative images at 


first i cant be sure its a magnolia. would like to see the whole tree and some full face on and backs of the leaves and leaf scars on a twig and now i come to fruits. magnolia fruits are more or less mostly in a capsule or even a cone. only magnolias that have fruits growing in a bunch like fashion is:  Magnolia  sirindhorniae of Thailand but its fruits are very different from our case here.

another candidate in my mind is : magnolia faveolata in vietnam hills on page 56 of this issue 90 of magnolia society:
structure at each fruit top seems to be from the remnant of a flower??? then its not a magnolia. so, what if this not a magnolia at all?
is that a possibility entertained by …??

It may not be Magnolia in my opinion

Any better images?

Symplocos by any means ??

Pl. check Symplocos species as suggested by …
Which are the species reported from your area ?

It might be Symplocos thaefolia

Symplocos theifolia is a syn. of Symplocos kuroki H. Nagamasu as per Catalogue of Life.
Pl. check with images and specimens at
GBIF specimen
To me appears somewhat close, but can not confirm myself with your two images.

Pl. check and confirm.


Further, The Plant List Ver. 1.1 gives Symplocos theifolia D. Don  as a synonym of Symplocos lucida (Thunb.) Siebold & Zucc.
However, Catalogue of Life, considers Symplocos lucida (Thunb.) Siebold & Zucc. also as a syn. of Symplocos kuroki H. Nagamasu
So also check with images in efi at Symplocos lucida

Most of the time it is confusing.

POWO says as below: Species Symplocos theifolia D.Don


Keys in Flora of Bhutan at Symplocos, lead me to Symplocos kuroki

Hi, …, What are the species reported from your area ?


Symplocos cochinchinensis subsp. cochinchinensis & subsp. laurina, S.hookeri, S.paniculata, S.racemosa & S.thaefolia are recorded in Mizoram


Looks different from other species available in efi site.
Also looks different from Symplocos hookeri C. B. Clarke in J. D. Hooker as per FoC illustration and GBIF

So I will go for Symplocos kuroki H. Nagamasu (syn: S.thaefolia) only.


Symplocos cochinchinensis subsp. cochinchinensis & subsp. laurina, S.hookeri, S.paniculata, S.racemosa & S.thaefolia are recorded in Mizoram  


Looks different from other species available in efi site.
Also looks different from Symplocos hookeri C. B. Clarke in J. D. Hooker as per FoC illustration and GBIF

So I will go for Symplocos kuroki H. Nagamasu (syn: S.thaefolia) only.


As per Taxonomic revision of the Symplocos nakaharae complex (Symplocaceae) with special reference to fruit morphology by Bo LIU Hai-Ning QIN- Journal of Systematics and Evolution 51 (1): 94–114 (2013), Symplocos lucida (Thunberg) Siebold & Zuccarini, S. kuroki Nagam. and Symplocos theifolia D. Don, all are accepted species with only Symplocos theifolia D. Don found in our area.

So our plant is Symplocos theifolia D. Don only with syn. as per efi page at Symplocos theifolia


Ravangla,West Sikkim  

/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/green%20cochoa.jpg

Wild fruits from Ravangla,West Sikkim – efloraofindia | Google Groups


 


/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/DSC_0378%20copy-2.JPG/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/DSC_0374%20copy-6.JPG/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/DSC_0380%20copy-7.JPG/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/DSC_0379%20copy-1.JPG/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/DSC_0376%20copy.JPG/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/DSC_0377%20copy-8-4.JPG/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/DSC_0375%20copy.JPG

SK 2424 02 February 2020 : 11 posts by 2 authors. 7 images- 6 to 7 mb each.
Location: Phulchoki
Date: 24 January 2020
Elevation: 1920m.
Habitat: Wild
Which Symplocos??

Pl. check with species already available at Symplocos



Could not find fruiting phenology for this sp.


As per Taxonomic revision of the Symplocos nakaharae complex (Symplocaceae) with special reference to fruit morphology by Bo LIU Hai-Ning QIN- Journal of Systematics and Evolution 51 (1): 94–114 (2013), Symplocos lucida (Thunberg) Siebold & Zuccarini, S. kuroki Nagam. and Symplocos theifolia D. Don, all are accepted species with only Symplocos theifolia D. Don found in our area.
So our plant is Symplocos theifolia D. Don only with syn. as per efi page at Symplocos theifolia


/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/DSC_0175%20copy-9.JPG/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/DSC_0170%20copy-2.JPG/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/DSC_0173%20copy.JPG/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/DSC_0169%20copy-9.JPG/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/DSC_0174%20copy.JPG/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/DSC_0171%20copy.JPG/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/DSC_0172%20copy.JPG

SK 2420 30 January 2020 : 17 posts by 2 authors. 8 images- 5 to 7 mb each.

Location: Godawari
Date: 8 January 2020
Elevation: 2056m.

Habitat: Wild

Synplocos? Drupe look like S.cochinchinensis but plant does not.

Yes, … Appears to be Symplocos species.

It looks like … but could not find listing in Nepal!


On further checking with keys Flora of China, it is not var. cochinchinensis as abaxial side is not red brown pubescent to tomentose, especially on veins (subsp. cochinchinensis).
Keys here lead me to var. laurina only.
Check list of Nepal gives Symplocos cochinchinensis (Lour.) S. Moore with syn. as Symplocos loha Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don (syn. of Symplocos cochinchinensis subsp. laurina (Retz.) Nooteboom as per Catalogue of Life). It further says 500-1500 m; N. India, China and Japan to Malaysia (other subspecies and varieties here and elsewhere).
China (Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hunan, Jiangxi, Jiangsu, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang), Taiwan, Tibet, Cambodia, Ryukyu Isl., Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu), Laos, Australia (Queensland), Java, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Thailand, Sumatra, peninsular Malaysia (rare), Borneo, Sulawesi, Andamans (South Andamans), Bhutan, Darjeeling, India (West Bengal Duars), Myanmar [Burma] (Chin, Mon, Taninthayi, Kachin), Bangladesh as per Catalogue of Life
So it is quite possible that Symplocos cochinchinensis subsp. laurina (Retz.) Nooteboom may be available in Nepal.

I have checked with the national herbarium and they say it is not listed in Nepal.

I am working on it !


Than why they mention Symplocos loha Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don in Check list of Nepal ?


I think Symplocos kuroki only.

Some bigger appearing fruits seems to have been infected.



Thanks, …
Only one species have distribution in India, Bhutan and Nepal as per this publication Taxonomic revision of the Symplocos nakaharae complex (Symplocaceae) with special reference to fruit morphology by Bo LIU Hai-Ning QIN- Journal of Systematics and Evolution 51 (1): 94–114 (2013) (Abstract– Over 70 species and infra specific taxa have been described in the Symplocos nakaharae (Hayata) Masam. complex (Symplocaceae), and the taxonomy of this complex has been controversial.To provide a rational taxonomic revision of the complex, extensive field observations were carried out and approximately 800 herbarium specimens, covering the whole distribution range, were examined to evaluate the taxonomic importance of morphological characteristics. Our studies recognized 13 species and one subspecies, including S. boninensis, S. henryi, S. kawakamii, S. lucida, S. nakaharae, S. migoi, S. multipes, S. pergracilis, S. setchuensis, S. shilanensis, S. tanakae, S. tetragona, S. theifolia, and S. lucida subsp. howii comb. nov. One new combination is made and two new synonyms, S. ernestii Dunn var. pubicalyx C. Chen syn. nov. and S. kuroki Nagam. syn. nov., are recognized. Two identification keys are provided, based primarily on flower and fruit characters. Detailed morphological descriptions and geographical distribution information of the 14 taxa are given.) with details as below:
1. Symplocos theifolia D. Don in Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 145. 1825. non Hayata. 1916. ut ‘theaefolium’. — Eugeniodes theifolium O. K. in Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 409. 1891. ut ‘theaefolium’. —Symplocos racemosa DC. in Prodr.8:255.1844.nonRoxb.1832.necWightexC.B. Clarke. 1882. Type: Nepal. Narainhetty, Hamilton s.n. (holotype, BM!, photo).
  Symplocos phyllocalyx C. B. Clarke in Fl. Brit. India3:575.1882.Type:India.Sikkim,8–12000ft.,J. D. Hooker & c. s.n. (lectoholotype, K!; isolectotypes, M!, photo, W!, photo).
  Symplocos warburgii Brand in Pflanzenr. (Engler) Symploc.6:66.1901.Type:India.Nilgiri,Warburg560 (holotype, B, destroyed).
  Symplocos discolor Brand in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 3: 216. 1906. Type: China. Yunnan, 188806-07,Delavay4331(holotype,P!,photo;isotypes,K!, P!, photo).
  Symplocos wilsonii Brand in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 3: 216. Dec. 1906. non Hemsl. (July 1906). —Symplocos ernestii Dunn in J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 34: 499. 1911. ut ‘ernesti’. —Dicalix ernestii (Dunn) Migo in Bull. Shanghai Sci. Inst. 13 (3): 201. 1943. Type: China.WHupei,1900-04-24,Wilson58(lectoholotype, E!;lectoisotypes,A!,E!,K!,NY!,photo,P!,photo,US!, photo); Sutchuen oriental, District de Tchen-K´eou-Tin, R. P. Farges 796 (lectoparatype, US!, photo).      Symplocos loheri Brand in Philipp. J. Sci. 7: 32. 1912. Type: Philippines. 1906-03-06, A. Loher 6192 (holotype, SING!, photo; isotype, M!, photo).
  Symplocos xanthoxantha H. L´ev. in Bull. G´eogr. Bot. 24: 283. 1914. Type: China. Tibet: Mo-Tsou, 3000 m, 1913-04, E. E. Maire 648 (holotype, E!).
  Symplocos coronigera H.L´ev.inRepert.Spec.Nov. RegniVeg.10:431.1912.Type:China.Kweichou:Majo, 1907-07-24, Cavalerie 3106 (holotype, E!; isotype, P!, photo).
  Symplocos potaninii Gontsch. in Not. Syst. Herb. Hort.Petrop.5:100.1924.Type:China.Szechwan:Mt. Omei, Potanin, 2-4-1893 (holotype & isotype, LE).
  Symplocos elephantis Guillauminin Bull.Soc.Bot. France 71: 279. 1924; Fl. G´en. IndoChine 3: 998. 1933. Type: Cambodia. Kampot, Mts. de l’El´ephant, 1000 m, 1919-09-07, Poilane 239 (syntypes, P!, photo, US!, photo); 900 m, 1919-08-15, Poilane 341 (syntypes, A!, BM!, photo, CAS!, photo, NY!, photo, US!, photo).
  Dicalix shinodanus Migo in Bull. Shanghai Sci. Inst. 13 (3): 205. 1943. Type: China. Yunnan: C. W. Wang 68262 (isotypes, LBG!, NAS!).
 Symplocos ernestii Dunn var. pubicalyx C. Chen syn. nov. in Fl. Yunnan 16: 807 (304–305). 2006. Type: China. Yunnan: Jingdong, M. K. Li 1209 (holotype, KUN!); 1963-06-08, Z. H. Yang et al. s.n. (paratype, KUN!).
Small evergreen trees or shrubs, to 15 m high. Twigs green, glabrous, ridged. Petioles 6–12(–16) mm long; leaf blades leathery, 8–12×2–3cmlong, glabrous on both sides, base cuneate, margin subentire or serrated, apex long acuminate; midvein adaxially prominent, lateral veins 8–12 per side. Inflorescences simple or basally branched, axillary spikes, 0.8–2.5 cm long, axis puberulent; bracts and bracteoles persistent, broadly obovate, 1–3 mm long, often glabrous. Calyx glabrous or puberulent, margin ciliolate,lobes orbicular. Corolla white, 3–5 mm long, deeply 5-lobed. Stamens 15–50, pentadelphous or inconspicuous pentadelphous. Disc soft pilose. Drupes ellipsoidal, 6–15 × 4–7 mm, apex with erect or spread persistent calyx lobes, 3loculed, 1 or 2 locules often fertile, mesocarp woody, endocarp surface smooth, chartaceous.
Distribution and habitat: Bhutan, Cambodia, China (south of the Yangtze River), India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, and Philippines occurring in mixed forests on slopes below 2600 m.
Phenology: Fl. Mar.–May, fr. Jun.–Aug.
Note: Symplocos theifolia own has echinate pollen, adding to its chartaceous endocarp and fertile locules (Fig. 2: L, M). It should be easily separated from other species in the complex.
Wu (1987) considered it different from S. phyllocalyx mainly because “the stones are not divided into 3 pyrenes and the stamens are not obviously pentadelphous”. We checked many specimens and found that the two characters are not consistent among individuals. Apart from that, the two species are indistinguishable, so they should be conspecific. Symplocos ernestii var. pubicalyx was published based on its pubescence on calyx in Flora Yunnanica (Gao, 2006). However, the pubescence should be carefully considered as an identification character in Symplocaceae (Hardin, 1966). After examination of specimens referred in the original description and other specimens in KUN, we found the pubescence on calyx of S. theifolia is not an effective taxonomic character. In fact, both glabrous and pubescence on calyx were found in the same inflorescence, therefore, no obvious correlation exists between the pubescent calyx and the environment. As a result, it is treated as a new synonym here.

So we can use this name for our plants.



/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/%3B-domain%3Dgoogle.com%3B-expires%3DWed--04-Mar-2020-09-54-13-GMT.jpg
/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/%3B-domain%3Dgoogle.com%3B-expires%3DWed--04-Mar-2020-09-54-10-GMT.jpg
/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/Symplocos%20sp.-Lei-dum-%20%20-1-.JPG
MS Feb, 2020/10 Symplocos koroki ? for Id/confirmation : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3)

Location Ailawng, Mizoram

Altitude : ca 1,300 m.
Habit : Evergreen tree

Habitat : Wild


Symplocos hookeri ?


I think S.theifolia.


 


.

References:

Taxonomic revision of the Symplocos nakaharae complex (Symplocaceae) with special reference to fruit morphology by Bo LIU Hai-Ning QIN- Journal of Systematics and Evolution 51 (1): 94–114 (2013) 
POWO  The Plant List Ver.1.1  IPNI  Flora of China (Symplocos lucida (Thunberg) Siebold & Zuccarini) FOC illustration (Symplocos lucida (Thunberg) Siebold & Zuccarini) Check list of Nepal  IIIM  GBIF

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *