Comparative images given below except for genera Exacum, Gentiana & Swertia:

Images by Anurag Sharma and Shahina Shanavas inserted by Gurcharan Singh (Please click links to see details and more images)


Images by Raju Das, inserted by Gurcharan Singh (Please click link to see details)


Images by Alka KhareNidhan SinghPrashant AwaleDinesh Valke (ID Mahadeswara), Satish Nikam and Saroj Kasaju (ID confirmation Nidhan Singh), inserted by Gurcharan Singh (Please click links to see details and more images).

/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/Canscora%20decurrens-%20bud%20-%20Kankeshwar%20DSC04419.jpg/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/Canscora%20decurrens-%20branching%20pattern%20-%20Kankeshwar%20DSC04416.jpg/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/Canscora%20decurrens-%20leaf%20arrangement%20-%20lateral%20-%20Kankeshwar%20DSC04421.jpg /wp-content/uploads/2020/10/Canscora%20decurrens-%20leaf%20arrangement%20-%20top%20view%20-%20Kankeshwar%20DSC04418.jpg
Images by Vijayasankar Raman and Shahina Shanavas, inserted by Gurcharan Singh (Please click links to see details).


Images by Anurag Sharma (ID Surajit Koley), Shahina ShanavasPrashant AwaleDinesh Valke and Prashant Awale, inserted by Gurcharan Singh (Please click links to see details and more images.


Images by Shahina Shanavas, inserted by Gurcharan Singh (Please click link to see details).



Image by Shahina Shanavas, Inserted by Gurcharan Singh (Please click link to see details)





Comastoma pedunculatum (Royle ex G.Don) Holub
Images by Saroj Kasaju (ID confirmation Krishan Lal), Gurinder GorayaGurcharan SinghNarendra JoshiSuresh Rana (ID confirmation Gurcharan Singh), inserted by Gurcharan Singh (Please click links to see details and more images).


Image by Kiran Srivastava, Inserted by Gurcharan Singh (Click link to see details). 




Images by Tanay Bose, inserted by Gurcharan Singh (Click links to see details).


Images by Arvind Kadus (ID Vijayasankar Raman), Gopal Shinde (ID JM Garg), Viplav GangarAditya DharapP. Santhan and Prashant Awale, inserted by Gurcharan Singh (Please click links to see details and more images).


Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf.) Shinners: Images by Marianne de Nazareth (ID Ajinkya Gadave), inserted by Gurcharan Singh (Please click link to see details). 



Fagraea ceilanica Thunb.: Images by Satish PhadkeN Arun (ID Rajesh Sachdev), Badri Narayan (ID Muthu Karthick), HarithasandhyaDinesh Valke and Siva Siva (ID Micheal vdP), inserted by Gurcharan Singh (Please click links to see details and more images).


Fagraea racemosa Jack:  Images by T Chakraborty and Prashant Awale (ID K. Karthigeyan), inserted by Gurcharan Singh (Please click links to see details and more images).



Gentianaceae: Systematics and Natural History edited by Lena Struwe, Victor A. Albert- Details


Gentianaceae is another small family with around 1500 species in nearly 90 genera also mainly concentrated in temperate regions, extending to Alpine and Arctic regions. Nearly 130 species in India.
Annual or perennial herbs, usually glabrous bitter herbs with opposite leaves, rarely alternate, simple, entire, often united at base; stipules absent; flowers solitary or in terminal paniculate clusters; Calyx shallowly or deeply divided; corolla gamopetalous, 3-5 lobed, with or without folds between the lobes, throat naked or fringed with scales; stamens as many as corolla lobes; ovary superior, of two united carpels, usually 1-celled with many ovules; stigma generally 2-lobed; fruit a capsule opening by two valves.
Important genera expected in our uploads:

About 80 genera and 700 species worldwide.
Vegetative Characters : Herbs [shrubs or small trees], annual, biennial, or perennial. Stems ascending, erect, or twining. Leaves opposite, less often alternate or whorled, simple, base connate; stipules absent. Inflorescences simple or complex cymes, sometimes reduced to sessile clusters, often in a thyrse or 1-flowered. Flowers bisexual, rarely unisexual, 4 or 5 (or 6-8)[-12]-merous. Calyx tubular, obconic, campanulate, or rotate, lobes joined at least basally. Corolla tubular, obconic, salverform, funnelform, campanulate, or rotate, rarely with basal spurs; lobes overlapping to right or rarely valvate in bud; plicae (extensions of the corolla tube between the lobes) present or absent. Stamens inserted on corolla tube or occasionally at sinus between corolla lobes, alternate with lobes; anthers basifixed or dorsifixed, 2-locular. Nectaries absent or attached to ovary base or corolla. Ovary usually 1-locular at least apically, rarely 2-locular due to intrusion of a lamellate placenta into locular cavity. Fruit a 2-valved capsule, rarely a berry. Seeds many or rarely few, small; endosperm abundant [scant in saprophytic genera].
Pollination by insects.

I have suppose to be no image except a Exacum sp. previously  posted. I jut mention here the species of this two families recorded from Bangladesh
1.      Canscora decussata
2.      C. diffusa
3.      Erythrea roxburghii
4.      Exacum pedunculatum
5.      E. tetragonum
6.      Hoppea dichotoma 


I have updated all genera eFI (efloraofindia) pages on Gentianaceae (Pl. click).

Attempts have been made to incorporate most of the species available in India & nearby areas with details & keys directly or through links as far as possible. It’s quite possible that there may be some discrepancy in the accepted names & synonyms taken from other links.

Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.

Any comments/ corrections are welcome.


Campanulaceae and Gentianaceae Fortnight: July 1 to 14, 2014-…………………….. : 6 posts by 4 authors.

Our next episode would cover two important families with several representatives in Himalayas and elsewhere. ……………………………………..
I would urge any expert to volunteer for coordinating Gentianaceae. … should be an ideal choice, provided he can devote time to oversee Gentianaceae uploads.

Thanks, …, I will start updating the genera pages on these families, which have not been updated so far.
Currently following genera pages are available in efloraofindia under Gentianaceae (On clicking them one can see the species discussed so far):

Mrs. Shahina Shanavas has just finished revising south Indian Gentianaceae & has agreed to coordinate the Gentianaceae fortnight.
She is already our member since 3.1.12. She will be particularly helpful as far as south Indian species are concerned. We are really thankful to her for this.

It is very good that we now have an expert of Gentianaceae as coordinator. Gentiana is a very diverse genus, particularly in the Himalaya, and I am hoping to see many of them here. Long back in 1980s Dr Sunita Garg revised Gentianaceae of Northwest Himalaya which was an excellent, well illustrated work.

Re: Inserting Gentianaceae : 1 post by 1 author.
I thought of informing you that I have started inserting images of Gentianaceae, starting with Canscora.

Species, genera & family pages of‎‎‎ ‎‎Gentianaceae are now with images : 2 posts by 1 author.
Species, genera & family pages of‎‎‎ ‎‎Gentianaceae are now with images. I request you to pl. go through & point out mistakes, if any. I hope this will aid in identifications in future. If anybody can send images of other species of this family (for incorporation in the website), if any, or can identify unidentified images, it will be really nice.

I am highly thankful to you for sending me all these details and reminding that I did work on Gentianaceae of North West Himalayas. But really sorry to say that for the last 37 years I am out of touch. Only Canscora decussata and Swertia chirayita dry samples come in RHMD for authentication along with so many other drugs. So thanks again for refreshing my memories. I do consult E-flora portal for the identification of other species.



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