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Images by Alok Mahendroo, 2, inserted by Gurcharan Singh (please click links to see details and more images).

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Gentiana capitata subsp. harwanensis (G.Singh) Halda: Images by Gurcharan Singh, Inserted by Gurcharan Singh (Please click link to see details).

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Images by Gurinder Goraya (ID Gurcharan Singh) and Suresh Rana (ID Gurcharan Singh),  inserted by Gurcharan Singh (Please click links to see details and more images).

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Gentiana carinata var. intermedia C.B.Clarke Images by Nidhan Singh (ID Gurcharan Singh), inserted by Gurcharan Singh (Please click link to see details)

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Gentiana clarkei Kusn. : Images by Kishor Nautiyal (ID Gurcharan Singh) and Gurcharan Singh, inserted by Gurcharan Singh (Please click links to see details and more images).

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Gentiana coronata (D.Don ex Royle) Griseb. : Images by Suresh Rana (ID Gurcharan Singh), inserted by Gurcharan Singh (Please click link to see details).

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Gentiana hugelii Griseb.: Gurcharan Singh, inserted by Gurcharan Singh (Please click links to see details).

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Gentiana kurroo Royle : Images by Gurinder GorayaNidhan SinghGurcharan Singh and Balkar Singh, inserted by Gurcharan Singh (Please click links to see details and more images).

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Gentiana leucomelaena Maximowicz ex Kusnezow: Images by Gurcharan Singh and Sayed Nudrat Zawar (ID Gurcharan Singh), inserted by Gurcharan Singh (Please click links to see details and more image).

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Gentiana loureiroi (G. Don) Griseb. (Bhutan to Taiwan: Assam, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Hainan, Laos, Myanmar, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam as per POWO)


Gentiana membranulifera T.N.Ho: Images by Gurinder Goraya and Mohina Macker, inserted by Gurcharan Singh (Please click links to see details and more images).

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Gentiana pedicellata (D. Don) Griseb.: Images by Gurinder Goraya and Nidhan Singh (ID Gurcharan Singh), inserted by Gurcharan Singh (please click links to see details and more images). 

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images by Anurag Sharma (ID Anil Thakur), inserted by Gurcharan Singh (Please click link to see details)

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Gentiana quadrifaria var. zeylanica (Griseb.) Kusn. : Images by Anurag Sharma (ID P. Santhan) and Prabhu Kumar, inserted by Gurcharan Singh (Please click links to see details and more images).

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Gentiana stipitata Edgew.Images by D S Rawat, inserted by Gurcharan Singh (Please click link to see details).

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Gentiana tianschanica Rupr. ex Kusn. :  Images by Suresh Rana (ID by Gurcharan Singh), Gurcharan Singh and Gurinder Goraya (ID by N S Chauhan) inserted by Gurcharan Singh (Please click links to see details and more images)

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Gentiana venusta (G.Don) Wall. ex Griseb.: Images by Gurcharan Singh and D S Rawat, inserted by Gurcharan Singh (Please click links to see details and other images). 

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Winter gentians ABJAN2018/01 : 8 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1)

Oleg Polunin and Adam Stainton list only two winter gentians in Flowers of the Himalaya; Gentiana capitata (Dec.– Apr.) and G. pedicellata (Jan. – Jun.). We have both of these out since late December on our south facing slopes as they prefer a lot of sun. The third and the most common species here G. argentea has been out too for about the same time. Looking at all online records, the flower is listed to flower from April to August. I have been photographing this species for a couple of years now in January, February and March too and perhaps the records need updating for the flowering period.
I am attaching a collage here to give an idea as to how the different species look in flower. The detailed emails will follow to check if all identifications have been correct.
Gentiana species in flower
1800m approx.
These photos: 16-18 January, 2018
Near Dal Lake, Dharamshala, HP

Nice presentation … So far no luck for Dec/Jan capture of images as well as G. argentea.


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A CENSUS OF GENTIANA L. IN INDIA by Sharmistha Gupta, Ambarish Mukherjee and Madhusudan Mondal- ISBN : 978-93-5067-867-1- Systematics of Fiowering Plants. (2012)

Abstract : The present work is an outcome of exhaustive herbarium studies, field survey and scrutiny of literature with enumeration of 62 species of  Gentiana L. (Gentianaceae Juss.) covering 13 varieties under 8 species from India. All the species occur in the Himalayas except G pedicellata (G Don)Griseb. var. wightii Kusn. and G quadrifaria Bl. var. zeylanica (Griseb.) Henry et al. The former species is a resident of Tamil Nadu and the latter two of Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Interestingly G. aprica, G.pedicellata and G. quadrifaria occur in the Himalyas as well as in the peninsular part of India. This work records 9 species of Gentiana L. for the first time from India and 11 species from different states of India. The existence of Gentiana in India is challenged to various degrees as includes 19 endemic and 25 rare species and G. kurroo, G. prainii and G. prolata are considerably endangered. Hence prioritization of the conservation is deemed essential for many of them.  
Checklist (The rare species are indicated with asterix (*) and the endemics are indicated with plus(+) signs.) :
he species of Gentiana recorded during the present work are enumerated in alphabetic order in the form of a check-list with their correct and uptodate names and distribution in India along with the altitudinal ranges.
1. Gentiana albicalyx Burkill; Distrib.: Sikkim, Uttar Pradesh & Uttarakhand; alt.8000-13000 ft
+2. G andersonii Biswas; Distrib.: Sikkim; alt. 5000 – 10000 ft.
*3. G angulosa M.B.; Distrib.: Sikkim; alt. 7000 – 14000 ft.
4. G aprica Decn.; Distrib.: Bihar & Jharkand, Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, TamilNadu, Uttar Pradesh & Uttarakhand; alt. 1500 – 16000ft.
+5. G aquatica L.; Distrib.: Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir; alt. 12000 – 13000 ft.
+5.1. G aquatica L. var. pseudoaquatica (Kusn.) Sunita; Distrib.: Himachal Pradesh, Jammu& Kashmir; alt. 9000 – 13000 ft.
6. G argentea (D. Don) Griseb.; Distrib.: Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Sikkim, UttarPradesh & Uttarakhand; alt. 5000 – 14000 ft.
+6.1. Gentiana argentea (D.Don) Griseb. var. albescens Forbes & Hemsley; Distrib.: Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh & Uttaranchal; alt. 7000 – 13000 ft.
*7. G axillaries (F.M. Schmidt) Murb.; Distrib.:Jammu & Kashmir; 4000 – 6000ft.
*8. G brevidens Regel; Distrib.:Sikkim, alt. 12000-13000 ft.
9. G bryoides Burkill; Distrib.: Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, West Bengal; alt. 13000 ft.
*10. G burkillii U. Smith; Distrib. Jammu & Kashmir; alt. 13000-15000 ft.
II. G. cachemerica Decne. Distrib.: Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir; alt.11000-14400 ft.
12. G capitata Buch.- Ham. ex D. Don; Distrib.: Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir,Manipur, Meghalaya, Sikkim, Uttar Pradesh & Uttarakhand, West Bengal; alt. 4000- 15000 ft.
12.1. G. capitata Buch. – Ham. ex D. Don var. andersonii (Clarke) Clarke; Distrib.: India: Sikkim, Uttar Pradesh & Uttarakhand; around alt.6000 ft.
12.2. G capitata Buch. – Ham. ex D. Don var. strobiliformis Clarke; Distrib.: Sikkim, Uttar Pradesh & Uttarakhand; alt. 9500-11000 ft.
13. G carinata (D. Don) Griseb.; Distrib.:Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, Uttar-Pradesh & Uttarakhand; alt. 8000 – 14000 ft.
+13.1. G carinata (D. Don) Griseb. var. intermedia Clarke; Distrib.: Jammu & Kashmir, UttarPradesh & Uttarakhand; alt. 9000-10000ft.
14. G cephalodes Edgew.; Distrib.: Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh & Uttarakhand; alt.4000-7500 ft.
*15. G clarkei Kusn.; Distrib.: Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh &Uttarakhand; alt. 9000 – 13500ft.
16. G coronata Royle; Distrib.: Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh &Uttaranchal; alt. 9000- 16500ft.
17. G crassicaulis Duthie; Distrib.: Himachal-Pradesh, Sikkim; alt. 14000- 17000 ft.
18. G crassuloides Bureau et  Franchet; Distrib.:Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Sikkim,Uttar Pradesh & Uttarakhand; alt. 11000 – 17000 ft.
19. G decemfida Buch.- Ham. ex D. Don; Distrib.: Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Sikkim, UttarPradesh & Uttarakhand; alt.4000 – 8000 ft.
*20. G decumbens L. f.; Distrib.: Himachal Pradesh; alt. 10000-12000 ft.
21. G harwanensis Gurcharan Singh; Distrib.: Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, UttarPradesh & Uttarakhand; alt. 9000 – 12000 ft.
22. G hugelii Griseb.; Distrib.: Himachal-Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh &Uttarakhand; alt. 9000 – 13000 ft.
*23. G ftuntilis Steven ex Bunge; Distrib.: Sikkim; alt. 15,000-18,000ft.
24. G huxleyi Kusn.; Distrib.:Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh & Uttarakhand; alt.4000 -12000ft.
25. G infelix Clarke; Distrib.: Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Uttar Pradesh & Uttarakhand; alt. 12000-15000 ft.
*26. G karelinii Griseb.; Distrib.: Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir; alt. 10000-12000 ft..
27. G kurroo Royle; Distrib.: Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh &Uttarakhand; alt. 3500 – 12000 ft.
*28. G lacerulata H.Smith; Distrib.:Assam, Sikkim; alt. 15000 ft.
29. G leucomelaena Maxim, ex Kusn.; Distrib.: Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, UttarPradesh & Uttaranchal; alt. 4000 – 17000 ft.
*30. G listen Burkill; Distrib.: Sikkim, West-Bengal (Darjeeling); alt. 5000 – 7000 ft.
*31. G loderi Hook,f.; Distrib.: Jammu & Kashmir; alt. 12000 – 14000 ft.
32. G marginata (D. Don) Griseb.; Distrib.:Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab,Uttar Pradesh & Uttarakhand; alt. 8000 – 17000 ft.
+32.1. G marginata (D. Don) Griseb. var. recurvata Kusn.; Distrib: Jammu & Kashmir; aroundalt. 13,000ft.
*+33. G meiantha Clarke; Distrib.: Sikkim; alt. 12000 – 15000 ft.
*34. G micans Clarke; Distrib.: Sikkim; around alt. 15000 ft.
35. G micantiformis Burkill; Distrib.: Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Uttar Pradesh & Uttaranchal; alt.12000-13000 ft.
*+36. G minuta N.E.Brown Distrib.: Sikkim; around alt. 14000 ft.
37. G napulifera Franchet; Distrib.: India: Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim; alt4000-6000 ft.
38. G nudicaulis Kurz; Distrib.: Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim; alt. 3000 -8000ft.
*39. G oliveri Griseb.; Distrib.: Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir; around alt. 6000 ft.
*40. G parryae Marquand; Distrib.: Assam; alt.4000 – 5000 ft.
41. G pedicellata (D. Don) Griseb.; Distrib.: Arunachal Pradesh., Assam,Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Punjab, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh & Uttarakhand, West Bengal; alt. 3000 – 12000 ft.
41.1. G pedicellata (D. Don) Griseb. var. pilosa Kusn.; Distrib.: Sikkim, West Bengal; alt. 6000-7000 ft.
41.2. G pedicellata (D.Don) Griseb. var. wallichi Kusn.; Distrib.: Himachal Pradesh, UttarPradesh & Uttarakhand; around alt. 6000 ft.
+41.3. G pedicellata (D.Don) Griseb. var. wightii Kusn.; Distrib.: Tamil Nadu; alt.4500-6000 ft.
*+42. G pharica Burkill; Distrib.: Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim; around alt. 14000 ft.
*43. G phyllocatyx Clarke; Distrib.: Sikkim; alt. 10000 – 18000 ft.
*+44. G pluviarum W.W.Smith; Distrib.: Sikkim; alt. 12000 – 14000 ft..
45. G prainii Burkill; Distrib.: Sikkim; alt. 12000-14000 ft.
46. G prolata Balf. f.\ Distrib.: Sikkim; alt. 10000 – 14000 ft.
+47. G prostrata Haenke; Distrib.: Jammu & Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh & Uttarakhand; alt. 10000-15500 ft.
+47.1. G prostrata Haenke var. acuminata (Clarke) Sunita; Distrib.: Himachal Pradesh, Jammu& Kashmir,Uttar Pradesh & Uttarakhand; alt. 11000 – 13 000 ft.
*47.2. G prostrata Haenke var. mangolica Kusn.; Distrib.: Jammu & Kashmir; alt.13000-14000 ft.
48. G pseudohumilis Burkill; Distrib.: Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Sikkim, UttarPradesh & Uttarakhand; alt. 15,000-18,000 ft.
*+49. G pulmonaria Turez.; Distrib.: Jammu & Kashmir; alt. 15000 – 16000 ft.
50. G quadrifaria Bl.; Distrib.: Assam, Jammu & Kashmir, Kerala, Meghalaya, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal; alt. 7500 – 8000 ft.
*50.1. G quadrifaria Bl. var. pilosula Clarke; Distrib.: Sikkim; alt. 6000-8000ft.
+50.2 G quadrifaria Bl. var. zeylanica (Griseb.) Henry; Distrib.: Kerala, Tamil Nadu; alt.6000-8000ft.
*51. G recurvata Clarke; Distrib.: Sikkim; alt. 9000 – 12000ft.
*52. G riparia Kar. & Kir.; Distrib.: Sikkim; around alt. 9000 ft.
53. G robusta King ex Hook.; Distrib.: Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Sikkim; around alt. 15000 ft.
*+54. G saginoides Burkill; Distrib.: Uttar Pradesh & Uttarakhand; around alt. 10000 ft.
*+55. G sibirica (Kusn.) Grossh; Distrib.: Jammu & Kashmir; alt. 10000 – 12000 ft.
56. G sororcula Burkill; Distrib.: Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim; alt. 10000- 11000 ft.
57. G squarrosa Ledeb; Distrib.: Jammu & Kashmir, Sikkim; around alt. 12000 ft.
*+58. G straminea Maxim; Distrib’: Sikkim; alt. 8000 – 10000 ft.
*59. G stylosa Biswas; Distrib.: Sikkim; around alt. 10,000 ft.*
+60. G tetrasepala Biswas; Distrib.: Uttar Pradesh & Uttarakhand; alt. 4000-5000m.
61. G tianshanica Rupr.; Distrib.: Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh &Uttarakhand; alt. 10000 – 15000 ft.
62. G tibetica King ex Hook.f.; Distrib.: Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim; alt. 10000 – 14000 ft.

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Indian Gentianaceae: A Check-list By Sunita Garg (1988): With distribution:
1. Gentiana albicalyx Burkill;
2. Gentiana algida var. nubigena (Edgew.) Kusn. is a synonym of Gentiana nubigena Edgew.
3. Gentiana algida var. parviflora (C.B.Clarke) Kusn.is a synonym of Gentiana himalayensis T.N.Ho
4. Gentiana amplicrater Burkill
5. G aprica Decn.;
6. G aquatica L.;
6.1. G aquatica L. var. pseudoaquatica (Kusn.) Sunita;
7. G argentea (D. Don) Griseb.;
7.1. Gentiana argentea (D.Don) Griseb. var. albescens Forbes & Hemsley;
8. G bryoides Burkill;
9. G. cachemerica Decne.
10. G capitata Buch.- Ham. ex D. Don;
11. G cephalodes Edgew.;
12. Gentiana cephalodes var. andersonii (C.B.Clarke) S.Agrawal & U.C.Bhattach. is a synonym of Gentiana capitata Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don
13. G coronata Royle;
14. G crassuloides Bureau et Franchet;
15. G decemfida Buch.- Ham. ex D. Don;
17. Gentiana elwesii C.B.Clarke
18. Gentiana emodi C.Marquand ex Sealy
19. Gentiana glabriuscula Harry Sm. ex T.N.Ho
20. G harwanensis Gurcharan Singh;
21. G infelix Clarke;
22. G kurroo Royle;
23. G lacerulata H.Smith;
24. G leucomelaena Maxim, ex Kusn.;
25. G listeri Burkill;
26. G marginata (D. Don) Griseb.;
26.1. Gentiana marginata var. hugelii (Griseb.) S.Agrawal is a synonym of Gentiana hugelii Griseb.
26.2. G marginata (D. Don) Griseb. var. recurvata Kusn.;
27. G meiantha Clarke;
28. G micans Clarke;
29. G micantiformis Burkill;
30. G minuta N.E.Brown
31. G napulifera Franchet;
32. G nudicaulis Kurz;
33. Gentiana ornata (D.Don) Wall. ex Griseb.
34. G parryae Marquand;
35. G pedicellata (D. Don) Griseb.;
35.1. Gentiana pedicellata var. rosulata Kusn.is a
synonym of Gentiana loureiroi (G.Don) Griseb.;
35.2. G pedicellata (D.Don) Griseb. var. wightii Kusn.;
36. G pharica Burkill;
37. G phyllocatyx Clarke;
38. G pluviarum W.W.Smith;
39. G prainii Burkill;
40. G prolata Balf.f.
41. G prostrata Haenke;
41.1. G prostrata Haenke var. acuminata (Clarke) Sunita;
41.2. G prostrata Haenke var. mangolica Kusn.;
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Binomial Habit Notes References Distribution
Gentiana
pedicellata
Griseb.var. wightii Kusnezov
Herb Western Ghats,
Evergreen Forests, Grasslands
Flora of Tamil
Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Coimbatore,
Dindigul, Nilgiri, Tirunelveli
Gentiana quadrifaria Blume var. zeylanica (Griseb.) Kusnezov Herb Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests, Grasslands
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Coimbatore,
Dindigul ,Nilgiri, Theni ,  Tirunelveli

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Botanical name Synonyms Family Common name
Gentiana argentea Gentianodes argentea, Ericala argentea Gentianaceae Silvery Gentian
Gentiana capitata Ciminalis capitata, Gentiana andersonii, Gentiana baconi Gentianaceae Clustered Gentian
Gentiana carinata Gentianaceae Dark Blue Gentian
Gentiana hugelii Qaisera hugelii, Gentiana marginata var. hugelii Gentianaceae Hugel’s Gentian
Gentiana kurroo Gentianaceae Himalayan Gentian
Gentiana leucomelaena Gentiana leucomelaena var. pusilla, Gentiana leucomelaena var. alba Gentianaceae Blue-Dotted Gentian
Gentiana marginata Gentianaceae Clustered Summer Gentian
Gentiana ornata Gentianodes ornata, Pneumonanthe ornata Gentianaceae Decorated Gentian
Gentiana pedicellata Ericala pedicellata, Gentiana pedicellata var. wallichii Gentianaceae Purple Stalked Gentian
Gentiana phyllocalyx Gentianaceae Leaf-Sepal Gentian
Gentiana sino-ornata Gentianaceae Chinese Gentian
Gentiana squarrosa Ciminalis squarrosa, Ericala squarrosa Gentianaceae Overlapping-Leaves Gentian
Gentiana stylophora Megacodon stylophorus Gentianaceae Yellow Gentian Lily
Gentiana tianschanica Gentiana regelii, Gentianodes tianschanica Gentianaceae Tian-Shan Gentian
Gentiana urnula Gentianaceae Urn-shaped Gentian

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1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants edited by Kerry Scott Walter, Harriet J. Gillett
Gentiana cachemirica Decne.- Endangered- Jammu & Kashmir
Gentiana crassuloides– rare- Sikkim & Arunachal & Uttar Pradesh 
Gentiana infelix –  rare- Sikkim & Himachal & Uttar Pradesh
Gentiana saginoides Burkill- Rare- Meghalaya

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Gentiana :  1 post by 1 author.

I have updated eFI (efloraofindia) page on Gentiana

Attempts have been made to incorporate most of the species available in India & nearby areas with details & keys directly or through links as far as possible. It’s quite possible that there may be some discrepancy in the accepted names & synonyms taken from other links.

Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.

If someone can provide complete list of Indian species with source references it will be wonderful.

Any comments/ corrections are welcome.


Pl. go through Gentiana (‎‎‎‎‎‎‎‎‎‎‎Gentianaceae‎) page with images of species in efloraofindia.

If you find any incorrect identification, pl. let us know. If anybody can send images of other species of this genera (for incorporation in the website), if any, or can identify unidentified images, it will be really nice.

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May I request you to check comparative images of Gentiana species at Gentiana
Pl. point out if there is any mistake.

I am not getting permission to comment on Gentiana on the website eflora of india.


You can point out the mistake through mail to me by going to species page and giving link of the thread from there.


Please find this literature
Attachments (1)-  Shabir_Gentiana.pdf- 640 kb.

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