Heracleum species in India:
  1. Heracleum aquilegifolium C.B.Clarke (syn. of Tetrataenium aquilegifolium (C. B. Cl.) I. P. Mandenova– India (W-Ghats (Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu)) as per Catalogue of Life)
  2. H. biternatum W.W.Sm. (India (NE-India), Myanmar [Burma] (Shan) as per Catalogue of Life)
  3. H. burmanicum Kurz (syn. of Tetrataenium burmanicum (Kurz) I. P. Mandenova– India (Assam), Myanmar [Burma] (Bago), Thailand as per Catalogue of Life)
  4. H. cachemiricum C.B.Clarke (syn. of Tricholaser cachemiricum (C. B. Cl.) R. Alava– Pakistan (Chitral, Swat, Hazara, Murree), Jammu & Kashmir (Poonch, Kashmir), India (W-Himalaya) as per Catalogue of Life)
  5. H. candicans Wall. ex DC. (China (W-Sichuan, Yunnan, Qinghai), S-Tibet, India (Himalayas), Jammu & Kashmir (Kashmir), Nepal, Pakistan (Swat, Hazara, Murree), Bhutan, Myanmar [Burma] (Mandalay, Shan) as per Catalogue of Life)
  6. H. candolleanum Gamble (syn. of Tetrataenium rigens (Wall. ex DC.) Manden.)
  7. H. canescens Lindl. (NW-India (W-Himalaya, Kumaon), Jammu & Kashmir (Kashmir), Pakistan (Swat, Murree), Nepal as per Catalogue of Life)
  8. H. ceylanicum (Gardner) C.B.Clarke (syn. of Tetrataenium ceylanicum (Gardn. ex C. B. Cl.) I. P. Mandenova– Sri Lanka, India (SW-Ghats (Tamil Nadu)) as per Catalogue of Life)
  9. H. courtallense Gamble (syn. of Tetrataenium rigens (Wall. ex DC.) Manden.)
  10. H. dalgadianum S.M.Almeida (India (NW-Ghats (Maharashtra)) as per Catalogue of Life)
  11. H. grande (Dalzell & A.Gibson) Mukhop. (India (NW-Ghats (Maharashtra)) as per Catalogue of Life)
  12. H. hookerianum Wight & Arn. (syn. of Tetrataenium hookerianum (Wight & Arnott) I. P. Mandenova– India (SW-Ghats (Nilgiris)) as per Catalogue of Life)
  13. H. jacquemontii C.B.Clarke (NW-India (W-Himalaya) as per Catalogue of Life)
  14. H. lallii C.Norman (syn. of Tetrataenium lallii (C.Norman) Cauwet, Carb. & Farille– India (C-Himalaya), Nepal as per Catalogue of Life)
  15. H. lanatum Michx = H. sphondylium subsp. montanum (Schleich. ex Gaudin) Briq.- C-Europe, Slovenia, Japan, Russian Far East (Kuril Isl., Sakhalin, Kamchatka), Aleutes, Alaska, USA (Arizona, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Iowa, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, North Carolina, North Dakota, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, Nevada, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Tennessee, Utah, Virginia, Vermont, Washington State, Wisconsin, West Virginia, Wyoming), Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, Labrador, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Northern Territories, Ontario, Prince Edward Isl., Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon), St. Pierre et Miquelon as per Catalogue of Life)
  16. H. nepalense D.Don (syn. of Tetrataenium nepalense (Don) I. P. Mandenova– China (Yunnan), Tibet, Bhutan, Myanmar [Burma], Nepal, India (E-Himalaya, Kumaon, Assam, Darjeeling, etc.), Sikkim, Darjeeling, Chumbi as per Catalogue of Life)
  17. H. obtusifolium Wall. ex DC. (synonym of H. candicans var. obtusifolium (Wall. ex DC.) F.T.Pu & M.F.Watson- China (W-Sichuan, Yunnan), S-Tibet, Bhutan, N-India (E-Himalaya), Nepal, Sikkim as per Catalogue of Life)
  18. H. pinnatum C.B.Clarke (India (W-Himalaya), Pakistani Kashmir (Gilgit, Astor, Baltistan), Jammu & Kashmir (Nubra, Dras, Ladakh, Zanskar, Kashmir), Tibet as per Catalogue of Life)
  19. H. rigens DC. (syn. of Tetrataenium rigens (Wall. ex DC.) Manden.– India (SW-Ghats) as per Catalogue of Life)
  20. H. sphondylium L. (Albania, Austria, Liechtenstein, Belgium, Bosnia & Hercegovina, England, Montenegro, Czech Republic, Slovenia, Croatia, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland (incl. Northern Ireland), Netherlands, Spain, Hungary, Italy, Portugal, Macedonia, Norway, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Sweden, Ukraine, Belarus, Finland (I), Haiti (I), Dominican Republic (I), Bolivia (I), Bhutan (I), Sikkim (I), Chumbi (I) as per Catalogue of Life)
  21. H. sprengelianum Wight & Arn. (syn. of Tetrataenium sprengelianum (Wight & Arnott) I. P. Mandenova– India (W-Ghats)  as per Catalogue of Life)
  22. H. sublineare C.B.Clarke (syn. of Tetrataenium sublineare (C. B. Cl.) I. P. Mandenova– India (C- to E-Himalaya, Darjeeling), Bhutan, Nepal, Sikkim, Chumbi, Tibet as per Catalogue of Life)
  23. H. wallichii DC. (syn. of Tetrataenium wallichii (DC.) I. P. Mandenova– India (E-Himalaya), Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim, Chumbi as per Catalogue of Life)
  24. H. woodii M.F.Watson  (syn. of Tetrataenium bivittatum (C. B. Cl.) I. P. Mandenova– China (Guangxi, Guizhou, SW-Sichuan, W-Yunnan, S-Yunnan), Vietnam, Laos, Bhutan, Sikkim, Nepal, India (C- & E-Himalaya) as per Catalogue of Life)
References:
  1. Karthikeyan, S., Sanjappa, M. and Moorthy, S. 2009. Flowering Plants of India, Dicotyledons, vol-I (Acanthaceae- Avicenniaceae). Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata. Pp. 109-111-290.
  2. eFI page (and references therein) 


  
Keys from flora of Bhutan:
l. Leaves white tomentose beneath; leaflets rounded to sub-orbicular, obtuse …… 1. H. obtusifolium (synonym of H. candicans var. obtusifolium (Wall. ex DC.) F.T.Pu & M.F.Watson)
+ Leaves pubescent but not white tomentose beneath; leaflets subacute, acute or acuminate . . .. 2
2. Leaves moderately to densely covered in coarse hairs; flowers yellow …….  2. H. bhutanicum
+ Leaves hairy but not with coarse hairs; flowers white . . . . .. 3
3. Plants slender, erect to ascending, less than 80cm tall  . . .. 4
+ Plants stout, erect, usually more than lm tall  . . . .. 5 
4. Petals of outer flowers greatly expanded; leaflets of middle and upper leaves linear, usually less than 0.8mm wide, glabrous above excepting the midrib, sparsely pubescent below, concentrated on the main veins ………  3. H. sublineare (syn. of Tetrataenium sublineare (C. B. Cl.) I. P. Mandenova)
+ Radiant petals not so greatly expanded; leaflets of middle and upper leaves ovate-lanceolate, usually more than 0.8mm wide, moderately hairy above and below  . . . .. 4. H. wallichii (syn. of Tetrataenium wallichii (DC.) I. P. Mandenova
5. Stems with coarse white hairs; calyx teeth absent; vittae on outer face extending to just below middle of main body of fruit ……… 5. H. sphondylium agg.
+ Stems finely hairy but without coarse white hairs; calyx teeth present; vittae on outer face extending to the whole length of main body of fruit . … 6
6. Flowers white; main umbels more than 30-rayed, distinctly overtopped by a pair of subtending secondary lateral umbels .  . . 6. H. nepalense (syn. of Tetrataenium nepalense (Don) I. P. Mandenova)
+ Flowers yellowish-green; main umbels less than 25-rayed, not overtopped by the solitary subtending lateral umbel .. . .. 7. H. woodii (syn. of Tetrataenium bivittatum (C. B. Cl.) I. P. Mandenova)

Heracleum candicans Wall. ex DC. (Images by Amit Chauhan (Id by Gurcharan Singh), Gurcharan Singh (Inserted by J.M.Garg), Alok Mahendroo (For more photos & complete details, click on the links))


Heracleum canescens Lindl. (Images by Gurcharan Singh & Nidhan Singh (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more photos & complete details, click on the links))


 

Heracleum grande (Dalzell & A. Gibson) Mukhop. (Images by Radha Veach (Id by Dinesh Valke & Neil Soares) & Alka Khare (Id by Neil Soares) (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more photos & complete details, click on the links))

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Heracleum pinnatum C.B.Clarke (Images by Prashant Awale (Id by Gurcharan Singh) (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more photos & complete details, click on the links))

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Tetrataenium aquilegifolium (C.B.Clarke) Manden. (India (W-Ghats (Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu)) as per Catalogue of Life)


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Tetrataenium nepalense (Don) I. P. Mandenova (China (Yunnan), Tibet, Bhutan, Myanmar [Burma], Nepal, India (E-Himalaya, Kumaon, Assam, Darjeeling, etc.), Sikkim, Darjeeling, Chumbi as per Catalogue of Life)


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Tetrataenium rigens (Wall. ex DC.) Manden. (India (SW-Ghats) as per Catalogue of Life)


Images by Joby Joseph (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more photos & complete details, click on the links)

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Binomial Habit Notes References Distribution




































































Heracleum
aquilegifolium
Clarke (syn. of Tetrataenium aquilegifolium (C. B. Cl.) I. P. Mandenova– India (W-Ghats (Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu)) as per Catalogue of Life)
Herb Western Ghats,
Evergreen Forests
Flora of Tamil
Nadu, VOL. I, 1983; Gamble, 1957
Coimbatore
Heracleum candolleanum (Wight & Arn.)
Gamble (syn. of Tetrataenium rigens (Wall. ex DC.) Manden.)
Herb Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983; Gamble, 1957
Coimbatore,
Dindigul, Kanniyakumari,  Nilgiri
Heracleum ceylanicum Gard. ex Clarke (syn. of Tetrataenium ceylanicum (Gardn. ex C. B. Cl.) I. P. Mandenova– Sri Lanka, India (SW-Ghats (Tamil Nadu)) as per Catalogue of Life) Herb Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests, Marsh Localities
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983
Dindigul
Heracleum courtallense Gamble (syn. of Tetrataenium rigens (Wall. ex DC.) Manden.) Herb Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983; Gamble, 1957
 Nilgiri, Theni, Tirunelveli
Heracleum hookerianum Wight & Arn. (syn. of Tetrataenium hookerianum (Wight & Arnott) I. P. Mandenova– India (SW-Ghats (Nilgiris)) as per Catalogue of Life) Herb Western
Ghats,  Evergreen Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983
Nilgiri
Heracleum rigens Wall ex DC. var. multiradiatum Gamble (syn. of Tetrataenium rigens (Wall. ex DC.) Manden.– India (SW-Ghats) as per Catalogue of Life) Herb Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983; Gamble, 1957
Dindigul,
Nilgiri
Heracleum rigens Wall ex DC. var. rigens (syn. of Tetrataenium rigens (Wall. ex DC.) Manden.– India (SW-Ghats) as per Catalogue of Life) Herb Western
Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Evergreen Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983; Matthew, 1983
Coimbatore,  Dharmapuri, Dindigul, Kanniyakumari,
Nilgiri, Salem, Tiruchchirappalli, Tirunelveli 
Heracleum rigens Wall ex. DC. var. elongatum Gamble (syn. of Tetrataenium rigens (Wall. ex DC.) Manden.– India (SW-Ghats) as per Catalogue of Life) Herb Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983
Dindigul
Heracleum sprengelianum Wight & Arn. (syn. of Tetrataenium sprengelianum (Wight & Arnott) I. P. Mandenova– India (W-Ghats)  as per Catalogue of Life) Herb Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983
Coimbatore,
Dindigul, Nilgiri, Theni, Virudhunagar


 


Heracleum cachemiricum C.B. CLARKE (syn. of Tricholaser cachemiricum (C. B. Cl.) R. Alava– Pakistan (Chitral, Swat, Hazara, Murree), Jammu & Kashmir (Poonch, Kashmir), India (W-Himalaya) as per Catalogue of Life)
 
 
 
Heracleum nepalense D.DON. (syn. of Tetrataenium nepalense (Don) I. P. Mandenova– China (Yunnan), Tibet, Bhutan, Myanmar [Burma], Nepal, India (E-Himalaya, Kumaon, Assam, Darjeeling, etc.), Sikkim, Darjeeling, Chumbi as per Catalogue of Life)
Heracleum pinda DALZ. (conspecific with Pinda concanensis (Dalzell) P.K. Mukh. & Constance)
 
 
Heracleum wallichii DC. (syn. of Tetrataenium wallichii (DC.) I. P. Mandenova– India (E-Himalaya), Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim, Chumbi as per Catalogue of Life)
 


 

Species with description &
pictures in Flowers of India
as on 18.10.14: 






Botanical name Synonyms Family Common name



Heracleum candicans Apiaceae White-Leaf Hogweed
Heracleum canescens Heracleum hirsutum, Heracleum cinereum Asteraceae Grey-Hairy Hogweed
Heracleum nepalense (syn. of Tetrataenium nepalense (Don) I. P. Mandenova) Apiaceae Nepal Hogweed


 
Heracleum cachemiricum C.B. Clarke in Hook. f. (syn. of Tricholaser cachemiricum (C. B. Cl.) R. Alava– Pakistan (Chitral, Swat, Hazara, Murree), Jammu & Kashmir (Poonch, Kashmir), India (W-Himalaya) as per Catalogue of Life)
 
Heracleum lallii C. Norman (No distribution given in India) (syn. of Tetrataenium lallii (C.Norman) Cauwet, Carb. & Farille– India (C-Himalaya), Nepal as per Catalogue of Life)
Heracleum nepalense D. Don (syn. of Tetrataenium nepalense (Don) I. P. Mandenova– China (Yunnan), Tibet, Bhutan, Myanmar [Burma], Nepal, India (E-Himalaya, Kumaon, Assam, Darjeeling, etc.), Sikkim, Darjeeling, Chumbi as per Catalogue of Life)
Heracleum obtusifolium Wall. ex DC. (synonym of H. candicans var. obtusifolium (Wall. ex DC.) F.T.Pu & M.F.Watson- China (W-Sichuan, Yunnan), S-Tibet, Bhutan, N-India (E-Himalaya), Nepal, Sikkim as per Catalogue of Life)
Heracleum sublineare C. B. Clarke (No distribution given) (syn. of Tetrataenium sublineare (C. B. Cl.) I. P. Mandenova– India (C- to E-Himalaya, Darjeeling), Bhutan, Nepal, Sikkim, Chumbi, Tibet as per Catalogue of Life)
Heracleum wallichii DC. (syn. of Tetrataenium wallichii (DC.) I. P. Mandenova– India (E-Himalaya), Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim, Chumbi as per Catalogue of Life)
Heracleum woodii M. F. Watson (No distribution given) (syn. of Tetrataenium bivittatum (C. B. Cl.) I. P. Mandenova– China (Guangxi, Guizhou, SW-Sichuan, W-Yunnan, S-Yunnan), Vietnam, Laos, Bhutan, Sikkim, Nepal, India (C- & E-Himalaya) as per Catalogue of Life)


 
Heracleum nepalense D. Don (syn. of Tetrataenium nepalense (Don) I. P. Mandenova– China (Yunnan), Tibet, Bhutan, Myanmar [Burma], Nepal, India (E-Himalaya, Kumaon, Assam, Darjeeling, etc.), Sikkim, Darjeeling, Chumbi as per Catalogue of Life)


 
1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants edited by Kerry Scott Walter, Harriet J. Gillett –
Heracleum aquilegifolium C.B.Clarke- Indeterminate- Karnataka & Tamilnadu (syn. of Tetrataenium aquilegifolium (C. B. Cl.) I. P. Mandenova– India (W-Ghats (Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu)) as per Catalogue of Life)


 
Forest Plants of Eastern India By Amal Bhusan Chaudhuri (1993)- Brief details-
Heracleum nepalense D. Don (syn. of Tetrataenium nepalense (Don) I. P. Mandenova– China (Yunnan), Tibet, Bhutan, Myanmar [Burma], Nepal, India (E-Himalaya, Kumaon, Assam, Darjeeling, etc.), Sikkim, Darjeeling, Chumbi as per Catalogue of Life)
Heracleum numbigeneum C.B.Clarke
Heracleum obtusifolium Wall. ex DC. (synonym of H. candicans var. obtusifolium (Wall. ex DC.) F.T.Pu & M.F.Watson- China (W-Sichuan, Yunnan), S-Tibet, Bhutan, N-India (E-Himalaya), Nepal, Sikkim as per Catalogue of Life)
Heracleum sublineare C. B. Clarke (syn. of Tetrataenium sublineare (C. B. Cl.) I. P. Mandenova– India (C- to E-Himalaya, Darjeeling), Bhutan, Nepal, Sikkim, Chumbi, Tibet as per Catalogue of Life)
Heracleum wallichii DC. (syn. of Tetrataenium wallichii (DC.) I. P. Mandenova– India (E-Himalaya), Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim, Chumbi as per Catalogue of Life)


 
An Excursion Flora of Central Tamilnadu, India By K. M. Matthew (1995)- Details with keys
 
Medicinal Plants By Alice Kurian, M. Asha Sankar (2007)- Brief details-
Heracleum nepalense D. Don  (syn. of Tetrataenium nepalense (Don) I. P. Mandenova– China (Yunnan), Tibet, Bhutan, Myanmar [Burma], Nepal, India (E-Himalaya, Kumaon, Assam, Darjeeling, etc.), Sikkim, Darjeeling, Chumbi as per Catalogue of Life)
Heracleum wallichii DC. (syn. of Tetrataenium wallichii (DC.) I. P. Mandenova– India (E-Himalaya), Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim, Chumbi as per Catalogue of Life)


 
Indian Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated Dictionary edited by C.P. Khare (2007)- Brief details-
  
Floristic Diversity and Conservation Strategies in India: Angiosperms (selested groups) and ethnobotany by

V. Mudgal, P. K. Hajra –Botanical Survey of India, Ministry of Environment and Forests, 2001-

Heracleum burmanicum C.B.Clarke (syn. of Tetrataenium burmanicum (Kurz) I. P. Mandenova– India (Assam), Myanmar [Burma] (Bago), Thailand as per Catalogue of Life)
Heracleum cachemiricum C.B. Clarke in Hook. f. (syn. of Tricholaser cachemiricum (C. B. Cl.) R. Alava– Pakistan (Chitral, Swat, Hazara, Murree), Jammu & Kashmir (Poonch, Kashmir), India (W-Himalaya) as per Catalogue of Life)
Heracleum nepalense D. Don  (syn. of Tetrataenium nepalense (Don) I. P. Mandenova– China (Yunnan), Tibet, Bhutan, Myanmar [Burma], Nepal, India (E-Himalaya, Kumaon, Assam, Darjeeling, etc.), Sikkim, Darjeeling, Chumbi as per Catalogue of Life)
Heracleum obtusifolium Wall. ex DC. (synonym of H. candicans var. obtusifolium (Wall. ex DC.) F.T.Pu & M.F.Watson- China (W-Sichuan, Yunnan), S-Tibet, Bhutan, N-India (E-Himalaya), Nepal, Sikkim as per Catalogue of Life)
Heracleum pinnatum …………………….


 
Flora of Eastern Ghats: Hill Ranges of South East India, Volume 3 By T. Pullaiah, K. Sri Ramamurthy (2007)- Details-
 
 
Biodiversity in India, Volume 2 edited by T. Pullaiah (2003)- Details-
Heracleum aquilegifolium C.B.Clarke– Not evaluated (syn. of Tetrataenium aquilegifolium (C. B. Cl.) I. P. Mandenova– India (W-Ghats (Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu)) as per Catalogue of Life)
Heracleum grande– Low risk
Heracleum sphondylium L. – Not evaluated


  
Hot spots of endemic plants of India, Nepal and Bhutan by M. P. NayarTropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, 1996 – Science252 pages-
Heracleum hookerianum Wight & Arn.: herb; southern W. Ghats. (syn. of Tetrataenium hookerianum (Wight & Arnott) I. P. Mandenova– India (SW-Ghats (Nilgiris)) as per Catalogue of Life)
Heracleum rigens Wall, ex DC., herb; ………………………………………….. (syn. of Tetrataenium rigens (Wall. ex DC.) Manden.– India (SW-Ghats) as per Catalogue of Life)


 
Heracleum ‎(Apiaceae) : 3 posts by 2 authors.

I have updated eFI (efloraofindia) page on Heracleum (Pl. click).

Attempts have been made to incorporate most of the species available in India & nearby areas with details & keys directly or through links as far as possible. It’s quite possible that there may be some discrepancy in the accepted names & synonyms taken from other links.

Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.

If someone can provide complete list of Indian species with source references it will be wonderful.

Any comments/ corrections are welcome.


I have compiled and added the list.


Thanks, … Pl. also check Heracleum sphondylium L. for inclusion as per FRLHT, Medicinal Plants By Alice Kurian, M. Asha Sankar (2007), Encyclopaedia of world medicinal plants, Volume 1 By T. Pullaiah (2006) & Biodiversity in India, Volume 2 edited by T. Pullaiah (2003)


 

Pl. go through Heracleum (‎‎Apiaceae) page with images of species (done by me) in efloraofindia.

If you find any mis-identification, pl. let us know. If anybody can send images of other species of this genera (for incorporation in the website), if any, it will be really nice.

Also, if anybody is interested to take up the activity of inserting images on efloraofindia pages from efloraofindia posts, pl. let us know.


 
 

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