Lantana camara subsp. aculeata (L.) R.W.Sanders (Mostly wild) (Assam; Bahamas; Bermuda; Cayman Is.; Cook Is.; Cuba; Dominican Republic; Fiji; Gilbert Is.; Haiti; India; Jamaica; Kenya; Leeward Is.; Mexico Southwest; Nauru; Niue; Phoenix Is.; Puerto Rico; Queensland; Sri Lanka; Tonga; Zare as per Catalogue of life)
Lantana montevidensis (Spreng.) Briq. (Cultivated- It is a low-growing, creeping plant, rather than a shrub, and is popularly used as ground cover)
Lantana veronicifolia Hayek (Pakistan to India as per WCSP) (As per efi thread: Lantana veronicifolia, characterized by small scandent unarmed plants with white flowers. Synonyms: L. indica var. albiflora, L. wightiana. L. indica is erect, unarmed)- Ref.: Revision of Indian Verbenaceae by Rajendran & Daniel)
Flora of Peninsular India with keys at species links, if any:
Species with description & pictures in Flowers of India as on 2.4.14:
Flora of Davanagere District, Karnataka, India By B. K. Manjunatha, V. Krishna, T. Pullaiah (2004)- Details with keys–
Plant Wealth of the Lower Ganga Delta: An Eco-taxonomical Approach, Volume 2 By Kumudranjan Naskar (1993)-
Lippia: Spreading shrubs, hairs simple. spikes elongate, style sublateral, fruit wall thin, corolla tube much protruding
Lanatana: Spreading Shrubs, hairs simple, Spikes dense, style sublateral, fruit wall fleshy, corolla tube not protruding much
Phyla: Prostrate herbs, hairs medifixed, spikes dense, style terminal, fruit wall thin, corolla tube not protruding much.
Lantana may easily be distinguished by its stem and leaves being harshly pubescent
Lantana indica from Delhi Parallel Canal side area near Village Ramnagar Panipat : Attachments (7). 3 posts by 2 authors.
These are the most recent works, they are silent on our very own Lantana indica.
Here are some references, they fail to clear the confusion regarding nomenclature.
No milestone study from India on this Genus. I think the work we are doing is most comprehensive, but is no way a systematic study.
I wish someone takes it up … … …
In past two decades I have seen many Lantanas (including Lantana camara) becoming very popular as ornamentals and I think this is going to affect wild Lantana population too.
Thanks, …, for detailed taxonomic revision documents of 2012.
I am reproducing, from Taxonomy of Lantana sect. Lantana (Verbenaceae): II. Taxonomic Revision by Roger Sanders in Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas , 2012, below, which is relevant to us:
A. Lantana sect. Lantana series Lantana. Type: Lantana camara L.
Adaxial leaf surfaces strigose-villosulous, the hairs less than 1.0 mm; abaxial leaf surfaces pilose, often densely so, the hairs occurring on veins and non-innervated tissue, filiform, 0.1–05 mm. Inflorescences arrested and remaining hemispheric, prolate-globose in fruit.
1. Lantana camara L., Sp. Pl. 627. 1753. Camara vulgaris Benth., Bot. Voy. Sulphur 154. 1846. tyPe (See Sanders 2006): cult., probably Hort. Uppsala, Herb. Linnaeus 783.4 (lectotyPe: LINN!).
Shrubs erect or rounded, open; stems 0.5–3 m; branches ascending and several; twigs, peduncles and often petioles puberulent, pilose, setulose, stipitate-glandular, or glabrescent, the hairs 0.1–0.5(–1) mm. Leaf-blades broadly ovate or oblong-deltate to elliptic-lanceolate, (1–)3–8(–16) cm long, the length (0.9–)1.5–2.5 × width, usually not nigrescent, papery, pinninerved; base subcordate, truncate, rounded or broadly cuneate, usually very briefly, narrowly cuneate onto petiole at very base; apex acute to acuminate, occasionally attenuate or rounded; marginal teeth 6–35(–50) per side, rounded to acute, spreading to appressed, sometimes with tips recurved, with sinuses 0.2–2 mm deep; adaxial surface dull, antrorsely strigillose to strigose-pilose or with stipitate glands mixed in, the hairs occurring on veins and intervening tissue, thin canopy of hairs only 0.2–0.5 mm (occasional hairs 0.7 mm in subsp. aculeata) with understory of shorter hairs not well developed, 10–90(– 120)/sq. mm, not noticeably vitreous-pustulate (except in some subsp. aculeata), the circular bases of the strigae ca. 0.1–0.2(–0.3) mm in diam.; abaxial surface duller green than adaxial surface, moderately densely (occasionally sparsely) pilose, the hairs on all veins and intervening tissue, 0.2–0.5 mm, all about same length, (10–)40–250/sq. mm. Inflorescences remaining hemispheric; peduncles 0.3–2 × leaf length. Proximal bracts linear-lanceolate or ovate-elliptic to obovate, 2–8(–10) mm long, 0.5–1.5(–2) mm wide, widest near base to above middle, with 3 veins from the base, appressed or spreading, deciduous after flowering; apex attenuate to rounded; indument pilose to strigillose, sometimes stipitate-glandular, somewhat or not ciliate, the longest hairs ≤ 0.5 mm. Corolla yellow to or aging reddish orange (infused with pink or purple in subsp. aculeata), rarely white; corolla tube 4–12 mm.
Distribution and habitat.—Mexico, Central America, West Indies, and northern South America; cultivated and escaped pantropically, especially in Australia; disturbance openings in tropical evergreen and deciduous forest, open pine forest, thorn shrubland, savanna; 0–2000 m.
Key to subspecies of Lantana camara
1 Twigs, petioles, and peduncles densely stipitate-glandular and adaxial leaf surfaces with stipitate glands mixed with eglandular trichomes ___ e. subsp. glandulosissima
1 Twigs, petioles, and peduncles without or occasionally with scattered stipitate glands but not densely and predominantly so and adaxial leaf surfaces without glandular trichomes.
2 Corollas with admixture of yellowish or orange pigments with rose or purplish pigments or opening yellowish and aging to purplish, or all corollas pink to deep reddish purple; stems often with stout, recurved prickles (subspecies of complex hybrid origin, variable for characters that differentiate among other subspecies; plants with only yellow or orange pigments that do not fit the remaining subspecies should be placed here) ______ f. subsp. aculeata
2 Corollas yellow to reddish orange (rarely white) without admixture of rose or purple pigments; stems usually lacking stout, recurved prickles but weak, ± straight ones sometimes developed.
3 Inflorescence bracts with all series about 2–4 mm long or only the proximal series 5–6 mm long and distal series abruptly shortened to about half that length; corolla tubes mostly 4–8 mm long in well pressed or fresh flowers.
4 Inflorescence bracts consistently ovate to obovate, broadest near or above middle; leaf-blades mostly 3–8 cm long, finely serrate-crenate with mostly 15–30 appressed teeth per side, the teeth sinuses usually 0.2–0.7 mm deep (if leaf smaller with fewer teeth, then teeth very small); twigs and peduncles without stipitate glands mixed among the eglandular hairs _______ a. subsp. camara
4 Inflorescence bracts mostly lanceolate-linear to triangular-oblong, broadest near the base; leaf-blades mostly 1–3 cm long, rather coarsely serrate-dentate (for their size) with 6–12(–15) spreading teeth per side, the teeth sinuses usually 0.7–1.5 mm deep; twigs and peduncles often with stipitate glands mixed among the eglandular hairs _______ b. subsp. portoricensis
3 Inflorescence bracts with proximal series usually 5–10 mm long and gradually shortened to distalmost series; corolla-tubes mostly 8–12 mm long in well pressed or fresh flowers.
5 Young stems and peduncles hispid with spreading or retorse, stiff setae 0.5–1 mm long (peduncles sometimes with stipitate glands mixed in); margins of leaves with teeth mostly fewer than 20 per side, the sinuses usually nearly 1 mm or more deep; dominant hairs of adaxial leaf surface ca. 0.5 mm ___ c. subsp. moldenkei
5 Young stems and peduncles puberulent with ascending soft hairs 0.1–0.5 mm long (mostly 0.3 mm); margins of leaves with teeth mostly 20–35 per side, the sinuses about 0.5 mm deep; dominant hairs of adaxial leaf surface ca. 0.3 mm or less __ d. subsp. moritziana
1a. Lantana camara subsp. camara. Camara aculeata (L.) Kuntze var. subinermis Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2:503. 1891. Lantana aculeata L. var. subinermis (Kuntze) Voss, Vilm. Blumengärtn. ed.3, 1:823. 1894.
Lantana urticifolia Mill., Gard. Dict. ed. 8, Lantana 5. 1768. Lantana camara L. f. urticifolia (Mill.) I.E. Méndez, Willdenowia 32:295. 2002 (misapplied to L. camara subsp. aculeata). tyPe: MEXICO. veracruZ: Veracruz, 1731, Houstoun s.n., Herb. Sloan 6:84 (lectotyPe: BMSL[di!]). Lantana crocea Jacq., Pl. Hort. Schoenbr. 4:t.473. 1804. Camara aculeata (L.) Kuntze [var. subinermis Kuntze] f. crocea (Jacq.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2:503. 1891. Lantana aculeata L. f. crocea (Jacq.) Voss, Vilm. Blumengärtn. ed.3, 1:823. 1894. Lantana camara L. var. crocea (Jacq.) L.H. Bailey, Cycl. Amer. Hort. [L.H.Bailey] 884. 1900. lectotyPe: icon in Jacq., Pl. Hort. Schoenbr. 4:t.473. 1804. Lantana formosa K. Koch & Fintelmann, Wochenschr. Gärtnerei Pflanzenk. 1:322. 1858. nom. illeg. tyPe: Unknown. Camara aculeata (L.) Kuntze f. obtusifolia Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3:250. 1893. tyPe: ARGENTINA: Buenos Aires, Hauthal 627 (lectotyPe: not designated, no material located at NY]).
Stems usually without prickles or with few weak, straight ones; twigs, peduncles and often petioles moderately to densely covered with antrorse to ascending, curled or straight filiform hairs, the hairs 0.1–0.5 mm. Leaf-blades ovate or ovate-triangular to lanceolate-triangular or elliptic-lanceolate, widest near base, near proximal third, or just below middle, (1–)3–8(–10) cm long, the length (1.2–)1.5–2.5 × width; marginal teeth (9–)15–35 per side (if leaf smaller with fewer teeth, then teeth very small), rounded or obtuse, usually appressed or only with tips spreading, with sinuses 0.2–0.7(–1.2) mm deep; adaxial surface antrorsely strigillose to strigose-pilose, the hairs 0.1–0.5 mm. Peduncles 0.5–1.2 × leaf length. Bract series all similar or proximal series almost twice the length of distal series; proximal bracts obovate to oblanceolate, ovate-ellliptic, or oblong, 2–4 or 5–6 mm long, 0.8–1.5(–2) mm wide, widest near or above middle; apex often obtuse to rounded, sometimes acute (rarely acuminate). Corolla yellow to or aging reddish orange; corolla tube 5–8 mm; corolla limb 4–7 mm in diam.
Distribution and habitat.—West Indies (Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, Caymen Is., Bahama Is.), Gulf and Caribbean coast and foot hills of Mexico from Veracruz south to Nicaragua; thorn and sclerophyll shrubland/ woodland, thickets, and pine woodland on thin calcareous soils; 0–400 m.
See comments under Lantana camara subsp. glandulosissima and in Sanders (2006).
1f. Lantana camara subsp. aculeata (L.) R.W. Sanders, Sida 22:394. 2006. basionym: Lantana aculeata L., Sp. Pl. 627. 1753. Camara aculeata (L.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2:503. 1891. Camara aculeata (L.) Kuntze var. normalis Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2:503. 1891. Lantana aculeata L. var. normalis (Kuntze) Voss, Vilm. Blumengärtn. ed.3, 1:823. 1894. Lantana camara L. var. aculeata (L.) Moldenke, Torreya 34:9. 1934. lectotyPe: icon in Plukenet, Phytographia t. 233, f.5. 1692.
Lantana sanguinea Medik., Hist. & Commentat. Acad. Elect. Sci. Theod.-Palat. 3. Phys. 229. 1775. Camara aculeata (L.) Kuntze [var. subinermis Kuntze] f. sanguinea (Medik.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2:503. 1891. nom. illeg. (see synonyms below). Lantana aculeata L. f. sanguinea (Medik.) Voss, Vilm. Blumengärtn. ed.3, 1:823. 1894. Lantana camara L. var. sanguinea (Medik.) L.H. Bailey, Cycl. Amer. Hort. [L.H. Bailey] 884. 1900. Lantana camara L. f. sanguinea (Medik.) Moldenke, Phytologia 45:296. 1980. tyPe: Unknown. Lantana mutabilis Salisb., Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton. 107. 1796. nom. illeg. tyPe: None selected. Lantana suaveolens Desf., Tabl. École Bot., ed. 3 (Cat. Pl. Horti Paris) 393. 1829. nom illeg. tyPe: Not determined. Lantana coccinea C.E. Weigel, Physiogr. Salsk. Handl. 1:46. 1776. tyPe: Unknown. Lantana coccinea Lodd. ex G. Don, Hort. Brit. [Loudon] 245. 1830. nom. nud. tyPe: Unknown. Lantana variagata Otto & A. Dietr., Allg. Gartenzeitung 10:314. 1842. tyPe: Unknown. Camara aculeata (L.) Kuntze [var. subinermis Kuntze] f. varia Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2:503. 1891. Lantana aculeata L. f. varia (Kuntze) Voss, Vilm. Blumengärtn. ed.3, 1:823. 1894. Lantana camara L. f. varia (Kuntze) Moldenke, Phytologia 45:296. 1980. tyPe: JAVA: cult., Hort. Buitenzorg, (lectotyPe: not designated, no material located at NY). Camara aculeata (L.) Kuntze [var. normalis Kuntze] f. nivea Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2:503. 1891. nom. illeg. (see taxon 12a) tyPe: Unknown. Camara aculeata (L.) Kuntze [var. normalis Kuntze] f. mista Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2:503. 1891. nom. illeg. (see hybrid synonymy 1f×4) tyPe: Unknown. Camara aculeata (L.) Kuntze [var. normalis Kuntze] f. sanguinea Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2:503. 1891. nom. illeg. (see synonym L. sanguinea above). tyPe: JAVA: cult., Hort. Buitenzorg (lectotyPe: not designated, no material located at NY).
Stems usually with stout, recurved prickles, often abundant; twigs, peduncles and often petioles moderately covered with antrorse to ascending or retrorse, curled or straight hairs or also stipitate glands, the hairs 0.1–0.7 mm. Leaf-blades broadly ovate or oblong-deltate to elliptic lanceolate, widest usually in or near proximal third, sometimes near middle, 3–9 cm long, the length (1.1–)1.3–2 × width; marginal teeth 10–30(–45) per side, usually acute or obtuse, sometimes rounded, usually spreading, with sinuses 0.5–2 mm deep; adaxial surface antrorsely strigillose to strigose-pilose, the hairs 0.1 –0.5 mm (occasional ones to 0.7 mm). Peduncles 0.5–1.2 × leaf length. Bract series gradually reduced in size; proximal bracts linear-oblong, oblanceolate-oblong, linear-lanceolate, or linar-triangular, 4–8(–10) mm long, 0.5–1.5 mm wide, widest near the base or proximal third, sometimes the outermost one or two slightly broader above middle; apex usually attenuate. Corolla yellow to or aging red-orange and usually infused with purple or opening pink aging to deep reddish purple; corolla tube (5–)7–12 mm; corolla limb 6–10 mm in diam.
Distribution and habitat.—Historically cultivated worldwide and escaped pantropically, especially common in Africa and Australia; disturbance openings in tropical evegreen, deciduous, and thorn forest and savanna; 0–2000 m.
So most of our wild plants are going to be Lantana camara subsp. aculeata (L.) R.W. Sanders with synonymy as above.
Also relevant is
20. Lantana strigocamara R.W. Sanders, Sida 22:392. 2006. Type: U.S.A. florida. Dade Co.: Coral Gables, 23 Sep 1981, Sanders 1450 (holotyPe: FTG!; isotyPe: NY!).
Lantana mutabilis Lippold ex Otto & A. Dietr., Allg. Gartenzeitung 10:314. 1842. nom. illeg. tyPe: Unknown.
Shrubs erect or rounded, open; stems 0.3–3 m; branches ascending, several to numerous; twigs, peduncles and often petioles thinly to moderately strigose, setose, or pilose, the hairs 0.1–1.2(–1.5) mm, the longest mostly 0.5–1 mm. Leaf-blades ovate to broadly ovate, (2–)5–10 cm long, the length 1–1.7 × width, usually not nigrescent, papery, pinninerved; base rounded, truncate, or cordate, shortly and narrowly cuneate onto petiole at very base; apex usually acuminate; marginal teeth 15–40 per side, rounded to acute, often appressed, sometimes spreading at tip, with sinuses 0.5–1.5 mm deep; adaxial surface usually dull, antrorsely strigose or strigose-setose, the hairs occurring on veins and intervening tissue (sometimes just center of areoles), 0.2–1.2 (longest mostly 0.5–0.8) mm, 1–12/sq. mm, not noticeably vitreous-pustulate, the circular bases of the strigae ca. 0.1–0.2 mm in diam.; abaxial surface slightly lighter or duller green than adaxial surface, antrorsely strigose-scabrous, with the strigae scattered to moderately dense on veins and veinlets, 0.1–0.6 (longest ones usually 0.4–0.6) mm (sometimes accompanied by scattered short [mostly ≤ 0.3 mm] erect filiform hairs along major veins), 4–20/sq. mm. Inflorescences remaining hemispheric; peduncles 0.5–1.2 × leaf length. Proximal bracts narrowly triangular, linear-lanceolate, or linear-oblong (including those with slight constriction in proximal third; occasionally 1 or 2 outermost bracts subfoliar or narrowly spatulate), (3–)5–8(–10) mm long, 0.8–1.5 (rarely an occasional subfoliar bract up to 2) mm wide, widest at or just above the base, with 3 veins from the base, appressed or spreading, deciduous after flowering; apex acute to attenuate; indument strigose or strigillose, hardly ciliate, the longest hairs 0.2–0.6 mm. Corolla opening yellow or creamy white (rarely pure white) with yellow throat, aging to cream, dark yellow, orange, or red (rarely remaining white), often infused with pink or purple; corolla tube 7–12 mm.
Distribution and habitat.—Of cultivated origin; cultivated worldwide and escaped pantropically (especially southern United States, Caribbean Basin, India, Sri Lanka, Southeast Asia, and tropical Africa); open woodland, thickets, disturbance openings and man-made grassland, calcareous or sandy soils; 0–2000 m. Sanders (2006) discussed Lantana strigocamara at length, and Sanders (1987a) illustrated the species (as “camara”).
In view of above, I am reproducing keys to all species here:
Key to species of lantana sect. lantana
Before attempting to use the identification key or descriptions, see caveats above.
1. Abaxial leaf-surface antrorsely strigose-scabrous to nearly glabrous, consisting only of or strongly dominated by strigae.
2. Proximal bracts 2–8 mm wide, with 5–7 veins from the base.
3. Capitula not elongating by prolonged initiation of additional flowers, remaining hemispheric; bracts ± obtuse, acute and rounded at very tip, or briefly acuminate, appressed to spreading, appearing to form an involucre; cilia, if present on bracts, usually no more than 0.5 mm; corollas yellow or orange aging reddish (rarely intensely reddish purple) ___ 13. L. cujabensis
3. Capitula elongating by prolonged initiation of additional flowers, becoming cylindric; bracts acuminate with a prolonged tip, spreading, causing the capitula to resemble spikes of Carex lupulina; cilia usually well developed on bracts, mostly 0.5–1 mm; corollas pink to purple or white aging purplish (rarely yellow to red-orange) ___ 19. L. paraensis
2. Proximal bracts 0.5–1.5 mm wide (to 3 mm in L. ovatifolia and L. kingii, otherwise rarely one or two bracts in outermost series spatulate-subfoliaceous to about 2 mm wide), with 3 veins (rarely 4 or 5 in L. splendens) from the base.
4. Leaf-blades ovate-elliptic to lanceolate-elliptic or trullate, averaging 1.7–2.5(–3) times longer than wide, the base attenuately tapering to petiole from middle or just below middle, or less commonly abruptly contracted and broadly cuneate onto petiole; blades triplinerved; herbage usually nigrescent (except in L. kingii and L. splendens); upper leaf-surface usually lustrous.
5. Proximal bracts (excluding one or two subfoliar outermost ones or those of gall-transformed heads) widest near or just below middle or in distal half (sometimes so in L. splendens, see below), persistent in fruit.
6. Leaf-blades bright, dark, or dull green abaxially, nigrescent, ovate-elliptic, induplicate or having halves incurved at maturity; larger strigae of the abaxial leaf-surface 0.5–1 mm; twigs setulose with spreading hairs about 0.5–1.5 mm; proximal bracts ca. 3–5 mm, elliptic-lanceolate _9. L. depressa
6. Leaf-blades distinctly whitish or pale green below (though not glaucous), not nigrescent, usually ovate or ovate-triangular, rarely (especially if less than 2 cm long) obovate or ovate-elliptic, ± flat, not having halves incurved at maturity; larger strigae of the abaxial leaf-surface 0.1–0.4(–0.6) mm; twigs glabrescent with antrorse hairs 0.3–0.7 mm; proximal bracts ca. 6–10 mm long, spatulate or oblanceolate _10. L. kingii
5. Proximal bracts (excluding one or two subfoliar outermost ones or those of gall-transformed heads) widest at or just above base, deciduous after flowering.
7. Corollas white aging bluish to pink, or pink aging light purple, or with purple intermixed with creamy yellow to orange; hairs of abaxial leaf-surface moderately dense, ca. 15–60/mm2 (under 10X magnification those on the higher order veins may be so small as to appear to be papillae); abaxial surface of leaf-blade not noticeably whitish-green; stems often with abundant, stout, recurved prickles __12. L. nivea
7. Corollas yellow to reddish orange without any pink or purple mixed in; hairs of abaxial leaf-surface moderately to very sparse, ca. 0–12/mm2 (under 10X magnification those on the higher order veins do not appear to be papillae); abaxial surface of leaf-blade whitish-green (but not glaucous); stems usually lacking stout, recurved prickles.
8. Leaf-blades mostly 1–5(–7) cm long, on adaxial surface of mature and older leaves the circular bases of strigae 0.3–0.5 or more mm in diam., conspicuously vitreous-pustulate, often nearly filling whole areole; corolla tubes ca. 5–8 mm long; proximal bracts mostly oblong-lanceolate (outermost 1 or 2 oblong-obovate or oblanceolate), 2–4(–5) mm long; virgate or divaricately branched shrubs __7. L. splendens
8. Leaf-blades mostly 5–15 cm long, on adaxial surface the circular bases of strigae usually 0.2 mm or less in diam. (not exceeding 0.3 mm.), usually not conspicuously vitreous-pustulate, not filling whole areole; corolla tubes 7–12 mm long; proximal bracts narrowly lanceolate to linear-triangular, 4–10 mm long; rounded, lax, or subscandent shrubs.
9. Leaf-blades glabrescent, smooth and subsucculent or coriaceous; hairs of adaxial leaf-surface geniculately bent at very base, flaccid, strongly appressed to surface and often deciduous; peduncles a third or less as long as leaves ______8. L. hodgei
9. Leaf-blades strigose or scabrous, papery to subcoriaceous; hairs of adaxial leaf-surfaces geniculately bent about 1⁄4 of length above base and held above surface; peduncles about equaling to half as long as leaves __ 6. L. scabrida
4. Leaf-blades ovate to broadly ovate, averaging 1–1.7 times longer than wide, the base rounded, truncate, or cordate, usually briefly and narrowly cuneate onto petiole at very base of blade; blades pinninerved; herbage usually not nigrescent (if so, then only the young, expanding leaves); upper leaf-surface lustrous or not.
10. Adaxial leaf-surface dull, not vitreous-pustulate, the bases of the strigae only about 0.1–0.2 mm in diam.; bracts deciduous after anthesis, the proximal series lanceolate-triangular or lanceolate-linear (occasionally an outermost one or two spatulate-subfoliar); corollas opening yellow, cream, or white aging yellow to red-orange, purplish, orange plus purple, or white with yellow throat _____ 20. L. strigocamara
10. Adaxial leaf-surface lustrous, vitreous-pustulate or pustulate-scabridulous, the bases of the strigae (at least on the older leaves) about 0.3–0.5 mm or more in diam.; bracts persistent into fruit, the proximal series typically spatulate to elliptic-oblong; corollas yellowish to orange or red-orange.
11. Hairs on adaxial leaf-surface mostly 0.1–0.4 mm, appressed, often deciduous leaving only pustulate bases; leaf-blades abaxially distinctly whitish or pale green (seemingly but not actually glaucous); leaf-teeth sinuses 1–2.5 mm deep; stems upright; corollas opening yellow aging orange or red-orange __10. L. kingii
11. Hairs on adaxial leaf-surface 0.2–1 mm, ascending, longer ones sometimes deciduous; leaf-blades abaxially bright, dark or dull green; leaf-teeth sinuses 0.7–1.5 mm deep; stems trailing or decumbent; corollas opening and ± remaining yellow _ 11. L. ovatifolia
1. Abaxial leaf-surface not exclusively or dominantly antrorsely strigose-scabrous but setose, pilose, velutinous, puberulent, pannose, viscid, or glabrescent, the vestiture varying from having hairs that are exclusively erect (± erect from basal insertion, spreading from surface of lamina or vein from which they arise, filiform or setaceous, gland-tipped or not, distally arching-curved or flexuously curled) without strigae present to having a codominant mixture of erect hairs and strigae (occurs in hybrids and some species of hybrid origin).
12. Capitula elongating, becoming cylindric; corollas usually pink to deep reddish purple (sometimes pale yellow in throat only), occasionally white becoming infused with purple (rarely yellow to orange red in L. paraensis).
13. Corolla tubes briefly or not exerted beyond bracts, 2–4 mm; capitula elongating by expansion of nodes between flowers/fruits; bracts often deciduous after flowering, but if persisting, then usually rapidly becoming reflexed from base, without cilia, abaxial hairs 0.3–0.5 mm, apex acute to rounded, sometimes abruptly acuminate or briefly attenuate __15. L. micrantha
13. Corolla tubes exerted well beyond bracts, (5–)7–12 mm; capitula elongating by prolonged initiation of flowers; bracts strongly persisting and spreading in fruit, with cilia or also abaxial hairs (0.5–)0.7–1.5 mm, apex acuminate with prolonged tip.
14. Hairs of leaf-surfaces 30–150/mm2, longest ones 1–1.5 mm or more; twigs and peduncles densely stipitate glandular with scattered setae __ 14. L. viscosa
14. Hairs of leaf-surfaces 3–20/mm2, longest ones 0.3–0.7 (rarely to 1.2) mm; twigs and peduncles glabrescent to thinly setulose, sometimes with scattered stipitate glands ___ 19. L. paraensis
12. Capitula not elongating, remaining hemispheric; corollas usually opening yellow or orange aging orange or redorange (sometimes opening creamy white or pure white and/or becoming infused with pink or purple in L. planaltensis, or rarely opening white and remaining so).
15. Leaves-blades distinctly triplinerved, usually nigrescent; adaxial leaf-surface often lustrous; abaxial surface often with strigae mixed with filiform hairs (can be covered over by the latter).
16. Leaf-blades mostly 2–5 cm long, mostly ovate-triangular or lanceolate-triangular with straight tapering sides from proximal 1⁄3 (sometimes contracted to abruptly acute or obtuse apex); adaxial surface usually noticeably lustrous and vitreous-pustulate, with the hair bases 0.3–0.5 mm diam., thinly scabrous, the strigae 2–10/mm2, about 0.3 mm or less giving the surface a sandpapery texture; abaxial surface with soft, straight hairs restricted to crevices between the leaf-surface and the midrib (or also secondary veins) ___ 16. L. bahamensis
16. Leaf-blades mostly 5–10 cm long, ovate, lanceolate or ovate-elliptic with curved sides and usually acuminate apex; adaxial surface lustrous or not, usually not pustulate, with the hair bases less than 0.3 mm diam., strigosepilose, the hairs 20–80/ mm2 or more, of mixed length up to 0.7 mm; abaxial surface with even vestiture of soft, straight hairs on surfaces of midrib to higher order veins or also areole tissue ___ 17. L. planaltensis
15. Leaves-blades pinninerved, not distinctly nigrescent (except in some L. urticoides); adaxial surface dull (except somewhat lustrous in some L. urticoides); abaxial surface lacking strigae (except in many interspecific hybrids), exclusively of filiform, glandular, or setiform hairs.
17. Leaves 1–1.5 times longer than wide, ± rotund, deltate or broadly ovate with conspicuous spreading acute teeth, the sinuses mostly 2–5 mm deep; adaxial leaf-surface, at least on older leaves noticeably vitreouspustulate, the bases of the strigae mostly 0.3–0.5 mm in diam; abaxial leaf-surface with long setaceous hairs restricted to the midrib and secondary veins, these gradually reduced in length from base of midrib (where 1.5–2 mm long) toward margin (on midrib and secondary veins to ca. 0.7 mm long), shortest hairs (0.2–0.5 mm long) restricted to veinlets and areoles; proximal bracts mostly 7–12 mm long, oblanceolate or spatulate, mostly 1.5–3 mm wide, widest in distal half or near middle, conspicuously persistent and reflexed in fruit __18. L. urticoides
17. Leaves mostly 1.5–2.5 times longer than wide (if less than 1.5, then lacking character combination of lead 17’), ovate, oblong-deltate, elliptic, or lanceolate with rounded or appressed-acute teeth, the sinuses mostly 0.3–2 mm deep (to 3 mm in some L. hirsuta subsp. hirsuta); adaxial leaf-surface not vitreous-pustulate (except in some L. camara subsp. aculeata), the bases of the strigae 0.1–0.2(–0.3) mm in diam.; abaxial leaf-surface with hairs all about the same length (either long setaceous hairs only on veins or short soft hairs on veins and areoles; longer hairs scattered among shorter hairs on midrib in some L. horrida and some L. hirsuta, but not in pattern of L. urticoides); proximal bracts mostly 2–10 mm long, linear-lanceolate (rarely linear-spatulate), lanceolate- or elliptic-oblong, mostly 0.5–1.5 mm wide, widest in proximal third (if oblanceolate- or obovatespatulate and widest above middle, then mostly 2–6 mm long), deciduous or persistent (then sometimes reflexed) in fruit.
18. Hairs of abaxial leaf-surface setiform, ca. 0.7–1.5 mm, straight and erect, sinuous, or antrorsely arching, restricted mostly to midrib, secondary, and tertiary veins, without sparse understory of shorter (0.1–0.5 mm), softer filiform hairs; adaxial surface setose to villous dominated by antrorse setaceous hairs 1–2 mm between the secondary veins, sometimes these also accompanied by an understory of shorter hairs; young twigs (also petioles and peduncles) with spreading hairs (1.2–)1.5–2.5 mm.
19. Young twigs and peduncles usually viscid and sparsely setose, dominated by dense, conspicuous, stipitate glands to ca. 0.5 mm; proximal bracts mostly 4–6 mm long, oblong-elliptic or -lanceolate, covered with hairs ca. 1 mm and usually marginally ciliate with hairs (1–)1.5–2 mm__ 5. L. insularis
19. Young twigs and peduncles sparsely to moderately setose, stipitate glands lacking (except in interspecific hybrids); proximal bracts mostly 5–10 mm long, linear-lanceolate or linear-spatulate, covered with hairs 0.3–1 mm, marginally ciliate with hairs 0.8–1(–1.5) mm or these lacking ___4. L. hirsuta
18. Hairs of abaxial leaf-surface weak and filiform, 0.1–0.5 mm (sometimes in L. horrida, scattered arching hairs on midrib to 1 mm among shorter hairs), spreading to curled, usually occurring on all vein orders including veinlets and areoles, occasionally deciduous and persisting only in crevices between major veins and leaf-surface; adaxial surface antrorsely strigillose to strigose villous with a covering of hairs of mixed length, these mostly 0.1–0.9 mm; young twigs (also petioles and peduncles) with spreading to appressed hairs only 0.1–1 mm (to 1.5 mm in some L. horrida subsp. tilifolia).
20. Adaxial leaf-surface with a canopy of hairs between secondary veins only 0.2–0.5 mm (in L. camara subsp. aculeata sparsely scattered hairs to 0.7 mm may occur), usually in the form of strigae or stalked glands; peduncles typically about a third the length of to about equaling their subtending leaves (up to twice as long in L. camara subsp. glandulosissima) ____ 1. L. camara
20. Adaxial leaf-surface with a moderately dense canopy of hairs between secondary veins mostly 0.7– 0.8(–1) mm, in the form of arching or flexible setae, often with a well developed understory of shorter (≤ 0.5 mm) strigae, filiform hairs or stalked glands; peduncles typically longer to 3 times longer than subtending leaves.
21. Plants erect or trailing, laxly or openly branched, leaf-blades ovate to broadly elliptic to lanceolate deltate, mostly 1–2 times longer than wide; teeth usually (6–)10–35 per side __ 2. L. horrida
21. Plants erect, low and stiffly, densely branched; leaf-blades narrowly triangular to narrowly elliptic, mostly 2–3 times longer than wide; teeth usually 3–6 per side ______ 3. L. leonardiorum
Another relevant part is reproduced below:
9i. Lantana depressa var. depressa
Lantana montevidensis (Spreng.) Briq. var. aurea Mattoon, Plant Buyer’s Guide, ed. 6, 167. 1958. nom. nud. tyPe: none. Apparently a name of horticultural origin applied to Lantana depressa Small var. depressa (see Sanders 2001, p. 356). Lantana ovatifolia Britton var. reclinata R.W. Long, Rhodora 72:34. 1970. tyPe: U.S.A. florida. Dade Co.: Homestead, 14 Oct 1962, Cooley 9324 (holotyPe: GH!; isotyPe: USF). Lantana ovatifolia Britton f. parvifolia Moldenke, Phytologia 50:309. 1982. tyPe: U.S.A. florida. Dade Co.: Homestead, 27 Mar 1933, Perkins 1625 (holotyPe: BH[di!]).
Shrubs low mounded, dense, 0.1–0.3 (spreading to 1) m, the central axis abortive or hardly developed; branches prostrate or decumbent, twigs, peduncles and often petioles with hairs 0.5–1 .5 mm. Leaf-blades 1–3 cm long (to 4 or 5 cm in some cultivars). Corolla with tube 5–9 mm; corolla limb 5–8 mm in diam.
Distribution and habitat.—Peninsular Florida (Miami Ridge); cultivated and escaped in tropics and subtropics worldwide; limestone pinelands; 0–25 m. Because of its drought tolerance, compact habit, and profuse flowering,
Lantana depressa var. depressa has been cultivated widely since the 1950s. A tetrploid cultivar and L. strigocamara apparently are the parents of the currently popular Callowiana Hybrid Group cultivars, which have the floral colors of L. strigocamara and are cultivated worldwide and escaped pantropically (see Sanders 2001, specimen citations below, and 9i-cv×20 in the section on hybrid synonymy).
Another may be relevant aspect reproduced below:
Synonymy of Published taxa based on Presumed intersPecific hybrids:
9i-cv×20. L. Callowiana Hybrid Group cultivars (derived from tetraploid cv. L. depressa var. depressa × L. strigocamara)
Lantana callowiana Monrovia Nursery, Monrovia Nursery Catalog 1952–1953:44. 1952. nom. illeg. tyPe: none. Lantana camara L. var. nana Moldenke, Phytologia 28:402. 1974. Lantana camara L. f. nana (Moldenke) Moldenke, Phytologia 45:296. 1980. tyPe: U.S.A. new york: cult., New York. Bot. Gard., 14 Oct 1941, Moldenke & Moldenke 11903 (holotyPe: NY!). This is either an early development release from Monrovia Nursery or an independent cultivation of a wild-collected hybrid between L. depressa var. depressa and L. strigocamara. Lantana bahamensis Britton f. albiflora Moldenke, Phytologia 31:360. 1975. tyPe: U.S.A. georgia: Glynn Co.: Jekyll Island, 20 May 1975, Moldenke & Moldenke 29885 (holotyPe: LL, n.v.; isotyPe: LL!). Lantana Callowiana Hybrid Group ‘Cream Carpet’.
Sanders (2001) argued that the parents of the Callowiana Hybrid Group were Lantana strigocamara and L. depressa var. depressa rather than L. strigocamara and L. montevidensis (as claimed by Monrovia Nursery, see Howard 1969) based on character intermediacy and chromosome number incompatability of the latter combination. However, one likely hybrid of L. montevidensis with L. strigocamara was seen for this study (see taxon 20), but it is very different in character details from the Callowiana Hybrid Group cvs, as well as appears to be sterile.
So from the above, if I am not misunderstanding, out wild naturalised plant which we call as L.camara and L.indica, may be Lantana strigocamara R.W. Sanders, Sida 22:392. 2006, as only distribution of this species has been given in India (Catalogue of life link)
Is what we name as Lantana montevidensis be Lantana depressa var. depressa ?
Another relevant species is reproduced here:
12. Lantana nivea Vent., Jard. Malmaison t.8. 1804. lectotyPe: icon in Vent., Jard. Malmaison t.8. 1804.
Shrubs lax, rounded and open, sometimes forming treelets; stems 0.5–4 m; branches ascending or divaricate, several to numerous; twigs, peduncles and often petioles thinly to moderately strigillose, setulose, or scabridulous, the hairs 0.03–0.4(–0.7) mm. Leaf-blades ovate, lanceolate or elliptic, 3–12 cm long, the length sometimes of those subtending inflorescences distinctly reduced (unique to this species), (1.5–)1.7–3(–3.6) × width, nigrescent, membranous to papery, triplinerved; base attenuately tapering onto petiole from widest point or abruptly narrowed to an often asymmetric, attenuate or cuneate petiolar wing; apex attenuate, acuminate, or acute; marginal teeth (13–)18–40 per side, obtuse, rounded, or acute, usually appressed, sometimes spreading at tip, with sinuses 0.2–1 mm deep; adaxial surface lustrous, antrorsely strigose to scabrous or scabridulous, the hairs occurring on veins and intervening tissue, 0.03–0.5 mm, 10–60/sq. mm, often with conspicuous vitreous or whitened pustulate bases 0.1–0.3 mm diam.; abaxial surface slightly lighter or duller green than adaxial surface, antrorsely strigillose to strigose-scabrous, with the strigae scattered on veins and veinlets and sometimes on intervening tissue, 0.03–0.4(–0.7) mm, 10–60/sq. mm. Inflorescences sometimes 2 per leaf axil, hemispheric but receptacle often elongating by slight separation or prolonged initiation of nodes and becoming naked below the hemispheric flower cluster at apex; peduncles 0.5–1.2 × leaf length. Proximal bracts narrowly triangular, lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, occasionally oblanceolate, 2.5–7(–10) mm long, 0.6–1.5 mm wide, widest at very base, proximal third, or occasionally distal third, with 3 veins from the base, appressed or spreading, usually deciduous after flowering; apex acute, attenuate, or subulate; indument strigillose-scabridulous, hardly ciliate, the longest hairs ≤ 0.5 mm. Corolla white aging white, pale pink or light blue, or opening pink, cream or yellow aging cream, yellow or orange infused with purple, pale yellow throat usually developed and fading with age; corolla tube 7–12 mm.
Distribution and habitat.—Eastern and southeastern Brazil; cultivated world-wide, escaped pantropically; understory and disturbance openings and man-made grasslands in tropical humid forest, occasionally in dry forest; 0–1500 m.
Key to the subspecies of lantana nivea
1. Corollas opening white aging white, bluish, or pale pink, or opening pink aging light purple; strigae of adaxial leaf surface 0.03–0.3 mm long, those under 0.2 mm dominating and appearing as ascending conical rough points; strigae of abaxial surface 0.03–0.3 mm or less long, never with filiform straight hairs to 0.3 mm mixed in __a. subsp. nivea
1. Corollas opening pink, cream or yellow, aging cream, yellow or orange infused with purple; strigae of adaxial leaf surface 0.05–0.5 mm long, the longer ones dominating; strigae of abaxial surfaces 0.05–0.7 mm long (mostly 0.4–0.5 mm), often with scattered filiform straight hairs to 0.3 mm mixed in ___ b. subsp. mutabilis
12a. Lantana nivea subsp. nivea. Camara aculeata (L.) Kuntze [var. subinermis Kuntze] f. nivea (Vent.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2:503. 1891. nom. illeg. (see taxon 1f). Lantana aculeata L. f. nivea (Vent.) Voss, Vilm. Blumengärtn. ed.3, 1:823. 1894. Lantana camara L. var. nivea (Vent.) L.H. Bailey, Cycl. Amer. Hort. [L.H.Bailey] 883. 1900.
Lantana triplinervia Turcz., Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 36:205. 1863. tyPe: JAVA. [moJokerto:] Japan, cult., Göring 225 (holotyPe: KW[di!]). Lantana minasensis Moldenke, Phytologia 2:138. 1946. Lantana triplinervia Turcz. var. minasensis (Moldenke) Moldenke, Phytologia 28:403. 1974. tyPe: BRAZIL. minas gerais: Viçosa, 9 Mar 1930, Mexia 4448a (holotyPe: NY!; isotyPes: K[di!], MO!, TEX!). Lantana camara L. var. alba Moldenke, Phytologia 5:132. 1955. Lantana camara L. f. alba (Moldenke) Moldenke, Phytologia 45:296. 1980. Lantana aculeata L. f. alba (Moldenke) I.E. Méndez, Willdenowia 32:289. 2002. (Misapplied probably to Lantana Callowiana Hyb. ‘Cream Carpet’) tyPe: INDIA. West bengal: Kharacpur, cult., Sahni s.n. (holotyPe: LL!). Lantana morii Moldenke, Phytologia 41:449.1979. tyPe: BRAZIL. bahia: Camacã, 14 Jul 1978, Santos & Mattos 3304 (holotyPe: LL!; isotyPe: NY!).
Leaf-blades with the indument of the adaxial surface composed of strigae and rough points, 0.03–0.3 mm; indument of the abaxial surface composed only of strigae 0.03–0.3 mm, never with short, straight fililform hairs to 0.3 mm mixed in. Inflorescences hemispheric but receptacle often elongating by slight separation or prolonged initiation of nodes and becoming naked below the hemispheric flower cluster at apex. Corolla white aging white, bluish or pale pink, or pink aging light purple.
Distribution and habitat.—Eastern and southeastern Brazil; cultivated world-wide, sometimes escaped pantropically; understory and disturbance openings and man-made grasslands in tropical humid forest, occasionally in dry forest; 0–1500 m.
Many of the native collections have narrowly elliptic leaf-blades. However, other native collections vary toward having the more ovate or lanceolate blades typically seen in cultivated plants of the species (e.g., the type specimens of Lantana nivea and L. triplinervia). There is a tendency, especially in the collections from Bahia, for a marked reduction in size of leaves subtending the inflorescences, resulting in a corymb-like arrangement of capitula.
12b. Lantana nivea subsp. mutabilis (Hook.) R.W. Sanders, Sida 22:395. 2006. basionym: Lantana nivea Vent. var. mutabilis Hook., Bot. Mag. n.s., 5:t. 3110. 1831. Camara aculeata (L.) Kuntze [var. subinermis Kuntze] f. mutabilis (Hook.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2:503. 1891. nom. illeg. Camara aculeata (L.) Kuntze [var. normalis Kuntze] f. mutabilis (Hook.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2:503. 1891. nom. illeg. Lantana aculeata L. f. mutabilis (Hook.) Voss, Vilm. Blumengärtn. ed.3, 1:823. 1894. Lantana camara L. var. mutabilis (Hook.) L.H. Bailey, Cycl. Amer. Hort. [L.H.Bailey] 884. 1900. Lantana camara L. f. mutabilis (Hook.) Moldenke, Phytologia 45:296. 1980. lectotyPe: icon in Hook., Bot. Mag. n.s., 5:t. 3110. 1831. ePityPe, here designated: SRI LANKA. central Prov.: Dambulla, roadsides and fencerows, 23 Jan 1974, Moldenke et al. 28218 (US!; isoePityPe: ll!).
Lantana incarnata Raf., Sylva Tellur. 83. 1838. tyPe: Unknown. Lantana amethystina Otto & A. Dietr., Allg. Gartenzeitung 9:370. 1841. tyPe: Unknown. Lantana triplinervia Turcz. f. armata Moldenke, Phytologia 36:49. 1977. tyPe: BRAZIL. são Paulo: Pariquera-açu, 18 Feb 1965, Eiten & Clayton 6194 (holotyPe: US!; isotyPe: K[di!]).
Leaf-blades with the indument of the adaxial surface composed of strigae, 0.05–0.5 mm; indument of the abaxial surface composed of strigae, 0.05–0.7 (longest ones mostly 0.4–0.5) mm, often with short, straight fililform hairs to 0.3 mm mixed in but not dominant or codominant. Inflorescences remaining hemispheric; receptacle rarely elongating and becoming naked below. Corolla opening creamy white or pink, aging cream, yellow or orange infused with purple or opening yellow aging purple.
Distribution and habitat.—Probably of cultivated hybrid origin, cultivated world-wide and escaped pantropically (especially in Australia), but also collections from southeastern Brazil apparently of natural hybrid origin; understory and disturbance openings and man-made grasslands in tropical humid forest, occasionally in dry forest; 0–1500 m.
Lantana montevidensis as in our site is not Lantana depressa var. depressa
What is surprising is that Lantana montevidensis is not mentioned anywhere else than above, though the paper gives Lantana montevidensis (Spreng.) Briq. var. aurea Mattoon as a syn. of Lantana depressa var. depressa
As there seems to be no further publications on Lantana, basing on this wider publication by Sanders, to determine our species.
I am keeping the names as determined earlier in efi site, for the time being.
Lantana (Verbenaceae) page with images of species in efloraofindia : 1 post by 1 author.
I request you to pl. go through & point out mistakes, if any. I hope this will aid in identifications in future. If anybody can send images of other species of this genera (for incorporation in the website), if any, or can identify unidentified images, it will be really nice.