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(Cultivated):

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Leea indica (Burm. f.) Merr. (As per efi thread: Leea indica: Leaves 2- to 3-pinnate; lower surface glabrous, lateral veins 6-11 pairs; marginal teeth sharp; berry 8-10 mm. Leea asiatica: Leaves pinnate or 3-foliate; lower surface pubecent beneath especially along veins; lateral veins 11-15 pairs; marginal teeth rounded or obtuse; berry 5-7 mm)    

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Leea rubra Blume ex Spreng. (Petals are red inside) (Java, Myanmar [Burma], peninsular Malaysia (Perlis, Kedah, Penang Isl., Kelantan), India (Assam, West Bengal, Meghalaya), Bangladesh, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, +Singapore, Sumatra, Madura Isl., Lesser Sunda Isl. (Sumbawa, Flores, Sumba, Timor), Borneo, Palawan, Sulawesi, Moluccas (Tanimbar, Kei Isl.), New Guinea as per CoL)
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Leea setuligera C. B. Clarke (W. India, Assam to China (Yunnan) and Thailand as per POWO)
(Flowers turn creamish yellow on maturity, leaf margins closely serrate and stiff bristles on the upper surface of the leaflets between each pair of the nerves)

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08-05-2021 : S-KOLEY : Leea diversity in India:

This is a table of Leea spp., shortlisted from a paper (see the table) –
Leea spp : shortlisted from A REVISION OF THE FAMILY LEEACEAE / C. E. RIDSDALE : BLUMEA 22 (1974) 57-100
L. macrophylla

Roxb. Ex Hornem

(incl. integrifolia, robusta, aspera Wall., latifolia etc)

Flowers
5-merous, greenish
whiteLeaves unifoliolate, trifoliolate
or 1-3
pinnate
Open vegetation, dry forest and teak forest, particularly forest borders and regrowths, upto 2250 m alt. Bombay, Central Prov., Mysore, Madras, Orissa, Bihar, Bengal. United Prov., Sikkim, Khasia, Assam, Bhutan, Nepal, Bangladesh, etc
L. compactiflora

Kurz

(incl.
trifoliate, robusta auct. Non Roxb., bracteata)

Flowers
5-merous, greenish
white Trifoliolate
or 1-2
pinnate
Woodland on shaded ravines and hillsides, sometimes dying back to woody base in drier localities, upto 2000 m. alt. Sikkim, Assam, Khasia, Manipur, Bhutan, WB
L. crispa
van Royen
ex L.(incl. aspera Edgew, herbacea, pumila, pinnata)
Flowers
5-merous, greenish
whiteLeaves unifoliolate, trifoliolate
or 1-2
pinnate
Evergreen, deciduous and montane forests to 2250 m alt, grassland plains Bombay, Central Prov., Mysore, Madras, Orissa, Bihar, Bengal. United Prov., Punjab, W. Himalaya, Sikkim, Khasia, Assam, Manipur, Bhutan, Nepal, Bangladesh
L. indica
(Burm.f.) Merr.
Flowers
greenish whiteLeaflets
generally
3-nerved
at base
Bombay, Madras northwards to Punjab, Sikkim, Assam, Nepal, Bangladesh
L. aequata
L.
Inflorescence
and leaflets
with large, discoidal,
brown pearl glands,
bracts of inflorescence large,
upto 8×5 mm, conspicuousLeaves 2-4 pinnate
Bombay, Central Prov., Mysore, Madras, Orissa, Bihar, Bengal. United Prov., Sikkim, Assam, Bhutan, Nepal, Bangladesh
L. rubra
Bl. Ex
Spreng
Flowers and inflorescence
deep redLeaves chartaceous, without setaceous hairs above
Assam, Khasia, Bengal, Bangladesh
L. alata Edgw. Flowers 5-merous, red

Leaves 1-pinnate,
rarely trifoliolate

Dry woodland and hill forest Punjab, United Prov. Central Prov., Orissa, Bihar, Bengal, Assam, Khasia, Sikkim, ?Nepal, Bhutan
L.
setuligera
ClarkeNote : very similar to L. guineensis
in general appearance
Flowers 5-merous, wine red to carmine in the bud, creamish yellow when open

2-3 pinnate, leaflets numerous

Under shrubs in deciduous forests Concan, Assam
L.
guineensis
G. Don
Leaflets petiolulate, rachis not winged Bombay, Madras northwards to United Prov., eastwards to Sikkim and Assam
NOTE : There might be some mistake while copying from the paper. Distribution records copied without changing to current names of the places. Distribution in other countries and Andaman Nicobar omitted while copying

KEY – I
  1. Leaves 1-pinnate = L. alata Edgew.
  2. Leaves 1-2-3 pinnate (bipinnate, occasionally tripinnate at base – Flora of Zambia)  = L. guineensis G. Don
  3. Leaves 2-4 pinnate = L. rubra Bl. Ex Spreng
  4. Leaves 2-3 pinnate, leaves setaceously hairy above, below with setaceous hairs on the nerves = L. setuligera Clarke
KEY – II
  1. leaflets sessile, rachis winged = L. alata
  2. leaflets petiolulate, rachis not winged = L. guineensis
KEY – III
  1. sinuses of staminodial tube shallow (deep in Madagascar and Mauritius) = L. guineensis
  2. sinuses of staminodial tube deep, corolla tube + staminodial lobes upto 3 mm, staminodial tube less than 2 mm = L. rubra

Thank you.


Is this a KEY to L. rubra and L. guineensis ??? –

GBIF doesn’t support that.


I think, the upload by … from Sri Lanka herbal garden- efi thread

is Leea alata Edgew, (even though Sri Lanka is not in the given distribution list) because –
  • as far as I can see it is 1-pinnate leaf with sessile leaflets, elliptic-oblong to elliptic-lanceolate leaflets
  • most importantly oblong stipule
for comparing –
  1. KEW herbarium
  2. GBIF herb. (also sourced from KEW) – https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/912569415

…. upload from Kalimpong – efi thread is either L. rubra Bl. Ex Spreng or L. guineensis G. Don.

Unfortunately, the paper I am following doesn’t provide description of both species. And I have no clear idea how to differentiate them without ‘KEY-III” and stipule picture. Yet, I agree with the established id, as L. guineensis G. Don, because –
  1. inside of petal is creamy-yellow
  2. long acuminate tips of the leaflets and nerves
  3. apparently longer staminodial tube

Thank you.



Attached here is an account of Leea guineensis, from “Botany of Bihar and Orissa / H. H. Haines”.

… also provided KEY to L. rubra and L. guineensisin my thread –
Difference between these two species lies in the stipule characters. Here is a key from Fl. Malesiana (Ser. I Vol 7):
1. Stipule a narrower wing, somewhat persistent, scar long and thin ……. Leea rubra
1. Stipule obovate, caducous, leaving a broad scar ……. Leea guineensis
The paper, I am following, however provides 2 types of  stipules in L. rubra and 4 types of stipules in L. guineensis. Of-course these variations in stipules cover the entire global population of the two spp.
1 attachment.


My first regret is that I couldn’t keep … word, requesting to photograph the stipule of the species in my thread – efi thread
My second regret is that I deleted all original photographs, recorded after mid-2014,, from my computer, without taking backup.
However, I think the Leea in BSI might be L. rubra, because –
  • flowers are not exactly like some other posts, here inside of the petals are red –
  • less exserted (?) staminodial tube
  • oblong (?) stipule (somewhat similar stipule can also happen in L. guineensis


This is the concluding part of my study.

I think … Leea from Singapore is Leea rubra Bl.ex Spreng. Its petals are red inside as in Singapore Govt. Agency site – Flora fauna web
As for all red coloured cultivated / ornamental Leaa, I would go for Leea guineensis G. Don, for they all feature petals creamy-white inside. And leaves are quite different – wavy, shiny, cuneate at base …. as in Singapore Govt. Agency site – Flora fauna web.  All other sites might have mixed up L. rubra and L. guineensis.

It is expected that flowers of L. guineensis would be “creamish yellow” when open, because the “paper”, while describing Leea setuligera Clarke, notes. “very similar to L. guineensis in general appearance, and possibly frequently overlooked and confused with that species.


Thanks, Sir ji, it was more of my learning process than to establish any identification of relevant threads!

And, imagine, just now what I have found out !!! –
A few words extracted from an account of Leea sambucina Willd., in the “FLORA OF TROPICAL AFRICA, Vol-I, 1868”.
“A suberrect woody shrub about 8 ft high, ………. Corolla oblong, 1/8 in. deep, glabrous, bright red on the outside, yellow within or entirely orange. …….”

In the “paper”, I am following, it was referred to as L. sambucina auct. non.Wild.. …… Baker in Fl. Tr. Afr. I (1868) …”, under L. guineensis G. Don.!


Leea setuligera herbarium from India at KEW –

  1. http://apps.kew.org/herbcat/getImage.do?imageBarcode=K000323732
  2. http://apps.kew.org/herbcat/getImage.do?imageBarcode=K000736381
Note : 1) closely set lateral nerves (2) closely set serraturem on leaf margin.

In … post – efi thread – (3) indumentum on adaxial leaf surface


Leea guineensis herbarium from India, at KEW –


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Binomial Habit Notes Ref. Distrib.
Leea asiatica (L.) Ridsdale  Under shrub Western Ghats,
Dry Deciduous to Moist Deciduous Forests
Flora of Tamil
Nadu, VOL. I, 1983
Coimbatore,
Nilgiri, Theni 
Leea guineensis G. Don Under shrub Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983
Coimbatore,
Nilgiri, Tirunelveli
Leea indica (Burm. F. ) Merr. Large
shrub
Western
Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Moist Deciduous Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983; Matthew, 1983
Coimbatore,
Dindigul, Kanniya kumari, Madurai, Namakkal, Nilgiri, Salem, Theni,
Tiruchchira ppalli, Tirunelveli
Leea macrophylla Roxb. ex Hornem. Shrub Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983
Coimbatore,
Nilgiri

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Botanical name Synonyms Family Common name
Leea asiatica Leea aspera, Leea crispa, Phytolacca asiatica Vitaceae Banchalita
Leea coccinea (? is a synonym of Leea guineense G.Don) ‘Rubra’ Leea rubra (? Leea rubra Blume ex Spreng.) Vitaceae Red Leea
Leea indica Vitaceae Bandicoot Berry
Leea macrophylla Leea integrifolia, Leea latifolia Vitaceae Hathikana
Leea robusta is a synonym of Leea macrophylla   Vitaceae Robust Leea

.

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Leea aequata L. (Himalaya (Nepal to Bhutan), India, Burma, Thailand, Indo-China, Malaysia except New Guinea)
Leea alata Edgew. (Himalaya (Punjab to Bhutan), India)
Leea compactiflora Kurz (Himalaya (Nepal to Bhutan), N. India, Burma, Indo-China, Yunnan)
Leea crispa Royen ex L. (Himalaya (Kashmir to Bhutan), India, Burma, Thailand, Indo-China, W. China) is a synonym of Leea asiatica (L.) Ridsdale
Leea guineensis G. Don (Africa, Mascarenes, Himalaya (Nepal, Sikkim), India, Burma, Thailand, Indo-China, Taiwan, Malaysia, Micronesla) 
Leea indica (Burm. f.) Merr. (Himalaya (Nepal, Sikkim), India, Ceylon, Burma, Thailand, Indo-China, China, Malaysia, N. Australia, Polynesia)
Leea macrophylla Roxb. ex Hornem. (Himalaya (Nepal to Bhutan), India, Burma, Thailand, Indo-China)

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Leea aequata Linnaeus [Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam].
Leea asiatica (Linnaeus) Ridsdale in Manilal [Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Laos, Nepal, Thailand, Vietnam].
Leea compactiflora Kurz [Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Laos, Myanmar, Vietnam].
Leea guineensis G. Don [Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam; Africa, Madagascar].
Leea indica (N. L. Burman) Merrill [Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; N Australia, Pacific islands].
Leea macrophylla Roxburgh ex Hornemann [Cambodia, India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand].
Leea setuligera C. B. Clarke [India, Thailand].

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Forest Plants of Eastern India By Amal Bhusan Chaudhuri (1993)- Brief Description-
Leea acuminata Wall. (syn. of  Leea guineense),
Leea aequata L.,
Leea bracteata C.B.Clarke (syn. of Leea compactiflora Kurz),
Leea crispa L. (syn. of Leea asiatica), 
Leea herbacea Ham. (syn. of Leea asiatica),
Leea indica (Burm. f.) Merr.
Leea robusta Roxb. (syn. of Leea macrophylla),
Leea umbraculifera C.B. Clarke (syn. of Leea indica)  

 
Biodiversity in India, Volume 4 edited by T. Pullaiah (2006)- Description-
Leea indica (Burm. f.) Merr.,
Leea setuligera C.B.Clarke

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Flora of Davanagere District, Karnataka, India By B. K. Manjunatha, V. Krishna, T. Pullaiah (2004)- Details with keys

Leea asiatica: Leaves pinnate or 3-foliate; lower surface pubecent beneath especially along veins; lateral veins 11-15 pairs; marginal teeth rounded or obtuse; berry 5-7 mm
Leea indica: Leaves 2- to 3-pinnate; lower surface glabrous, lateral veins 6-11 pairs; marginal teeth sharp; berry 8-10 mm

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Leea species in Sahyadri: Would like to know the checklist of Leea species distributed in Sahyadri
(Western Ghats of Maharashtra).
1. Leea asiatica
2. Leea indica
3. Leea macrophylla
4. Leea hirta … ¿ syn. of L. aequata ?
5. … and, any more ?
Key to ID L. asiatica and L. hirta will greatly help.

Found another species distributed in Maharashtra: Leea setuligera
Thus keys to ID of L. asiatica, L. hirta (syn. of Leea aequata L.) and L. setuligera will greatly help

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Pl. go through Leea (‎‎‎‎‎‎‎‎‎‎‎‎Vitaceae) page with images of species in efloraofindia.

If you find any incorrect identification, pl. let us know. If anybody can send images of other species of this genera (for incorporation in the website), if any, or can identify unidentified images, it will be really nice.


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