Phyllanthus urinaria L., Sp. Pl. 982 1753. (Syn. Diasperus urinaria (L.) Kuntze; Phyllanthus cantoniensis Schweigg.; Phyllanthus alatus Blume; Phyllanthus cantoniensis Hornem.; Phyllanthus croizatii Steyerm.; Phyllanthus echinatus Buch.-Ham. ex Wall. [Invalid]; Phyllanthus lauterbachianus Pax; Phyllanthus leprocarpus Wight; Phyllanthus muricatus Wall. [Invalid]; Phyllanthus nozeranii Rossignol & Haicour; Phyllanthus rubens Bojer ex Baker; Phyllanthus urinaria var. laevis Haines; Phyllanthus urinaria var. oblongifolius Müll.Arg.; Phyllanthus verrucosus Elmer [Illegitimate]);
Tropical & Subtropical Asia to N. Australia: Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, Caroline Is., China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Hainan, India, Japan, Jawa, Korea, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maldives, Marianas, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Pakistan, Philippines, Queensland, South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia; Introduced into: Alabama, Arkansas, Belize, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Central American Pac, Chagos Archipelago, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Illinois, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Kansas, Leeward Is., Liberia, Louisiana, Madagascar, Marquesas, Mauritius, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, New Caledonia, New York, Nicaragua, Nigeria, North Carolina, Peru, Puerto Rico, Réunion, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Society Is., South Carolina, Suriname, Tennessee, Texas, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Tubuai Is., Venezuela, Virginia, Windward Is., Zaïre as per POWO;
chamber bitter, common leaf-flower, shatterstone • Bengali: হাজারমণি hazarmani • Hindi: हजारमणी hajarmani, लाल भुईंआंवला lal bhuinanwalah • Kannada: ಕೆಮ್ಪು ಕಿರುನೆಲ್ಲಿ kempu kirunelli, ಕೆಮ್ಪು ನೆಲನೆಲ್ಲಿ kempu nelanelli • Malayalam: ചിറുകീയുകനെല്ലി chirukizhukanelli, ചുക്കാന്‍കീഴ്നെല്ലി chukannakizhanelli • Manipuri: চকপা হৈক্রূ chakpa-heikru • Marathi: लाल भुईआवळी laal bhooyiavali • Nepalese: खनतड kanthad • Sanskrit: भूम्यामलकी bhumyamalaki, उज्झटा ujjhata • Tamil: சிவப்பு கீழாநெல்லி civappu kilanelli, சிறு கீழாநெல்லி cirukilanelli • Telugu: ఎర్ర ఉసిరిక erra usirika;

Phyllanthus sp. collected from Kamrup district, Assam :  Attachments (10).  4 posts by 2 authors.
Attached images are Phyllanthus sp. collected from Kamrup district, Assam. Please ID the plant Date :11.06.2013
Location: Kamrup district
Family : Euphorbiaceae
Genus & species : Phyllanthus sp.
Habitat: Grows wild on flower tub
Habit : Herb

Seems to me Phyllanthus fraternus ( Syn Phyllanthus niruri ).

efi page on Phyllanthus fraternus

Phyllanthus niruri is an admixture of three species. Vide Bull. Bot. Surv. India, Volume 27.

Phyllanthus urinaria as per recent thread.

Phyllanthus sp. from Assam: 4 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (6).

Attached images are Phyllanthus sp.. Please ID the plant. 
Date :04.06.2014
Location: Assam
Family : Phyllanthaceae (Euphorbiaceae)
Genus & species : Phyllanthus sp.
Habitat: Grows wild
Habit :Herb

To me it is Phyllanthus urinaria.

Thanks …!! Please see the attached one Yellow flower .

It is Phyllanthus urinaria for sure.


July2015sk13/15 — Phyllanthus urinaria L. : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (5)

Nice pics and analysis

Recognizable by the usually white-hispidulous or -pilose leaf-margins and the subsessile tuberculate capsules. A species with a few microscopic differences viz. Phyllanthus nozeranii is described and recorded for India but considering the wide range of distribution of P. urinaria and difficulty in distinguishing P. nozeranii, it seems appropriate to treat the same as conspecific with P. urinaria.

Thank you very much Sir.

I didn’t know about Phyllanthus nozerani. I have some earlier photographs of similar looking species with tuberculated capsules. But leaves are significantly smaller in these attached photographs, recorded in October 2012 in my village. I think this is/was also P. urinaria.
Attachments (3)

Thanks, … All your postings are so nice with very detailed pictures and deep research.

Do not worry for the second set of photographs …,
The leaves in P. urinaria are recorded to be 4 – 20 x 2 – 10 mm.



Phyllanthus urinaria L. (accepted name) ?? : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (12)
Sharing some pictures I guess is Phyllanthus urinaria L. (accepted name) shot at Pashupati Forest Kathmandu Nepal today at 4400 ft.
Plant is very tiny  7-9 cm.


Nepali Names: Khantad खनतड/ Bhui Amalaa भुइँ अमला / Ajaataa अजाता


VOF Week: Phyllanthus for id from Rishikesh-Joshimath highway:
This was shot during out halt at a place near Karanprayag….which Phyllanthus sp. this can be??

Phyllanthus urinaria, I think.

I have posted what I believe is Phyllanthus urinaria at the thread posted.
Have a number of queries on my post which I hope will be answered.
Feel your post is Phyllanthus sp. but not urinaria (don’t know what it is).
It may be a good idea to post this plant again in Euphorbiaceae Fortnight to avail expert opinion.

Phyllanthus urinaria.

Is this Phyllanthus urinaria L., Phyllanthus urinaria var. hookeri (Müll.Arg.) Hook.f. or is it Phyllanthus urinaria subsp. urinaria.

Bogus names. Please remember that all other attributes are bogus. Even Phyllanthus nozeranii, being promoted by …, Andhra Pradesh is a bogus name. A widespreread species can always have variations.

Thanks … for finally concluding he id.. thanks … for digging out the old mail …..


Euphorbiaceae fortnight: Phyllanthaceae: Phyllanthus urinaria L. SM4 : Attachments (3).  4 posts by 2 authors
Phyllanthus urinaria L. @ Tungareshwar; ref. Fl.Maharashtra, MR Almeida
The plant list gives 2 other accepted names Phyllanthus urinaria var. hookeri (Müll.Arg.) Hook.f. and Phyllanthus urinaria subsp. urinaria – not sure how to separate the three i.e. on what characteristics.

Did find part of the answer but a better informed view welcome:
”Phyllanthus urinaria var hookeri; taller and larger in all its parts, 1-1.5 ft. high, stem terete with
simple long erect angled branches, filaments wholly connate.’ (ref.: FBI 5:294).

Phyllanthus urinaria.


Euphorbiaceae fortnight :: Phyllanthaceae :: Phyllanthus urinaria in Tungareshwar WLS :: DV68 : 5 images. 4 posts by 3 authors.
Phyllanthus urinaria L. Phyllanthaceae, Euphorbiaceae s. l.
at Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary on 18 OCT 08 and 24 SEP 11

Very good photographs

No doubt about the identity.

Phyllanthus fraternus : Attachments (1).  3 posts by 3 authors.
Branches with leaves and fruits of Phyllanthus fraternus (Euphorbiaceae) have been traditionally used as medicine for jaundice and other liver ailments in Assam.

This one is Phyllanthus urinaria.

Without seeing a specimen it is not possible for me to identify this plant.

EUPHORBIACEAE FORTNIGHT: Phyllanthus urinaria from Uttarakhand_DSR_47 : Attachments (1).  2 posts by 2 authors.
Phyllanthus urinaria L. is common post monsoon wild herb in Pantnagar.

Nice photos

This is less frequent Phyllanthus species in our area..
these shots are recorded from Panipat.. though I got this plant at various locations
Please validate if this is Phyllanthus urinaria

Excellent photos of Phyllanthus urinaria.


EUPHORBIACEAE FORTNIGHT:: Phyllanthus for id from Chakrata and Morni Hills NS-60 : Attachments (4). 3 posts by 2 authors.
This Phyllanthus, the fruit of which resembles P. urinaria, except that this is green was shot from Chakrata and Morni Hills.. plesae help to conclude the id

Phyllanthus urinaria.


Phyllanthus urinaria L. SN Mar18 : Attachments (1). 7 posts by 3 authors.
Phyllanthus urinaria L. Fam Phyllanthaceae, herb grows near moist and shade places.
Collected from Tirumala hills of Andhrapradesh.

Thanks … for agreeing with me. Yes, the picture shows the habit as well as habitat of the plant, so it is a good shot 🙂

Pl find some more photographs of P. urinaria

Thank you very much. The identification is correct only.

Phyllanthus sp.. from Assam KD 03 Sept. :  3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (4).
Attached images are Phyllanthus sp.. Please ID the plant.
Date :31.08.2014
Location: Assam
Family :Euphorbiaceae
Genus & species : Phyllanthus
Habitat: Grows wild on side of the ditches
Habit : Herb.   

Its Phyllanthus urinaria L.

Perhaps a mixture of P. debilis and P. urinaria.


Attached images are Phyllanthus sp. My earlier upload of same sp. Please ID the Plant. 
Date :09.09.2014
Location: Assam
Family : Euphorbiaceae
Genus & species : Phyllanthus sp.
Habitat: Grows wild Habit :  Herb

Phyllanthus urinaria


Phyllanthus sp. from Assam KD 08 Sept : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (8).

Attached images may be Phyllanthus debilis or P. urinaria. Please Id the plant 
Date :09.09.2014
Location: Assam
Family :Euphorbiaceae
Genus & species : Phyllanthus sp.
Habitat: Grows wild on open space
Habit : Herb

Since the fruits are tuberculate here, it is Phyllanthus urinaria.
The fruits are smooth in P. debilis. Of course they have other differences as well.

Phyllanthus urinaria

ANNOV57 Phyllanthus urinaria : 4 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (3)

Chimmony Wildlife sanctuary, Kerala
November 2014

Nice photos of Phyllanthus urinaria

Yes, it is indeed Phyllanthus urinaria.

this where … poster and link to 5 or 6 more papers and a discussion
efi thread

Phyllanthus urinaria L. ??? : 12 posts by 5 authors. Attachments (7) – around 700 kb each.
Location :  Thula Khet, Pokhara, Nepal
Date : 10 August 2017
Altitude : 2800 ft.

Beautiful images … The tuberculate fruits and ciliate leaf-margins are distinctive.

Thank you … ID correct ??


Nepali Names : अजाता  Ajaata / खनतड Khantad

Beautiful images. Widely used in Indian system of medicines. Seen in wild in open lands after rains here.

Here am attaching some images of Phyllanthus urinaria taken from H.P. in August 2018…!!

Good photography. Correct naming.

BK0032 : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
Phyllanthus urinaria L.

Location: Kathmandu
Elevation: 1370m asl
Date: 19 sep 2020


ID requested: Phyllanthaceae: 3 images.

Phyllanthus urinaria? (Leaves look different. Plasticity?)
Moist semi-evergreen forests,
Nellakkotta forests, Mudumalai, Nilgiris, TN
~900 m altitude
January 11, 2019.

Also check for Phyllanthus amarus ???

I agree with … for urinaria, … in amaraus fruit is not echinate,

I did not suggest the ID. But suggested to also check the possibility.

Ok …

This is Phyllanthus urinaria only. You are saying that the leaves are looking different but this shape and size fall well within the range of variation of the species.


for id: 1 high res. image.
Found in the reclaimed wetlands, near Akkulam, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala.
Pls confirm id of this Phyllanthus..

Phyllanthus species.

A member of Phyllanthus subgen. Macraea and identifiable as P. narayanswamii Gamble.

Resembles Phyllanthus urinaria

May be so as suggested by … but the foliage appears to differ slightly.


Mumbai :: July 2015 :: Phyllanthus for ID :: ARK2022-064: 4 high res. images.

This was clicked at SGNP, Mumbai, Maharashtra in July 2015.
Is this Phyllanthus urinaria?
Requested to provide ID.

Yes, appears close as per images at Phyllanthus urinaria

Emblica urinaria, previously Phyllanthus urinaria.

Any paper reference


Phyllanthaceae: Phyllanthus urinaria L.: 2 images- 1 high res.
location/date (both): Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, October 1994