Keys and habitat from Flora of Bhutan (1983):
1. Leaves in whorls of 3 or 4, pinnately-veined …….. Species 16 (Pilea ternifolia Weddell- 1800- 2400 m. June- August)
-Leaves in opposite pairs, strongly 3-veined …….. 2
2. Leaves of each pair strongly dissimilar in size …… Species 13 (P. anisophylla Weddell- Warm broad-leaved forests, on wet rocks and streamsides, 1050-2100 m. July – October), 14 (P. insolens Weddell- Cool broad-leaved forests; on wet rocks, 2300-2600 m. June-July) & 15 (P. clarkei Hook. f.- Warm broad-leaved forests, 1050- 1500 m. November)
-Leaves of each pair equal or subequal …….. 3
3. Herbs or subshrubs, rarely climbing, stems 30- 200 cm, occasionally smaller ……… 4
-Weak herbs, stems usually less than 15 cm, rarely up to 20 cm …….. 7
4. Leaves entire, rarely with a few minute teeth near apex ……………. Species 1 (P. glaberrima (Blume) Blume; P. smilacifolia Weddell- Warm broad-leaved fo rests, on shady banks, 1100- 1400 m. April- June)
-Leaves serrate or crenate ………. 5
5. Stipules interpetiolar, 1.5- 2 cm, herbaceous, deciduous …………. Species 2 (P. hookeriana Weddell- Subtropical and Warm broad-leaved forests, 750- 2000 m. November)
-Stipules axillary, minute or up to 1 cm, membranous, deciduous or persistent (sometimes with small additional herbaceous interpetiolar stipules) …….. 6
6. Stipules lanceolate or narrowly ovate, 2-5 mm long, deciduous or inconspicuous ……….. Species 3 (P. scripta (D. Don) Weddell- Warm broad-leaved forests, on moist shady slopes, 1000- 1900 m. July- September), 4 (P. symmeria Weddell; P. wightii sensu F.B.I. , p.p. non Weddell- Moist Hemlock/ Rhododendron and Evergreen oak forests, on shaded banks and by streams, 2200- 3300 m. May- July) & 5 (P. martinii (leveille Handel-Mazzetti- Moist forests, 2100-2300 m. July-August)
-Stipules ovate or oblong-lanceolate, 5- 10 mm long, conspicuous, often persistent ……… Species 6 (P. umbrosa Blume- 2000 m. May- September), 7 (P. bracteosa Weddell- Warm and Cool broad-leaved forests, 1200- 2700 m. May- August) & 8 (P. cordifolia Hook. f.- 300-2100 m. July- September)
7. Leaves serrate or crenate ……… Species 9 (P. racemosa (Royle) Tuyarna; P. wightii Weddell var.? roylei Hook.f.- Hemlock and Fir forests, on mossy rocks in ravines, 3140- 4260 m. May- August), 10 (P. approximata Clarke- Fir/Rhododendron and Cool broad-leaved forests, on wet mossy rock faces in ravines, 2500- 3700 m. June- July) & 11 (P. peploides (Gaudichaud) Hooker & Arnott- March- July)
-Leaves entire ……….. Species 12 (?- Amongst shrubs in dry rocky valleys, 1350-1400 m. August)
Pilea angulata (Bl.) Bl. (China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, S-Shaanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan), SE-Tibet, India, Java, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu) as per CoL)
Pilea anisophylla Wedd. (Central Himalaya to China (W. & S. Yunnan): Assam, Bangladesh, China South-Central, East Himalaya, Myanmar, Nepal, Tibet as per POWO)
Pilea cadierei Gagnep. & Guillaumin (Cultivated)
Pilea depressa (Sw.) Blume (Cultivated)
Pilea martinii (H. Lév.) Hand.-Mazz. (Nepal to Central & S. China: China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Nepal, Tibet as per POWO)
Pilea melastomoides (Poir.) Wedd. (China (SW-Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, S-Yunnan), Taiwan, SE-Tibet, Java, India, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Myanmar [Burma], Philippines (Luzon) as per Catalogue of Life)
Pilea microphylla (L.) Liebm. (Introduced)
Pilea nummulariifolia (Sw.) Wedd. (Cultivated)
Pilea peperomioides (Cultivated)
Pilea pubescens Liebm. (Introduced)?
Pilea racemosa (Royle) Tuyama (China (W-Sichuan, NW-Yunnan), S-Tibet, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Sikkim as per Catalogue of Life)
Pilea scripta (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) Wedd. (S-Tibet, China (W-Yunnan), India, Myanmar [Burma], Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim, Pakistan (Hazara, Murree), Jammu & Kashmir (Poonch, Kashmir, Jammu) as per Catalogue of life)
Pilea ternifolia Wedd. (S-Tibet, Nepal, Sikkim, India, Darjeeling, Bhutan as per Catalogue of Life)
Pilea umbrosa Wall. ex Bl. (S-Tibet, China (NW-Yunnan), Nepal, Bhutan, India (Arunachal Pradesh), Sikkim, Pakistan (Swat, Hazara, Murree), Jammu & Kashmir (Poonch, Jammu, Kashmir), Vietnam as per Catalogue of Life)
Pilea wightii Wedd. (S. India, Sri Lanka, China (Guangxi, Guangdong): China Southeast, India, Sri Lanka as per POWO)
BSI Flora of India Checklist (Distribution):
FRLHT Indian Medicinal Plants Nomenclature Database with images/ herbarium, distribution, local names etc. :
Species with description & pictures in Flowers of India as on 8.6.14:
Species with description & keys in Flora of Pakistan
Flora of Ranga Reddi District Andhra Pradesh, India By T. Pullaiah, M. Silar Mohammed (2000- with description)
Plant Wealth of the Lower Ganga Delta: An Eco-taxonomical Approach, Volume 2 By Kumudranjan Naskar (1993- with description)
Forest Plants of Eastern India By Amal Bhusan Chaudhuri (1993-
Pilea smilacifolia Wedd.is a synonym of Pilea glaberrima (Blume) Blume,
World Spice Plants: Economic Usage, Botany, Taxonomy By Johannes Seidemann (2005)- Details-
Floriculture in India By Gurcharan Singh Randhawa, Amitabha Mukhopadhyay (1986- with description)
Mansfeld’s Encyclopedia of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: (Except … edited by Peter Hanelt, Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, W. Kilian (2001)- Details-
Hot spots of endemic plants of India, Nepal and Bhutan by M. P. Nayar – Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, 1996 – Science – 252 pages-
Pilea approximata var. approximata : Herb; 2500-3700m; E. Himalaya.
Pilea clarkei Hook.f. : Herb; 1 050 – 1 500m; E. Himalaya.
Pilea racemosa (Royle) Tuyama : Herb; 3000-4200m; E. Himalaya.
Pilea ternifolia Weddell : Herb; 1800-2500m; E. Himalaya …………………
Floristic Plants of the World By Rashtra Vardhana (2001)- Details-
Pilea : 1 post by 1 author.
I have updated eFI (efloraofindia) page on Pilea (Urticaceae)
Attempts have been made to incorporate most of the species available in India & nearby areas with details & keys directly or through links as far as possible. It’s quite possible that there may be some discrepancy in the accepted names & synonyms taken from other links.
Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.
If someone can provide complete list of Indian species with source references it will be wonderful.
Any comments/ corrections are welcome.
Pl. go through Pilea (Urticaceae) page with images of species in efloraofindia.
I request you to pl. go through & point out mistakes, if any. I hope this will aid in identifications in future. If anybody can send images of other species of this genera (for incorporation in the website), if any, or can identify unidentified images, it will be really nice.