Saxifraga andersonii Engl. (Nepal, Bhutan, S-Tibet, Sikkim as per Catalogue of life)

Saxifraga asarifolia Sternb. (Himalaya to Assam: Assam, East Himalaya, Nepal, West Himalaya as per POWO)


Saxifraga filicaulis Wall. (Himalaya to China (W. Sichuan, NW. & E. Yunnan, E. Central Shaanxi) as per POWO; Bhutan, Sikkim, Jammu & Kashmir, Pakistan (Hazara), China (Shaanxi, W-Sichuan, E-Yunnan, NW-Yunnan), S-Tibet, N-India, Nepal as per Catalogue of Life)


Saxifraga granulifera Harry Sm. (Himalaya to China (Sichuan, Yunnan): China South-Central, East Himalaya, Nepal, Tibet, West Himalaya as per POWO)

Saxifraga hirculus var. alpina Engl. (Svalbard, Siberia, Tibet, Afghanistan (Badakshan, Wakhan), Pakistan (Chitral), Pakistani Kashmir (Hunza, Deosai, Baltistan), Jammu & Kashmir (Nubra, Ladakh, Zanskar, Kashmir), Alaska, Canada (Yukon), Greenland as per CoL)

Saxifraga hispidula



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SAXIFRAGA MINUTISSIMA, A NEW SPECIES FROM THE GARHWAL HIMALAYA, INDIA, AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR THE TAXONOMY OF THE GENUS SAXIFRAGA (SAXIFRAGACEAE) by R. J. Gornall, D. S. Rawat and Zhuoxin Zhang- Edinburgh Journal of Botany / Volume 69 / Issue 02 /  June 2012, pp 211-217- 
Abstract Saxifraga minutissima D.S.Rawat, a new and extremely small species of Saxifraga (Saxifragaceae), is described from the Garhwal Himalaya, India. It differs from all other species of Saxifraga, except Saxifraga bicuspidata, in having five stamens and lacking petals. It can be distinguished from Saxifraga bicuspidata in having leaves and sepals entire. The finely striate pollen exine pattern of Saxifraga minutissima indicates that the species belongs to Saxifraga section Ciliatae. Its prostrate, axillary leafy shoots and lack of crisped, rufous hairs strongly suggests a place in Saxifraga subsection Serpyllifoliae, where one of its closest relatives may be Saxifraga stella-aurea.

An Overview of genus Saxifraga L. in Indian Himalayas – Ebioscholar by Priyanka Agnihotri and Tariq Husain, Annals of Plant Sciences, 2013, 02 (08), 278-283,
(Abstract: The paper deals with the enumeration of genus Saxifraga in Indian Himalayan region. A total of 64 species with 4 sub-species and 5 varieties have been recorded from Indian Himalayas, out of which 23 are confined to Western Himalaya and 17 are found in Eastern Himalaya, while 40 are common in both the areas. The maximum diversity has been observed between 4000-4500m. asl. The genus forms the group of sub-nival vegetation and are inhabitant of one of the most fragile ecosystem of Himalaya, the hot spot of biodiversity and it is urgently needed to document the diversity in the natural habitat and assess the conservation status of the taxa of the genus Saxifraga L.)
1. S. andersonii Engl. 3600 -5200 Sikkim Nepal ,Bhutan, Tibet
2. S. asarifolia Sternb. 3500 – 4500 H.P.; Uttarakhand –
3. S. androsacea L. 3600- 4300 Kashmir Pak , Europe
4. S. aristulata Hook.f. & Thoms. 4200-5600 Uttarakhand, Sikkim Nepal, Bhutan
5. S. brachypoda D.Don 3600-4800 Uttarakhand, H.P.,W.B., Nagaland China, Burma, Tibet
6. S. brachypoda D.Don var. fimbriata (Wall. ex Ser.) Engl. & Irmsch. 3500-4500 Uttarakhand, Sikkim Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar (is a
synonym of Saxifraga wallichiana Sternb.)
7. S. brunonis Wall. ex Ser. 2000 – 5000 Kashmir, H.P.,  Uttarakhand, Sikkim Pak, S.W.China
8. S. caveana W.W. Smith 4200-5000 Sikkim Nepal, Bhutan, S.W.China
9. S. cernua L. 4000 – 5650 Kashmir, H.P., Uttarakhand
10. S. ciliata Royle 2200 – 3500 H.P.
11.  S. cordigera Hook. f. & Thoms. 3600-4200 Sikkim, Nepal, Tibet
12. S. diversifolia Wall. ex Ser. 2000- 4500 H.P., Kashmir, Uttarakhand, Assam, Sikkim Bhutan
13. S. duthiei Gandoger 3300 Kashmir –
14. S. engleriana H. Sm. 3600 – 4700 Sikkim Bhutan, Nepal, S.E.Tibet
15. S. flagellaris Willd. 3500- 4800 H.P., Uttarakhand –
16.    ssp. crassiflagellata Hulten 3500- 4500 H.P., Uttarakhand
17.    ssp. komarovii (A.Los.) Hulten 4500 -5000 H.P. (is a
synonym of Saxifraga komarovii Losinsk.)
18.    ssp. euflagellaris Engl. & Irmsch. 2500 – 6500 Kashmir, H.P., Uttarakhand, Sikkim (is a
synonym of Saxifraga stenophylla Royle)
19. S. filicaulis Wall. ex Ser. 2000 – 4000 H.P., Uttarakhand
20. S. fimbriata Wall. ex Ser. 3500- 4800 Sikkim, Uttarakhand
21. S. gageana W.W. Smith 4400 Sikkim Nepal (is a
synonym of Saxifraga wallichiana Sternb.)
22. S. glabricaulis H.Sm. 3500 Sikkim Nepal , Bhutan, Tibet
23. S. granulifera H.Sm. 3000 – 4000 Uttarakhand Nepal, Bhutan,Tibet
24. S. hemisphaerica Hook.f. & Thoms. 4500 – 5100 Uttarakhand, Sikkim Bhutan
25. S. hirculoides Decne. 4300 – 5800 Kashmir, Uttarakhand Pak, Nepal, Tibet
26. S. hirculus L. var. alpina Engl. 4000 – 4800 H.P. , Sikkim, Kashmir
27. S. hispidula D.Don 3200 – 4200 Uttarakhand, W.B., Sikkim China, Burma, Nepal, Tibet
28. S. hookeri Engl. & Irmsch. 3300- 4800 Sikkim Nepal , Bhutan
29. S. jacquemontiana Decne. 4000 -5200 H.P., Kashmir, Pak, Tibet,
30. S. kingiana Engl. & Irmsch. 3200 – 4200 Sikkim Nepal , Bhutan, Tibet
31. S. kumanensis Engl. Uttarakhand –
32. S. latiflora Hook.f. &Thoms. 3900 -4000 Sikkim Bhutan
33. S. lilacina Duthie 2800 – 4500 Uttarakhand, Kashmir
34. S. lychnitis Hook.f.& Thoms. 4500-5000 Kashmir, Uttarakhand, Sikkim Tibet
35. S. meeboldii Engl. & Irmsch. 4000 -4800 Kashmir Tibet
36. S. melanocentra Franchet 4100 – 4900 Kashmir, Sikkim Nepal ,Bhutan
37. S. microvirides Hara 3800 – 4800 Kashmir, Uttarakhand Nepal
38. S. minutissima D.S.Rawat 4600 – 4800 Uttarakhand
39. S. moorcroftiana (Ser.) Wall. ex Sternb. 3600-4500 H.P., Uttarakhand, Kashmir, Sikkim Pak., Bhutan, Tibet, China
40. S. mucronulata Royle 3800 – 4800 Uttarakhand, Kashmir, Sikkim Bhutan, China
41. S. nakaoi Kitam. ssp. asiatica Engl. & Irmsch. 4000 Kashmir, Uttarakhand Tibet, Siberia, Turkestan
42. S. nigroglandulifera N.P.Balakr. 4200-4900 Sikkim Nepal, China
43. S. pallida Wall ex Ser. 3200 – 4800 Kashmir, Uttarakhand,H.P., Sikkim Pak , Nepal, China
44. S. palpebrata Hook. f. & Thoms. 4300 – 5000 H.P., Uttarakhand, Sikkim –
45. S. parnassifolia D.Don 1900 – 4800 H.P., Uttarakhand, Sikkim Bhutan, Nepal
46. S. perpusilla Hook. f. & Thoms. 3700 – 5800 Sikkim Nepal, Bhutan
47. S. pilifera Hook. f. & Thoms. 4800 Sikkim Nepal, Bhutan
48. S. poluniniana H. Sm. var. mucronata U.C.Bhattach. & M.V.Viswan. 3300- 3500 Uttarakhand Nepal
49. S. pseudo-pallida Engl. & Irmsch. 3600 -5200 Kashmir China (is a
synonym of Saxifraga wallichiana Sternb.)
50. S. pulvinaria H. Sm. 4300 – 5200 Kashmir, H.P., Uttarakhand, Sikkim Nepal
51. S. punctulata Engl. 4900- 5800 Sikkim Nepal , S.E. Tibet
52. S. ramulosa Wall. ex Ser. 6000 Kashmir, H.P., Uttarakhand, Sikkim
53. S. roylei H.Sm. 3300- 3800 Uttarakhand Nepal
54. S. saginoides Hook.f. & Thoms. 3600-5200 H.P., Uttarakhand, Sikkim China
55. S. sibirica L. 3000 -5000 Kashmir, H.P., Uttarakhand Pak , C. Nepal
56. S. sphaeradena H.Sm. 2100- 3400 Sikkim Tibet, Nepal
57. S. stella-aurea Hook.f. & Thoms. var. polyadena H.Sm. 3000-5800 Sikkim Bhutan,Nepal, Tibet
58. S. stenophylla Royle 3600-5000 Kashmir, H.P., Uttarakhand, Sikkim Pak, C.Nepal
59. S. stolitzkae Duthie ex Engl. & Irmsch. 3000 -4000 Uttarakhand Bhutan, Nepal
60. S. strigosa Wall ex Ser. 2500-4300 Uttarakhand, Sikkim, W.B., Bhutan, China
61. S. sub-spathulata Engl. & Irmsch. var. kumaonensis Engl. & Irmsch. 3000 -4000 Uttarakhand, Sikkim Bhutan
62. S. tanguitica Engl. 5000-5600 Kashmir
63. S. umbellata Hook.f. & Thoms. 4000 – 4700 Sikkim
64. S. viscidula Hook.f. & Thoms. 4300 – 5000 Sikkim


Saxifraga afghanica (No distribution in India)
Saxifraga androsacea var. uniflora (No distribution in India)
Saxifraga hirculus var. hirculus (No distribution in India)


Saxifraga amabilis H. Ohba & Wakab. (No distribution given)
Saxifraga cinerea H. Sm. (No distribution in India)
Saxifraga consanguinea W. W. Sm. (No distribution in India)
Saxifraga contraria H. Sm. (No distribution in India)
Saxifraga duthiei Gand. (Doubtful) (No distribution in India)
Saxifraga excellens H. Sm. (No distribution in India)
Saxifraga hypostoma H. Sm. (No distribution in India)
Saxifraga lepida H. Sm. (No distribution in India)
Saxifraga lowndesii H. Sm. (No distribution in India)
Saxifraga mallae H. Ohba & Wakab. (No distribution given)
Saxifraga micans H. Sm. (No distribution in India)
Saxifraga mira H. Sm. (No distribution in India)
Saxifraga montana forma rubra H. Sm. (No distribution in India)
Saxifraga montanella H. Sm. (No distribution in India)
Saxifraga namdoensis H. Sm. (No distribution in India)
Saxifraga nanella Engl. & Irmsch. (No distribution in India)
Saxifraga neopropagulifera H. Hara (No distribution in India)
Saxifraga parva Hemsl. (No distribution in India)
Saxifraga ramulosa Wall. ex Ser. (No distribution in India)
Saxifraga rhodopetala H. Sm. (No distribution in India)
Saxifraga rolwalingensis H. Ohba (No distribution given)
Saxifraga roylei H. Sm. (No distribution in India)
Saxifraga staintonii H. Sm. (No distribution in India)
Saxifraga tentaculata C. E. C. Fisch. (No distribution in India)
Saxifraga zimmermannii Baehni (No distribution in India) 

Binomial Habit Notes Ref. Distrib.
Herb Western Ghats,
Cultivated, Native of East
Asiatic  Region



Species with description & pictures in Flowers of India as on 6.7.14: 

Botanical name Synonyms Family Common name
Saxifraga brachypoda Saxifraga glandulosa, Hirculus brachypodus Saxifragaceae Spiny-Leaf Saxifrage
Saxifraga brunonis Saxifragaceae Brown’s Saxifrage
Saxifraga cernua Saxifraga simulata, Lobaria cernua Saxifragaceae Nodding Saxifrage
Saxifraga filicaulis Hirculus filicaulis, Saxifraga mairei Saxifragaceae Slender-Stem Saxifrage
Saxifraga jacquemontiana Saxifragaceae Jacquemont’s Saxifrage
Saxifraga melanocentra Saxifraga pseudopallida, Saxifraga gageana, Micranthes pseudopallida Saxifragaceae Yellow Spotted White Saxifrage
Saxifraga moorcroftiana Saxifraga reflexa Saxifragaceae Moorcroft’s Saxifrage
Saxifraga parnassifolia Saxifragaceae Himalayan Saxifrage
Saxifraga sibirica Saxifraga mollis, Saxifraga sibirica var. eusibirica Saxifragaceae Siberian Saxifrage
Saxifraga stenophylla Saxifraga flagellaris subsp. stenophylla Saxifragaceae Ladakh Saxifrage
Saxifraga stolonifera Saxifragaceae Strawberry Begonia

Forest Plants of Eastern India By Amal Bhusan Chaudhuri 91993)- Brief details-

Saxifraga brunoniana Wall. ex Sternb. is a synonym of Saxifraga brunonis
Saxifraga micrantha Edgew. is a synonym of Saxifraga pallida

Saxifraga ligulata WALL. = Bergenia pacumbis (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) C. Y. Wu & J. T. Pan
Saxifraga stenophylla Royle

Tibetan Medicinal Plants edited by Christa Kletter, Monika Kriechbaum (2001)- Details-
Saxifraga pseudo-pallida Engl. & Irmsch. is a synonym of Saxifraga melanocentra

A Dictionary of the Economic Products of India, Part 2 By George Watt (1893)- Details-
Saxifraga ligulata WALL. = Bergenia pacumbis (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) C. Y. Wu & J. T. Pan

Hot spots of endemic plants of India, Nepal and Bhutan by M. P. NayarTropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, 1996 – Science252 pages-
Saxifraga asarifolia Sternb. : Rhizomatous herb; 2800-4800 Kashmir Himalaya to Bhutan and adjacent Pakistan Himalaya.
Saxifraga brachypoda D. Don: Caespitose herb; 2700-4800m; Kashmir Himalaya …

Gardening in India By George Marshall Woodrow, G Marshall (1999)- Brief details-
Saxifraga sarmentosa L.f. is a synonym of Saxifraga stolonifera Curtis

SEM images of Saxifraga : Attachments (7).  4 posts by 3 authors.

here are some of the SEM images of Saxifraga showing the lime pits and their calcium oxalate secretions on the leaves.
I dedicate these images to …:)
(Related link:

Beautiful pictures; never seen before.

what will be the magnification of these images?

…, you can find the details on the image itself.
For example, image # 1 is 70 times (labeled as x70) and image # 4 is 1500 times (x1,500) magnified.


ppt for test : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)- check.pptx- 1 mb.
Check it in mobile.


Saxifraga (Saxifragaceae‎) : 1 post by 1 author.

I have updated eFI (efloraofindia) page on Saxifraga (Pl. click).

Attempts have been made to incorporate most of the species available in India & nearby areas with details & keys directly or through links as far as possible. It’s quite possible that there may be some discrepancy in the accepted names & synonyms taken from other links.

Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.

If someone can provide complete list of Indian species with source references it will be wonderful.
Any comments/ corrections are welcome.

I am looking for a publication from KU on Saxifraga-
[Ara, S., Naqshi, A.R. & Dar, G.H. 1996. Genus Saxifraga Linn. (Saxifragaceae) in Kashmir Himalaya. Orient. Sci. 1(1): 27-33]
and not able to see it with my sources.
Can you please help in by sending pdf/ images of pages of this important paper. I hope you may have access to this publication.


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