Terminalia elliptica Willdenow (1806: 969) (syn: = Terminalia alata B. Heyne ex Roth (1821: 379); = Terminalia crenulata Roth (1821: 380); = Pentaptera tomentosa Roxburgh ex Candolle (1828: 14); Terminalia tomentosa (Roxburgh ex Candolle) Wight & Arnott (1833: 63, 1834: 314). = Pentaptera coriacea Roxburgh (1832: 439); Terminalia coriacea (Roxburgh) Wight & Arnott (1834: 315), non Sprengel (1807: 54). = Pentaptera arjuna sensu I.M. Turner (2014: 1135), pro parte, tantum quoad syn. Terminalia elliptica, non Roxburgh ex Candolle (1828:15) as per Terminalia elliptica (Combretaceae) is not conspecific with T. arjuna & efi thread ;
Terminalia alata B. Heyne ex Roth, Nov. Pl. Sp. 379. 1821. (Syn: T. crenulata Roth, Nov. Pl. Sp. 380. 1821.; Pentaptera tomentosa Roxb. [Hort. Bengal. 34. 1814, nom. nud.] ex DC., Prodr. 3: 14. 1828, nom. illeg.; P. crenulata (Roth) DC., Prodr. 3: 15. 1828.; P. crenulata Roxb. [Hort. Bengal. 34. 1814, nom. nud.] Fl. Ind., ed. Carey 2: 438. 1832, nom. illeg.; P. coriacea Roxb. [Hort. Bengal. 34. 1814, nom. nud.] Fl. Ind., ed. Carey 2: 439. 1832.; Terminalia coriacea (Roxb.) Wight & Arn., Prodr. Fl. Ind. Orient. 1: 315. 1834, non Spreng. 1807.; T. tomentosa (Roxb. ex DC.) Wight & Arn., Prodr. Fl. Ind. Orient. 1: 314. 1834, nom. illeg.; T. elliptica sensu M.Gangop. & Chakrab. in J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 21(2): 351. 1997, non Willd. 1821. (Reference: Wendy L. Applequist 2016. Report of the Nomenclature Committee for Vascular Plants: 67. Taxon 65(1): 169-182.) as per efi thread ;
Terminalia elliptica Willd., Sp. pl. 4(2):969. 1806 (syn. Pentaptera tomentosa Roxb. ex DC.; Terminalia alata B. Heyne ex Roth; Terminalia tomentosa Wight & Arn.) as per GRIN;
Biodiversity In India, Volume 4 edited by T. Pullaiah (2006- Terminalia elliptica Willd. with Terminalia crenulata Roth, Pentaptera crenulata Roxb., Terminalia tomentosa var. crenulata Cl. in Hook.f. & Terminalia tomentosa (Roxb.) Wight & Arn. as syn.);
Terminalia crenulata Roth (Syn: Terminalia tomentosa auct., Terminalia tomentosa auct non Wight & Arn., Terminalia elliptica Willd., Pentaptera crenulata Roxb., Terminalia coriacea Wt. & Arn., Terminalia alata Roth., Terminalia glabra var. tomentosa Dalz. & Gibs. & Terminalia tomentosa var. crenulata Cl. in Hook.f.) as per India Biodiversity Portal ;
ter-min-NAY-lee-uh — from Latin terminus (end), referring to leaves at the end of shoots
ee-LIP-tih-kuh — meaning, elliptical, about twice as long as wide
commonly known as: black murdah, crocodile-bark tree, Indian laurel, silver grey wood, white chuglam • Bengali: asan • Gujarati: સાદડ sadad • Hindi: असना or आसन asana, साज saj • Kannada: ಕರಿಮತ್ತಿ karimatti • Marathi: अयन or आईन or ऐन ain, असण or असणा asan, साताडा satada, शार्दूल orशार्दूळ shardul • Oriya: sahaju • Sanskrit: रक्तअर्जुन raktarjun • Tamil: அருச்சுனம் aruccunam, கருமருது karumarutu, மருதமரம் marutamaram • Telugu: ఇనుమద్ది innu maddi, చండ్ర మద్ది nalla maddi
Native to: tropical Asia, mainly India and Burma
Fruits 5-winged, spikes panicled
-Wings of fruits hard, lines on wings curved upwards : T. arjuna syn. T.cuneata अर्जुना
-Wings of fruits papery, lines on wings straight : T. elliptica ऐन
T. cuneata has uneven stem with yellowish white bark. T. elliptica has tall cylindric stem with rough bark (crocodile back). The key goes as below.
If I may try and explain the differences:
1. T.arjuna / T.cuneata [Arjun] has a smooth, white bark flaking off in layers and resembles the bark of a Guava tree, whereas T.elliptica / T.tomentosa / T.crenulata [Ain] has a dark brown deeply fissured bark which is often referred to as ‘Crocodile bark’.
2. As … has pointed out the lines on the wings of the fruit are curved in T.arjuna whereas they are straight in T.elliptica.
3. T.arjuna can stand waterlogging and hence is growing well in the middle of my stream, but have always encountered T.elliptica far away from the banks of the stream.
Flora of Maharashtra by BSI differentiating key says
1. Drupes not winged; spikes simple or sparsely branched:
Deciduous trees, to 30 m high; bark 15-20 mm thick, surface grey-black, very rough, deeply vertically fissured, horizontally cracked, forming tessellated, thick flakes; blaze red. Leaves simple, opposite to subopposite, exstipulate; petiole 10-20 mm long, stout, grooved above, glabrous; lamina 13-20 x 5-13 cm, oblong, oblong-ovate, elliptic-oblong or elliptic-ovate; base oblique; apex acute, round, or obtuse, margin entire or crenulate, glabrous, coriaceous, midrib with 2 stalked glands near the base beneath; lateral nerves 10-20 pairs, parallel, prominent, intercostae scalariform, prominent. Flowers bisexual, dull yellow, 2-3 mm across, in terminal and axillary paniculate spikes; peduncle tomentose; bracteoles 1-2 mm long, linear or subulate; calyx tube 1-2× 1-1.8 mm, angled, base pubescent, constricted above the ovary, lobes 5, ovate, yellow, densely villous inside; petals absent; stamens 10 in 2 rows; filaments 4-5 mm; disc 5-lobed, villous; ovary 2.5 mm long, inferior, densely villous, 1-celled; ovules 2 or 3, pendulous; style 4 mm, subulate; stigma small. Fruit a drupe 3.5 x 5.5 cm, longitudinally 5-winged, glabrous; wings equal, thin, pubescent, lines on the wings horizontal, apex round, coriaceous, reddish-brown; seed one.
Flowering and fruiting: April-May
Moist and dry deciduous forests
India and Sri Lanka
Wild Tree For ID : 140813 : AK-3 : Attachments (2). 3 posts by 2 authors.
Tree growing wild on way to Saputara, seen on 7/8/13
Could be Hymenodictyon?
This is Ain [Terminalia crenulata]. Please check the archives of this group for my photographs of this.
Thanks again. I have seen this at SGNP, Mumbai during TAW last year.
Terminalia coriacea (Roxb.) Wight & Arn. : 1 post by 1 author.
Terminalia coriacea (Roxb.) Wight & Arn, Fam: Combretaceae,
Wild deciduous tree, Talkona, Chithoor dt, Andhra Pradesh
Terminalia tomentosa Wight & Arn. SN Mar 19 : Attachments (1). 2 posts by 2 authors.
Terminalia tomentosa Wight & Arn.; Fam: Combretaceae,
tree from Tirumala hills of Andhra pradesh
Please send some good pictures. The identity is correct. However, the current name of this plant is Terminalia eliiptilca Willd.
Terminalia crenulata Roth SN Mar 26 : 5 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (2).
Terminalia crenulata Roth, Fam Combretaceae, wild tree collected near Anandanagara (Shimoga to Talagoppa), Altitude 650m, Karnataka
I doubt about its identity.
Let me clarify please. First, Terminalia crenulata Roth is a synonym of T. elliptica Willd. (Type: India Orientali, Herb. Cat. No.18943 (B-WILLD: microfiche!). The leaves in this species are opposite to subopposite and the fruits are 5-winged. Being in flowering stage, the fruits are not available and it is not clear whether the leaves are opposite. Hence … is requested to send us further photos from his vast collections.
Tree For ID : Jim Corbett,Uttarakhand : 220614 : AK-39 : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3).
Another tree with an unusual bark deep inside the forest.
Shilondha SGNP, Jun 2014 :: Requesting ID of this shrub :: 26JUN14 :: ARK-49 : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (5).
Requesting to please ID this shrub captured in Shilondha, SGNP, Mumbai in June 2014.
Is this some Leea species?
It is a young shoot of some tree species, not Leea
This is a sapling of Ain [Terminalia elliptica].
Thanks again … for the ID…. and yes, there were a few trees of T. elliptica in the vicinity, that too in flowering state.
Crassulaceae, Combretaceae and Myrtaceae Fortnight: Combretaceae- Terminalia elliptica at Karnataka -PKA-DEC37:: : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (8).
Terminalia elliptica at Karnataka.
Local name: Ain.
Yes it is Terminalia elliptica
Very good photographs …
Crassulaceae, Combretaceae and Myrtaceae Fortnight: Combretaceae- Terminalia elliptica at Sinhagad -PKA-DEC38 : 4 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (3).
One more set of pics of Terminalia elliptica.
Location: Sinhagad, Pune
The uploads are Terminalia elliptica
Terminalia elliptica is the correct name to be adopted.
CCM Fortnight: Combretaceae- ANDEC41 Terminalia sp. for identification : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (8).
Chimmony Wildlife Sanctuary Kerala
Terminalia elliptica Willd.
Crassulaceae, Combretaceae and Myrtaceae Fortnight : Combretaceae : Terminalia elliptica : SGNP,Mumbai : 20DEC14 : AK-54 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)
At the Sanjay Gandhi National Park, during TAW.
Crassulaceae, Combretaceae and Myrtaceae Fortnight :: Combretaceae :: Terminalia elliptica :: SGNP, Shilonda :: ARKDEC-15 : 6 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (9)
Attached are pictures of Terminalia elliptica captured at SGNP, Shilonda in June 2013.
Crassulaceae, Combretaceae and Myrtaceae Fortnight :: Combretaceae :: Terminalia elliptica :: SGNP :: ARKDEC-18 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3).
Attached are pictures of the dried fruits of Terminalia elliptica covering the ground below captured at SGNP in June 2013.
Crassulaceae, Combretaceae and Myrtaceae Fortnight :: Combretaceae :: Terminalia arjuna :: Powai, Mumbai :: ARKDEC-10 : 5 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (3)
Attached are pictures of Terminalia arjuna captured at Hiranandani Powai, Heritage Gardens, Mumbai in January 2013.
do you have any more pics of the fruits?
The fruits wings resemble to Termanilla elliptica known as Indian laurel needs further validation
Thanks … for correcting the ID.
I always thought this was T. arjuna…
I was going through Terminalia elliptica while doing some ‘house-keeping’ on my collection I noticed that the pattern (holes in leaves) of worm infestation (image – 2) of the leaves is also very similar.
Terminalia elliptica :: Crassulaceae, Combretaceae and Myrtaceae Fortnight (NSJ-01) : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (2)
Terminalia elliptica (Marathi – Ain) from Satara
Crassulaceae, Combretaceae and Myrtaceae Fortnight :: Combretaceae :: ID Request :: Rajgad :: ARKDEC-52 : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (2)
Requesting to please provide ID of the plant captured at Rajgad in September 2014.
Is this also T. elliptica given the straight lines on the wings of the fruit?
Yes it is T. elliptica
The large winged fruits point to T. elliptica.
ANMAY05/06 Terminalia coriacea Wight & Arn. : 8 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (16 + 1)
So far as I know, Terminalia coriacea, based on Pentaptera coriacea is now considered to be a synonym of Terminalila elliptica.
Thanks … It does look like T.elliptica.
Having seen the type of Terminalia elliptica as well as T. coriacea, it was easy for me to arrive at the conclusion.
Thank you sir. In case you have an live specimen photos of T. coriacea, please share.
Sorry …, I do not have.
Terminalia sp. for id : 5 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (3)
Please identify this Terminalia sp. From Chinchoti, Maharashtra, May-2015.
Terminalia species in eFloraofindia (with details/ keys from published papers/ regional floras/ FRLHT/ FOI/ Biotik/ efloras/ books etc., where ever available on net)
The plant is glabrous to tomentose. Terminalia elliptica Willd. is the earliest name for the aggregate.
Terminalia Species For ID : Borgad Conservation Reserve : Nasik : 03AUG15 : AK-6 : 06/06 : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (3)
Terminalia Species seen in Borgad.
Species id please.
Most Likely Terminalia elliptica/ T. tomentosa
I think … is right.
Requesting ID of this Terminalia like tree – SGNP, Mumbai : 24062013 : ARK-03 : June 2013 : Attachments (6 + 4). 7 posts by 4 authors.
Requesting to please ID this tree captured on the Shilonda trail, SGNP, Mumbai in June 2013.
This is Ain [Terminalia elliptica]. Some of my photographs of this are avilable at this link
As promised, my photographs of the flowers of Ain.
Thank you … for the ID and the photographs.
However, this has raised some doubts in my mind.
Does Ain flower during June (monsoon)?
If yes, then does it also fruit during May?
I am attaching some photographs that I captured in Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Mumbai during May 2013 – these look like the fruits in your photographs.
Could you please confirm if the fruits are also that of Ain?
the flowering Trees is Terminalia elliptica.
however the 9 attachment post pertaining to fruits is not Terminalia elliptica fruits, it is Combretum species
Thanks for the replay …
Can they be Ukshi (Calycopteris floribunda)?, they were a lot of Ukshi creepers around this place
In your second set of photographs, only photograhs 3,4 & 5 are of the fruit of Ain [Terminalia elliptica]. The remainder are of Piluki [Combretum albidum]. Please check this link :
Thank you … for the identification.
Actually, pics 3, 4 and 5 are the ground pictures of exactly the same place where the Piluki fruits were swaying on the branches. I therefore deduced that the fruits fallen on the ground belonged to the same plant.
The id of the tree(s) is settled but I notice that your very pertinent question has not been addressed:
efloraindia: 181111 BRS173: Sharing the images of Terminalia crenulata from Coimbatore
Flowering July, 2011
Fruiting August- Sep. 2011
Tree for ID-200909-RK-1 : Attachments (3). 10 posts by 9 authors.
Request ID for this Tree. Pic shot in Bannarghatta Forest on 17-09-09.
This looks like it is Terminalia arjuna -Arjun tree.
I thought its Terminalia alata!!!
Terminalia arjuna is a v. stately tree with unmistakable whitish bark-am not sure if it is smooth. It is a v. distinctive tree-stands out from the rest. This tree is definitely not T.arjuna.Am awaiting confirmation of … ID of this tree.
… me too, with T. elliptica (syn. T. alata, Pentaptera tomentosa) … the crocodile-bark tree.
it is Terminalia crenulata Roth. Nov. Pl. Sp. 380, 1821; Almeida, Fl. Mah. 2: 253, 1998.
Common names: Ain, Asna.
The deeply cracked bark is characteristic of this plant. and very distinct from smooth peeling white bark of T. arjuna.
Flora of Maharashtra by BSI differentiating key says
1. Drupes not winged; spikes simple or sparsely branched:
4. Leaves clustered at apices of branches, eglandular … T. bellerica
4. Leaves not clustered at apices, frequently glandular on petiole or at base of midrib … T. chebula
Now looking at the Drupes, What is your opinion about the lines….straight? I hope so ! I want others to look into the pictures. Will post my pictures of T cuneata (Arjun) some other time.
At present attaching pictures taken near Thoseghar. which I think is T. elliptica (Ain)
Here are the photos of ‘Terminalia elliptica’ taken at Thoseghar on 14th Aug 2009.
Terminalia arjuna trunk in different seasons
I’d plz….23.6.18 : 5 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1)
Location at Maharashtra
It is a member of Anacardiaceae; looks like Holigarna species
It is Ain, Terminalia crenulata (Heyne) Roth. Combretaceae
A few winged fruit can be seen as well as crenate leaves. The flowers/young fruit in this image are infested with galls.
TSPDEC2015-07-180: Images of Terminalia elliptica (Combretaceae) : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (8)
It is my pleasure to share few images of Terminalia elliptica (Combretaceae)
The Digital Flora of Karnataka lists this sp as Terminalia crenulata
Ref: Flora of Karnataka
Habitat: Wild, Moist deciduous forest
Sighting: Chikmagalur, Karnataka, about 1000 msl
Date: 21-05-2014, 27-05-2014, 26-06-2014, 12-08-2014 and 17-08-2014
Terminalia (Combretaceae) page with images of species in efloraofindia : 6 posts by 2 authors.
If you find any mis-identification, pl. let us know. If anybody can send images of other species of this genera (for incorporation in the website), if any, it will be really nice.
Also, if anybody is interested to take up the activity of inserting images on efloraofindia pages from efloraofindia posts, pl. let us know.
I would like to mention that the name Pentaptera arjuna Roxb. ex DC., i.e. the basionym of Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. ex DC.) Wight & Arn. has been recommended to be conserved against Terminalia cuneata Roth and T. elliptica Willd. However, proposal to conserve the name Terminalia coriacea (Roxb.) Wight & Arn. as a replacement name for Terminalia ellliptica sensu Gangopadhyay & Chalrabarty (J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 21(2): 355. 1997), non Willd. 1806 has been rejected. Thus a later name has to be fixed for it such as T. alata Roth and T. crenulata Roth (both published in 1921 and again, like that of T. cuneata Roth, here also the type materials are not extant). I will come back to this thread as soon as this name is fixed.
I am attaching herewith a sheet in which the correct names to be adopted for two species of Terminalia in India are elucidated for ready reference and correction of the efi page, if any.
Nomenclature of two species of Terminalia:
The name Terminalia arjuna is valid (Pentaptera arjuna recommended to be conserved and will be done so next year in China) and T. elliptica Willd. as well as T. cuneata Roth, both being earlier names of the same plant have been recommended for rejection.
The name Terminalia cuneata sensu M.Gangop. & Chakrab., non Willd. 1806 will henceforth be called as Terminalia alata B.Heyne ex Roth, unless found otherwise.
Nomenclature for the two species and their synonyms will be as follows:
Terminalia alata B. Heyne ex Roth, Nov. Pl. Sp. 379. 1821.
T. crenulata Roth, Nov. Pl. Sp. 380. 1821.
Pentaptera tomentosa Roxb. [Hort. Bengal. 34. 1814, nom. nud.] ex DC., Prodr. 3: 14. 1828, nom. illeg.
P. crenulata (Roth) DC., Prodr. 3: 15. 1828.
P. crenulata Roxb. [Hort. Bengal. 34. 1814, nom. nud.] Fl. Ind., ed. Carey 2: 438. 1832, nom. illeg.
P. coriacea Roxb. [Hort. Bengal. 34. 1814, nom. nud.] Fl. Ind., ed. Carey 2: 439. 1832.
Terminalia coriacea (Roxb.) Wight & Arn., Prodr. Fl. Ind. Orient. 1: 315. 1834, non Spreng. 1807.
T. tomentosa (Roxb. ex DC.) Wight & Arn., Prodr. Fl. Ind. Orient. 1: 314. 1834, nom. illeg.
T. elliptica sensu M.Gangop. & Chakrab. in J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 21(2): 351. 1997, non Willd. 1821.
Wendy L. Applequist 2016. Report of the Nomenclature Committee for Vascular Plants: 67. Taxon 65(1): 169-182.
Tree For ID : Mahabaleshwar : 28DEC16 : AK-49 : 5 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (4)
A medium sized tree seen in Mahabaleshwar on 22nd July,15.
Low light due to heavy rains made it difficult to take reasonably better pictures.
It looks like Terminalia tomentosa, ain, with galls on the flowers
Thank … I could have never been able to guess.
I am attaching herewith a PDF of a recent publication on Terminalia elliptica and its allies. Kindly arrange to modify the EFI page on Terminalia accordingly.
Please note that Terminalia elliptica Willd. is the earliest name available for an assemblage of species treated variously in Indian Floras as T. alata, T. crenulata, T. coriacea and T. tomentosa.
identification no sn1 12717—-Terminalia elliptica? : 10 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (6)
Kindly help in Id. of this tree
height:more than 15 ft.
The identification is correct but Terminalia elliptica Willd. is recently shown to be conspecific with T. arjuna (Roxb. ex DC.) Wight & Arn. and a proposal was made to conserve the latter against T. elliptica which has been recommended by the Nomenclature Committee on the Vascular plants and therefore this will be accepted this year (see the attached publication).
The next available names are T. alata B. Heyne ex Roth published in 1821 and T. crenulata Roth, also published on the same date. Hence you may choose any of these two names as the valid name for the images posted here.
Attachments (1) – Terminalia arjuna.pdf
Well, Terminalia elliptica Willd. is the earliest name available for the species (as above images), according to a recent publication (Chakrabarty & Kumar, 2017).
Thanks, … In simple language, I understand you mean to say that Terminalia alata & Terminalia arjuna in efi are same & should be kept under T. arjuna (Roxb. ex DC.) Wight & Arn.
Thank you. The answer to your simple question is “No”.
I have now checked the Terminalia page on efi.
Just make a simple correction. Look at the subpage on Terminalia alata. Just replace this name by Terminalia elliptica Willd. and the images uploaded by … are fitting here. I suggest to insert an additional image of the excellent fruits uploaded in this present thread by … Finally remove and place the name T. alata as a synonym of T. elliptica. The name T. arjuna will become a conserved name in a few months during the International Bot. Congress to be held in China. The rejected names against this will be T. cuneata Roth as well as T. elliptica Willd. It does not matter as there is no constraint in using the name T. elliptica if treated as a distinct species and this is in fact the earliest name available for T. alata, T. crenulata, T. coriacea and T. tomentosa, as per my opinion, and in India, we recognize only these two species under Sect. Pentaptera.
Thanks a lot, …, for further clarifications for my understanding.
I will shortly do the needful pl.
Submission of Terminalia alata : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (4)
Terminalia alata Roth, Nov. Pl. Sp. 379. 1821.
Ver.names: Asna, Indian laurel (Eng.); Nalla maddi, inu maddi (Tel.).
Description: Deciduous trees, 10-15m high; bark black with deep vertical fissures and transverse cracks looks like crocodile skin; branchlets villous. Leaves opposite; lamina thick-chartaceous, elliptic-oblong, 6-14 × 3-7cm, base and apex obtuse, shallowly crenulate, glabrous above, tomentose beneath; secondary nerves articulate; glands turbinate on the mid nerve at the base of the leaf blade. Flowers 5-merous, 4-5mm across, light brownish-yellow; in 4-5cm long dense pedunculed spikes that are aggregated into 10-15 cm long terminal panicles. Rachis villous. Sepals 5, brown, 3-4mm long, villous. Petals absent. Stamens 10, exerted. Ovary inferior, terete, oblong, ovules 2-3 pendulous; style exerted. Fruit woody, and fibrous, 3-5 × 3-4cm, ovoid, with 5 glabrous wings.
Habitat & location: Common in high altitudes in hillside forests. Photographed at Velugonda hills. It is also an endemic species.
Here the name has changed to T. elliptica.
08082017BHAR1 : 8 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (5)
Found in Jawadhu hills of Eastern ghats.
The bands in the barks looked special for my eyes.
The bark and leaf indicates the tree is Terminalia elliptica
Terminalia elliptica Willd. (Combretaceae); bark is one of the characteristic feature.
May be terminalia tomentosa
Tree for Id- ID17022018SH3 : 7 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1)
Tree for Id pl.
Location – Mulshi Lake, Pune
Date – July. 2015
Terminalia … could be elliptica.
Yes beautiful photo of T. elliptica.
Earlier I had seen huge trees of T.elliptica with crocodile bark – didn’t come across a small tree. So couldn’t recognize.Thanks once again.
…, very easy to identify. This is similar to T. arjuna but the wings (5) of fruits will be very broad as in the image here.
terminalia species, mm1 23 07 2011: is this terminalia elliptica or ian as it is commonly known. the flowers were scented in the evening last week, goa. it was growing commonly alongside roads and in forested patches
Nice photographs !!! Definitely looks like Ain. These are mine.
Yes Ain (Terminalia crenulata) from Combretaceae
Terminalia elliptica, Terminalia crenulata, Terminalia tomentosa, Terminalia alata…. are all the same species? Confusing me a lot!
Here are few photographs of Ain (T. elliptica). First two photographs are showing the glands behind the leaf..
incidentally ain is used for making furniture and in the construction industry as rafters and door frames etc
These pictures reminded me of an another excellent shot that I saw in wikipedia
he is not kidding you, i googled and found a paper in current science in 2004 with similar pic and a man filling a bog with potable water in Bandipur jungle…
thanks every body…
I come to eflor/indiatreepix following the daily updates and learn atleast two new thing!!!
I have a second life…
It was featured in leading news papers few years back. It was tested by Prof R Sukumars team in Mudumalai WLS.
The glands shown in the pictures, is the typical sign of terminalia species. In T.arjuna, T.chebula, T. bellerica, T. bialata all are showing these glands.
It is requested to field botanists to clear doubts on identifying Terminalia crenulata, T alata T coriacea and T paniculata through leaves, bark and gland size – location variation (photos will be more beneficial).
Massive Terminalia tomentosa tree – Dandeli WLS: This massive Nallamaddi (in Telugu) tree was a pleasing sight.
Is this Terminalia elliptica ?: I photographed this wild tree at Mulshi. I couldnt spot any flowers on it, just these fruits.
I think the id is correct.
This is commonly called the “crocodile bark“
… Could you see the crocodile bark in mature stem (branches we cant see this). Please see details @
Terminalia elliptica is a very common tree in Mulshi.
Please go through the earlier discussion about the same on our website
I dont remember that tree having crocodile bark.
Confusion! Would it be possible to upload a close up of a branch in which the leaves are clearly seen (preferably both upper and lower sides of leaves), if possible.
see if U can clear confusion with these pics. I cant say they r lucid but these r all I have.
Last year I also had similar dilemma. I photographed, what I thought two different species, one flowering in late April, shorter inflorescence and narrower and fruit with very short wings (which I though T. arjuna=T. cuneata), and one flowering in early June, twice as long inflorescence and slightly shorter but much broader fruit with very long wings (which I thought T. tomentosa=T. elliptica). Both had smooth barks and as such most on the group identified it as T. arjuna. I will upload them again.
Yes, I think this is T. elliptica, too.
Terminalia elliptica : Glands: Attempted to photograph some glands on the leaves of
Excellent pictures …, have a question – how do you identify this tree from T. arjuna? Fruits are very similar to ARJUNA ! One key is pubescent leaf – am i correct?
The flowers on extreme left side are showing some structures which may be bracteoles. Please go through it and revert.
KAS Week-Terminalia elliptica (01/10/2012 NJ-04): Terminalia elliptica (Ain-Marathi)
Good to see profuse flowering
Terminalia elliptica?—-for sharing : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (4)
Please correct me if i am wrong but from the fruits it seems like T.elliptica. Pics taken at Aambyvalley Rd., Off Lonavala, Pune in May 17.
what is the common name for this?
Yes Terminalia elliptica
Terminalia Elliptica bracteoles : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1)- 2 Mb.
As per link, efi site
Please take a look at highlighted area of the paragraph from above link-
“Deciduous trees, to 30 m high; bark 15-20 mm thick, surface grey-black, very rough, deeply vertically fissured, horizontally cracked, forming tessellated, thick flakes; blaze red. Leaves simple, opposite to subopposite, exstipulate; petiole 10-20 mm long, stout, grooved above, glabrous; lamina 13-20 x 5-13 cm, oblong, oblong-ovate, elliptic-oblong or elliptic-ovate; base oblique; apex acute, round, or obtuse, margin entire or crenulate, glabrous, coriaceous, midrib with 2 stalked glands near the base beneath; lateral nerves 10-20 pairs, parallel, prominent, intercostae scalariform, prominent. Flowers bisexual, dull yellow, 2-3 mm across, in terminal and axillary paniculate spikes; peduncle tomentose; bracteoles 1-2 mm long, linear or subulate; calyx tube 1-2× 1-1.8 mm, angled, base pubescent, constricted above the ovary, lobes 5, ovate, yellow, densely villous inside; petals absent; stamens 10 in 2 rows; filaments 4-5 mm; disc 5-lobed, villous; ovary 2.5 mm long, inferior, densely villous, 1-celled; ovules 2 or 3, pendulous; style 4 mm, subulate; stigma small. Fruit a drupe 3.5 x 5.5 cm, longitudinally 5-winged, glabrous; wings equal, thin, pubescent, lines on the wings horizontal, apex round, coriaceous, reddish-brown; seed one.
Flowering and fruiting: April-May“
It mentions that the flowers has bracteoles with 1-2 mm long…
Please take a look at the picture attached. Please inform if inside the black circle, the line is pointing towards bracteole of T. Elliptica. Such kind of small structures are not seen in all pictures of T. Elliptica flowers…
Please note that the picture is NOT mine and downloaded from following link-
It is allowed to use this picture for non-commercial purpose as per license aggrement.
Please note that, for the clarity pupose, big size file is shared.
According to the generic character of Termlinalia L., nom. cons., the bracteoles in the genus are linear to subulate, small and deciduous. The term bracteole is a diminutive of bract, indicating a smaller structure, usually found subtending the flowers, flower-fascicles and at the base of young inflorescence-shoots. Thus there is nothing wrong in observing a small bracteate structure at the base of a mature inflorescence-branch which has somehow persisted for a longer duration.
Wild Trees for ID : Lonavala : 06JUL19 : AK-16 : 10 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (3)
Trees seen growing wild in Karla, Lonavala in the third week of June.
Seen in the third week of June at Karla, Lonavala.
Could be Combretum albidum?
No sir, not Combretum, Terminalia sp.
Thanks for the correction. Hope to get the Species id sorted.
Pl. check comparative images at
Could be Terminalia arjuna?
No, sir, not arjuna, Could be T. tomentosa.
Terminalia elliptica Willd.
Thanks for the Species id.
Wild Shrub for ID : Nasik : 02JUL19 : AK-4 : 5 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2)
A wild shrub seen on a mountain slope in Nasik on the 25th of June.
The tender leaves were red in color.
This should be coppice of Terminalia crenulata.
Wild Shrub for ID : Nasik : 01JUL19 : AK-3 : 5 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (4)
Another wild shrub seen on a mountain slope on the 25th of June in Nasik.
Some of the leaves have visible glands beneath so I think these must be coppice shoots of a Terminalia species, most likely Terminalia elliptica
Thanks a lot for the suggested id.
Actually … has also suggested that it could be Terminalia elliptica.
Tree for ID :: Kanha, MP, Dec 2016 :: ARK2019-50 : 13 posts by 5 authors. Attachments (6)
This tree was captured in the Kanha Wildlife sanctuary, MP in Dec 2016. Trees with such characteristic bark were found abundantly in the forest.
The description resembles Terminalia elliptica in efi. Requested to please validate.
To me also appears close to images at Terminalia elliptica
Yes, id is correct.
Either But Terminalis elliptica or T. arjuna
I hope am correct, Garg Ji, we want to update in our site eflora of India because there are some errors.
Ex. Terminalia alata Roth and T. crenulata Roth also accepted names,
Pentaptera coriacea Roxburgh syn. of Terminalia coriacea Spreng.
POWO is the updated site and worldwide used too now.
recently I got this information from Botanical Survey of India Scientists, look at once please
Please do not depend on POWO too much. eFI website is most up to date in many cases.
You may refer to: Biotaxa
Tapas ji, who is expert on Terminalia, is with us.
He has always guided in matters related to this genus.
POWO is not correct in this matter. I feel Catalogue of Life is much better than all other databases these days (and updated on daily basis), but here also there may be many discrepancies.
It is always better to consult two or more such databases and than decide (if required with proper discussions in case these do not agree with each other).
Thank you so much, …, now only am realize on this issue.
Terminalia sp. :: Tholpetty WLS, Wayanad :: 14 NOV 19 : 9 posts by 5 authors. 2 images.
Tholpetty Wildlife Sanctuary Wayanad
Date: November 14, 2019 … Altitude range: about 650 to 1150 m (2,100 to 3,800 ft) asl
Crocodile skin bark is supposed to be characteristic of Terminalia elliptica …a possibility .
Crocodile bark and fruits seem to be that of Terminalia tomentosa, a tree found in plenty in Tholpetty
Thanks … The name “crocodile bark” seems generic for many species of Terminalia – alata / crenulata / elliptica / tomentosa (I was bot sure).
Thanks very much … for the ID.
its just not limited to trees in India.
In USA its found on Juniperus deppeana (alligator juniper) in Arizona and new mexico and at this url (its a flickr)
other is Nyssa sylvatica or Black gum and Pine tree have bark that break and have fissures, on many i have seen those squarish/rectangular pieces. always reminded me of alligator skin. great for mulching flowerbeds when these bark pieces slide off.
mother nature repeats patterns all over the world
Thanks for the id.
All are syn. of Terminalia elliptica as per details herein.
Thanks … I was aware that all four are synonymous, but sometime later I missed that thought because I found some sites listing them as distinct species.
Now at links in Terminalia elliptica page, it is clear through Tapas ji’s papers that other three are synonyms of Terminalia elliptica.
Tree for ID : Zarwani Forest, Gujarat : 05JAN20 : AK-10 : 6 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (2)
Tree seen inside the forest area.
Arjun? Terminalia arjuna?
Fruits clearly indicate what you have said …, only the bark is unusual (at least for me)
Thanks for the id and pointing out about the unusual bark.
Let us wait for comments.
Terminalia elliptica, I think.
There was a post may be a month ago, by …, if I remember correctly.
Thanks for the correction in Species id.
… did point out that the bark looked unusual.
How could I forget? The famous Crocodile skin like bark.
I have posted earlier from Jim Corbett.
Terminalia elliptica (Combretaceae) is not conspecific with T. arjuna – TAPAS CHAKRABARTY1* & VENKATACHALAM SAMPATH KUMAR2 – Phytotaxa 295 (3): 297–300 (2017)- Examination of the type materials of Terminalia elliptica and T. arjuna (sect. Pentaptera) reveals that they are different and distinct species. Neotypes are designated for T. alata and T. crenulata while lectotype is designated for T. tomentosa, which are synonyms of T. elliptica.
References (Terminalia elliptica Willd.):
GRIN Annotated checklist of Flowering plants of Nepal (Terminalia alata Heyne ex Roth with Pentaptera tomentosa Roxb. & Terminalia tomentosa (Roxb.) Wight & Arn. as synonyms) The Plant List (Unresolved)
Biodiversity In India, Volume 4 edited by T. Pullaiah (2006- Terminalia elliptica Willd. with Terminalia crenulata Roth, Pentaptera crenulata Roxb., Terminalia tomentosa var. crenulata Cl. in Hook.f. & Terminalia tomentosa (Roxb.) Wight & Arn. as syn.)
References (Terminalia crenulata Roth):
India Biodiversity Portal (Terminalia crenulata Roth with Terminalia tomentosa auct., Terminalia tomentosa auct non Wight & Arn., Terminalia elliptica Willd., Pentaptera crenulata Roxb., Terminalia coriacea Wt. & Arn., Terminalia alata Roth., Terminalia glabra var. tomentosa Dalz. & Gibs. & Terminalia tomentosa var. crenulata Cl. in Hook.f. as synonyms)
The Plant List 1 (Terminalia crenulata Roth as unresolved) Flora of Pakistan (Terminalia crenulata Roth with Terminalia tomentosa auct non Wight & Arn.; Clarke as syn.) Dinesh Valke’s Flickr Post