Keys in Flora of Bhutan as per efi thread (Distribution as per Catalogue of Life):
Ophiorrhiza fasciculata D.Don (Assam; East Himalaya; Myanmar; Nepal; Tibet)
Ophiorrhiza heterostyla Dunn (East Himalaya; India; Myanmar)
Ophiorrhiza longii Wood (East Himalaya)
Ophiorrhiza lurida Hook. f. (Bangladesh; China South-Central; East Himalaya; Tibet)
Ophiorrhiza nutans C.B. Clarke (Assam; China South-Central; East Himalaya; Myanmar; Nepal; Tibet)
Ophiorrhiza ochroleuca Hook.f. (Assam; China South-Central; East Himalaya; Myanmar; Vietnam)
Ophiorrhiza repens (Wall. ex G.Don) Bennet (Assam; East Himalaya)
Ophiorrhiza rosea Hook. f. (Assam; China South-Central; East Himalaya; Myanmar; Thailand; Tibet)
Ophiorrhiza rugosa Wall. (Assam; Bangladesh; China South-Central; East Himalaya; India; Malaya; Myanmar; Nepal; Sri Lanka; Thailand; Tibet; Vietnam)
Ophiorrhiza succirubra Hook.f. (Assam; China South-Central; East Himalaya; Nepal; Tibet)
Ophiorrhiza thomsonii Hook. f. (East Himalaya)
Ophiorrhiza treutleri Hook.f. (Assam; East Himalaya)
Keys as per Flora of Bhutan:
1. Bracts and bracteoles deciduous before flowering time or, if present, few, filiform, lacking a central nerve . . . 2
+ Bracts and bracteoles present until after fruit ripens, linear, oblong or elliptic with a distinct midrib .. . . 5
2. Corolla pubescent, 6-9mm; capsule pubescent; leaves 1.5-6(-8)cm ……… 4. O. rugosa
+ Corolla glabrous, 9-15mm; capsule glabrous; most leaves more than 6cm ……. 3
3. Corolla lobes 4-5mm, usually reflexed; peduncle up to 2cm; plant anisophyllous . . 1. O.heterostyla
+ Corolla lobes 1-2mm, usually erect; peduncle of flowering and fruiting plants 2-9cm; plant isophyllous … . 4
4. Leaves completely glabrous, even on veins below; calyx teeth very short, c 0.5mm; inflorescence slightly fleshy . . 2. O. ochroleuca
+ Leaves scurfy pubescent on veins below; calyx teeth 1-2mm; inflorescence not fleshy . .. 3. O. rosea
5. Bracts and bracteoles glabrous . ……..6
+ Bracts and bracteoles hairy at least on margins . . . 9
6. Bracts broadly elliptic, 8-9mm wide; corolla curved, 14-17mm ….12. O. longii
+ Bracts/bracteoles all linear-oblong, up to 3mm wide; corolla 4.5-10mm …. 7
7. Leaves strictly glabrous below; peduncle 0.3-4cm, deflexed, inflorescence nodding; plant suffused with dark red . . 7. O. succirubra
+ Leaves scurfy pubescent below, at least on veins; peduncle 3-6cm, erect; plant green .. 8
8. Leaves scurfy pubescent only on veins below, sparsely pilose above; inflorescence relatively lax, with distinct scorpioid branches; calyx teeth persistent on ripe capsule . . . 5. O. thomsonii
+ Leaves uniformly scurfy pubescent below, glabrous above; inflorescence a compact head, c 2cm wide; calyx teeth deciduous in fruit .. 6. O. lurida
9. Corolla 1.5-1.7cm, in bud with prominent 1-2mm spurs on back of lobes; leaves unequal . . . 11. O. repens
+ Corolla 0.9-1.5cm, valvate in bud but not spurred on back of lobes; leaves equal . . 10
10. Corolla glabrous outside; inflorescence nodding; plant covered in multi- cellular brown hairs . . 8. O.nutans
+ Corolla hairy outside; inflorescence erect; plant glabrous or hairy but not with multicellular brown hairs . . . 11
11. Peduncle 0-3cm; plant crisped-hirsute; corolla tube densely long-pubescent within above anthers . . . 9. O. treutleri
+ Peduncle 2.5-12cm; plant pubescent; corolla tube papillose or sparsely pubescent within above anthers . . 10. O. fasciculata
Species reported from Mizoram as per efi thread (Distribution as per Catalogue of Life):
Ophiorrhiza fasciculata D.Don (Assam; East Himalaya; Myanmar; Nepal; Tibet),
Ophiorrhiza mungos L. (Andaman Is.; Assam; Bangladesh; China South-Central; East Himalaya; India; Jawa;
Malaya; Myanmar; Nicobar Is.; Sri Lanka; Sumatera; Thailand; Vietnam),
Ophiorrhiza ochroleuca Hook.f. (Assam; China South-Central; East Himalaya; Myanmar; Vietnam),
Ophiorrhiza oppositiflora Hook.f. (Assam; Bangladesh; China South-Central; Hainan; Myanmar),
Ophiorrhiza pauciflora Hook.f. (Assam; China South-Central; East Himalaya),
Ophiorrhiza repens (Wall. ex G.Don) Bennet (Assam; East Himalaya),
Ophiorrhiza rugosa Wall. (Assam; Bangladesh; China South-Central; East Himalaya; India; Malaya; Myanmar; Nepal; Sri Lanka; Thailand; Tibet; Vietnam).
Ophiorrhiza succirubra Hook.f. (Assam; China South-Central; East Himalaya; Nepal; Tibet),
Ophiorrhiza treutleri Hook.f. (Assam; East Himalaya)
Lectotypification of Ophiorrhiza heterostyla Dunn and the new record of Ophiorrhiza rugosa Wall. var. angustifolia (Thwaites) Ridsale (Rubiaceae) for India by V.S. Hareesh, V.B. Sreekumar, K.M. Prabhukumar, M. Sabu & K.A. Sreejith – Webbia: Journal of Plant Taxonomy and Geography Volume 70, Issue 1, 2015-
Abstract: A new locality in India for Ophiorrhiza heterostyla Dunn (Rubiaceae) is reported, and the combination is lectotypified. Ophiorrhiza rugosa Wall. var. angustifolia (Thwaites) Ridsdale is recorded for the first time for India. Detailed descriptions, distributions, and relevant taxonomic notes along with colour photographs are provided for easy identification of these taxa.
Ophiorrhiza sahyadriensis (Rubiaceae), a new species from southern Western Ghats, Kerala, India by HAREESH Vadakkoot Sankaran, Sreekumar Vadakkethil Balakrishnan, PRABHU KUMAR Konikkal Mambetta, NIRMESH Thankappan Kureekadu, Sreejith Kalpuzha Ashtamoorthy- Phytotaxa Vol 202, No 3 (2015)-
Abstract : A new species of Ophiorrhiza (Rubiaceae) is described from southern Western Ghats, Kerala, India. The new species, Ophiorrhiza sahyadriensis, is similar to Ophiorrhiza brunonis, an endangered species endemic to Western Ghats, to which is compared. Detailed description, distribution, ecology, phenology and relevant taxonomic notes are provided along with colour photographs and illustrations.)
Rediscovery of Ophiorrhiza barnesii C.E.C. Fisch. (Rubiaceae) from the southern Western Ghats, Kerala, India by E.S. Santhosh Kumar, P.E. Roy 2 & S.M. Shareef- Journal of Threatened Taxa- 26 April 2013- 5(7): 4115–4117
A new species of Ophiorrhiza L. (Rubiaceae) from Kerala, India by Shanavas Khan AE, Santhosh Kumar ES, Pushpangadan P. 1998- J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 95. (2): 317-318 (1998) – illus. En Icones, Anatomy and morphology. Ophiorrhiza shendurunii sp. nov.
Rediscovery of Ophiorrhiza radicans (Rubiaceae) from the Western Ghats of Peninsular India by Ginu Joseph*, V.S. Hareesh, V.B. Sreekumar and T.K. Hrideek- Rheedea Vol. 23(1) 19-21 2013-
Abstract- Ophiorrhiza radicans Gardn. was rediscovered from Shenduruney Wild Life Sanctuary, Western Ghats of Kerala region after a lapse of 120 years. A detailed taxonomic description and illustration of this species is provided for easy identification.
A New Record of Ophiorrhiza trichocarpon Blume (Rubiaceae: Ophiorrhizeae) from Western Ghats, India: Another Source Plant of Camptothecin by C.V. Sibi, K. P. Dintu, R. Renjith, M. V. Krishnaraj, G. Roja, and K. Satheeshkumar*- J. Sci. Res. 4 (2), 529-532 (2012)-
Ophiorrhiza trichocarpon Blume is newly recorded from Western Ghats, India. A detailed description, with images and relevant notes are provided.
BSI Flora of India Checklist Vol. 2 (Distribution):
Flora of peninsular India:
Ophiorrhiza barnesii C.E.C.Fisch.
Ophiorrhiza caudata C.E.C.Fisch.
Ophiorrhiza chandrasekharanii Subba Rao and Kumar
Species with description & pictures in Flowers of India as on 9.6.14:
Ophiorrhiza succirubra King ex J. D. Hooker
Ophiorrhiza wallichii J. D. Hooker
Some species found in Indian Subcontinent with description & keys from Flora of China (Distribution):
Flora of Davanagere District, Karnataka, India By B. K. Manjunatha, V. Krishna, T. Pullaiah (2004- Details)-
Flora of Eastern Ghats: Hill Ranges of South East India, Volume 3 By T. Pullaiah, K. Sri Ramamurthy (2007)- Details with keys–
Ophiorrhiza chandrasekharanii Subba Rao & Kumari
Biodiversity and Its Conservation in India By Sharad Singh Negi (1993)-
Ophiorrhiza barnesii C.E.C.Fisch. — presumed to be extinct.
Ophiorrhiza brunonis Wight & Arn. — presumed to be extinct.
Ophiorrhiza caudata C.E.C.Fisch. — presumed to be extinct.
Ophiorrhiza incarnata C.E.C.Fisch. — endangered, known only from the original discovery made 55 years back
Ophiorrhiza pykarensis Gamble – presumed to be extinct.
Ophiorrhiza wattii C.E.C.Fisch. – endangered
Indian Medicinal Plants: A Compendium of 500 Species, Volume 4 – Great details- 1995-
Floristic Diversity of Assam: Study of Pabitora Wildlife Sanctuary By Bora, Yogendra Kumar 92003)- Details-
Ophiorrhiza succirubra King ex J. D. Hooker
Hot spots of endemic plants of India, Nepal and Bhutan by M. P. Nayar –Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, 1996 – Science – 252 pages-
Ophiorrhiza barberi Gamble; undershrub; endangered; Anamalai & Travancore hills.
Ophiorrhiza barnesii C.E.C.Fisch.; Idukki (Kallar) herb.
Ophiorrhiza brunonis Wight & Arn., undershrub; southern W. Ghats.
Ophiorrhiza caudata C.E.C.Fisch.; herb; …………..
Ophiorrhiza (Rubiaceae) : 2 posts by 1 author.
Attempts have been made to incorporate most of the species available in India & nearby areas with details & keys directly or through links as far as possible. It’s quite possible that there may be some discrepancy in the accepted names & synonyms taken from other links.
Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.
If someone can provide complete list of Indian species with source references it will be wonderful.
Please add one more species Ophiorrhiza schendurunii published by us. Kindly see the attached document.
Ophiorrhiza (Rubiaceae) page with images of species in efloraofindia : 1 post by 1 author.
If you find any incorrect identification, pl. let us know. If anybody can send images of other species of this genera (for incorporation in the website), if any, or can identify unidentified images, it will be really nice.
Keys of Ophiorrhiza species of South India : 5 posts by 2 authors.
May I request for keys of Ophiorrhiza species of South India.
It will be really nice, if somebody can provide these.
…, it is good but little difficult owing to a number of variations within the species. Currently one boy is doing it for his phd
Thanks, … Yes, it is really a very difficult genus. But there must be keys somewhere?
There must be some publication having keys of South Indian species. May I request somebody to pl. share it with me.
Sure, will do that.