Amorphophallus bulbifer (Roxb.) Blume (Images by Ritesh Kumar Choudhary, Vijay Anand Ismavel (Id by Ritesh Kumar Choudhary), Pravin Kawale, Karuna Kanta Das (Id by Surajit Koley, Pascal Bruggeman & Wilbert Hetterscheid), K. Puttaraju (Id by Prashant Awale & Suarjit Koley) (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more images & complete details, click on the links))

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(Images by Prashant Awale, Alka Khare (Id by Suarjit Koley & Satish Pardeshi), Dinesh Valke (Id by Giby Kuriakose & Pascal Bruggeman) & Shubhada Nikharge (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more images & complete details, click on the links))


Amorphophallus commutatus (Schott) Engl. var. anmodensis Sivad. et Jaleel

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Amorphophallus kachinensis Engl. & Gehrm. (Images by Ushaprabha Page (Id by Wilbert Hetterscheid) (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more images & complete details, click on the links))

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Amorphophallus margaritifer (Roxb.) Kunth (Images by Sourav Mahmud (Id by Wilbert Hetterscheid & Pascal Bruggeman) (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more images & complete details, click on the links))

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Amorphophallus mysorensis E.Barnes & C.E.C.Fisch. (Images by Prasad Dash (Id by Wilbert Hetterscheid) (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more photos & complete details, click on the links))

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Amorphophallus muelleri Blume (Images by Prashant Awale (Id by Wilbert Hetterscheid) (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more images & complete details, click on the links))

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Amorphophallus napalensis (Wall.) Bogner & Mayo (Images by Ritesh Kumar Choudhary  & Ushaprabha Page (Id by Wilbert Hetterscheid) (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more images & complete details, click on the links))

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Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson (Images by Prasad Kumar Dash & Surajit Koley (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more images & complete details, click on the links))

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Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson  (Images by Surajit Koley & P. Santhan (Validation by Surajit Koley) (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more images & complete details, click on the links))

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Amorphophallus titanum (Becc.) Becc. (from USA) (Images from USA by Vijayasankar Raman & Gurcharan Singh (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more images & complete details, click on the links)) 

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Amorphophallus Blume ex Decne. (Araceae)

In India, the genus Amorphophallus Blume ex Decne. is represented by 3 sections:

Sect. 1. Candarum Engl.
Sect. 2. Conophallus (Schott) Engl.

Sect. 3. Rhaphiophallus (Schott) Engl.
.
Key to the Indian species of Amorphophallus sect. Conophallus

1 Leaves bulbiliferous, epiphyllar bulbils produced at junction of petiole with rachises and at axils of branches of rachises; spadix ovoid, or elongate obpyriform, creamcoloured. ……… 2
Leaves not bulbiliferous. ……… 5
2 Peduncle short, usually 11-15 cm long; spathe-limb apically fornicate. ……… A. bognerianus
Peduncle long, usually 38-68 cm long, spathe-limb apically erect, not fornicate. ……… 3
3 Spathe without a constriction between basal tube and limb, c. 39.5 cm long, with indistinct blotches outside; spadix sessile. ……… A. carnosus
Spathe with or without a constriction between basal tube and limb, c. 14-25 cm long with distinct blotches outside; spadix stipitate. ……… 4
4 Petiole and peduncle dark green with light greenish blotches and minute greenish white mottles in between blotches; leaflet-margin green; spathe with distinct constriction between tube and limb. ……… A. oncophyllus
Petiole and peduncle pinkish green to brownish green with cream to white irregular vertical linear stripes; leaflet-margins light pinkish; spathe without constriction between tube and limb. ……… A. bulbifer
5 Tuber cylindrical in reproductive phase, small and obconic in vegetative phase; petiole and peduncle turgid and brittle; peduncle 21-31 cm long; spathe 10.6-12.0 cm long, greenish brown to greenish purple with light green mottles and dark purple spots outside; greenish yellow and smooth within, sometimes very light pinkish green tinged with purple spots at base within. ……… A. nicolsonianus
Tuber subglobose in reproductive and vegetative phases; petiole and peduncle not brittle; peduncle 38-56 cm long; spathe 15-32 cm long, dark brownish or purplish green outside, dark purplish inside with short rounded bumps. ……… A. commutatus

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1. Spadix without a naked appendix; neuter flowers between female and male zones large, elongate-obovoid, cream-coloured. ……… A. margaritifer
Spadix with a naked appendix; neuter flowers between female and male zones spherical, rhomboid, rounded, or short, stout-echinate, cream, dark pinkish, purplish, brownish red, or greenish. ……… 2
2 Spadix appendix very long, 16-25 cm long, cylindric, tapering to the tip, pendent; female flowers with stigma having 3-5 stout echinate lobes. ……… A. smithsonianus
Spadix appendix medium-sized, to 7.5-20 cm long or very short (less than 4 cm), cylindric, tapering to the tip, erect; female flowers with stigma without prominent echinate lobes. ……… 3
3 Neuter flowers short, stout, subulate and greenish; spadix appendix stalked, very short, c. 2 cm long, with irregularly formed sterile structures (resembling rudimentary male or female flowers); male flowers with long projected connectives (rarely staminodial zone and spadix appendix lacking). ……… A. longiconnectivus
Neuter flowers rhomboid, obovoid or oblong-gibbous or globose; spadix appendix sessile, barren; male flowers without projecting connectives. ……… 4
4 Spathe shorter than spadix appendix. ……… 5
Spathe longer than spadix appendix. ……… 6
5 Neuter flowers oblong-gibbous, pinkish; stigma 2-lobed with irregular small warts at maturity; male flowers sparsely arranged in groups of 2-5; spadix appendix pale brownish yellow. ……… A. sylvaticus
Neuter flowers rhomboid, slightly convex, whitish or faintly purplish or dark purple; stigma 3-lobed, without irregular small warts at maturity; male flowers arranged loosely (especially at base), not in groups; spadix appendix dirty olive green or dark purple. ……… A. konkanensis
6 Spathe differentiated into a basal convolute tube and an upper limb separated by a distinct shallow constriction, tip shortly acuminate; barren naked zone present between pistillate and staminodial zones; spadix appendix cylindric, apex rounded. ……… A. bonaccordensis
Spathe not differentiated into a tube and limb; naked barren zone between pistillate and staminodial zones absent; spadix appendix cylindric, tapering to tip. ……… 7
7 Spathe fully convolute into a tube, limb not differentiated or indistinct; stigma sessile. ……… A. mysorensis
Spathe basally convolute and tubular at early stage, completely opens throughout and become boat-shaped at maturity; stigma very short-styled. ……… A. hohenackeri

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List of Indian species in Amorphophallus sect. Conophallus
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1. Amorphophallus bognerianus Sivad. & Jaleel
Distribution: Hitherto known only from the type locality in Arunachal Pradesh.
2. Amorphophallus bulbifer (Sims) Blume
Synonyms: Arum bulbiferum Roxb.; Pythonium bulbiferum (Sims) Schott; Conophallus bulbifer (Sims) Schott;     C. tuberculiger Schott; Amorphophallus tuberculiger (Schott) Engl.; A. bulbifer var. marmoratus Engl.; A.            bulbifer var. atroviridimaculatus Engl.; A. bulbifer var. tuberculiger (Schott) Engl.
Distribution: India, Bangladesh and Myanmar. In India it is found in Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Goa,     Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Bihar, West Bengal, Sikkim, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur,            Meghalaya and Tripura.
3. Amorphophallus carnosus Engl.
Distribution: So far known to occur only in Andaman Islands, India.
4. Amorphophallus commutatus (Schott) Engl.
Synonyms: Conophallus commutatus Schott; Dracontium polyphyllum Graham;
Pythonium wallichianum Kirt.; Amorphophallus sylvaticus Dalz. & Gibs.
Distribution: Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Goa, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan.


Key to the varieties of Amorphophallus commutatus
1 Peduncle 8-10 cm long; tubular portion slightly compressed obovoid, inner side slightly purplish and pale yellow towards base, verrucose with unicellular silvery hairs at base; male zone of spadix cylindrical. ……… var. anmodensis

Peduncle 20-95 cm long; tubular portion slightly obovoid or cylindric, with or without unicellular silvery hairs at base within; male zone of spadix fusiform or obconic. ……… 2
2 Spathe without constriction between tube and limb; tube cylindric, inner side at base dark purplish brown, verrucose with short unicellular silvery hairs. ……… var. commutatus

Spathe with constriction between tube and limb; tube slightly compressed obovoid, inner side purplish at top and pale yellowish to light purplish with bluntbumps at base without unicellular silvery hairs. ……… var. wayanadensis

4.1 Amorphophallus commutatus (Schott) Engl. var. anmodensis Sivad. & Jaleel
Distribution: A narrow endemic known to occur only in Anmod Ghat, Goa in India.
4.2 Amorphophallus commutatus (Schott) Engl. var. commutatus
Distribution: Karnataka, Goa and Maharashtra.
4.3 Amorphophallus commutatus (Schott) Engl. var. wayanadensis Sivad. & Jaleel
Distribution: So far known only from Kerala.
5. Amorphophallus nicolsonianus Sivad.
Distribution: So far known to occur only in Kerala state in India.
6. Amorphophallus oncophyllus Prain ex Hook.f.
Distribution: Endemic to the Andaman and Nicobar islands
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List of Indian species in Amorphophallus sect. Rhaphiophallus
.
1. Amorphophallus bonaccordensis Sivad. & N. Mohanan
Distribution: So far known only from the type locality (Kerala: Thiruvananthapuram Dist.: Bonaccord on the
Agasthyamala Hill ranges).
2. Amorphophallus hohenackeri (Schott) Engl. & Gehrm.
Synonyms: Rhaphiophallus hohenackeri Schott; Hydrosme hohenackeri (Schott) Engl.
Distribution: Very limited in distribution, known only from Kerala and Karnataka states.
3. Amorphophallus konkanensis Hett., S. R.Yadav & K. S. Patil
Distribution: Restricted to Goa and Maharashtra states.
4. Amorphophallus longiconnectivus Bogner
Distribution: So far known to occur only in Piparia, Madhya Pradesh state.
5. Amorphophallus margaritifer (Roxb.) Kunth
Synonyms: Arum margaritiferum Roxb.; Plesmonium margaritifer (Roxb.) Schott (“margaritiferum”)
Distribution: Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Bihar, West Bengal, Sikkim and Assam.
6. Amorphophallus mysorensis E. Barnes & C. E. C. Fisch.
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Key to the varieties of A. mysorensis

1 Spathe dull purplish; neuter flowers globose, brownish red; spadix appendix dark purplish, inconspicuously irregularly furrowed at base, smooth above, tip blunt, c. 8.5 cm long. ……… var. mysorensis
Spathe brownish-pale green with vertical prominent veins; neuter
flowers rhomboid-conical with usually purplish apex; spadix appendix pale yellow, with irregular furrows and small protuberances, tip pointed, 3.5-4.0 cm long
……… var. bhandarensis

 

6.1 Amorphophallus mysorensis E. Barnes & C. E. C. Fisch. var. mysorensis
Distribution: Known only from the type locality.
6.2 Amorphophallus mysorensis var. bhandarensis (S. R.Yadav, Kahalkar & Bhuskute) Sivadasan & Jaleel
Synonyms: Amorphophallus bhandarensis S.R. Yadav, Kahalkar & Bhuskute
Distribution: Known only from the type locality (India, Maharashtra State, Bhandara Dist., Tumsar).
7. Amorphophallus smithsonianus Sivad.
Distribution: Endemic to Kerala state. Confined to a very small area in the state.
8. Amorphophallus sylvaticus (Roxb.) Kunth
Synonyms: Arum sylvaticum Roxb.; Brachyspatha sylvatica (Roxb.) Schott; Synantherias sylvatica (Roxb.)            Schott
Distribution: India (Kerala?, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Gujarat) and
Sri Lanka.


Source References
:
1. Jaleel, V. Abdul,
M. Sivadasan, Ahmed H. Alfarhan, Jacob Thomas & A. A. Alatar. “Revision of Amorphophallus Blume ex Decne. Sect. Rhaphiophallus (Schott) Engl.(Araceae) in India.” Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy 18.1 (2011). Accessed at: http://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJPT/article/view/7835

2. Jaleel, V. Abdul, M. Sivadasan, Ahmed H. Alfarhan, Jacob Thomas & A. A. Alatar. “A Taxonomic Revision of Amorphophallus Blume ex Decne. Sect. Conophallus (Schott) Engl. (Araceae) in India.” Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy 19.2 (2012). Accessed at: http://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJPT/article/view/13127


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Re: added eFI data pages :  2 post by 2 authors.

I have added pages for Amorphophallus (2 sections) and …, in our eFI site.


Thanks a lot, …, It now appears that efloraofindia is truely in the making.

I have shifted the material to the original pages on Amorphophallus & …


.
Fwd: Reference : 4 posts by 2 authors.
Would you please give me the reference citation of the following specie. it is urgent.

Amorphophallus bulbifer (Roxb.) Bl., 

A. longituberosus (Engl.) Engl. & Gehrm.,
A. margaritifer Roxb.,
A. napalensis (Wall.) Bogn. & Mayo,

A. paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicholson 


Please check if these help. Attachments (10)


I have attached my paper, please check. I cant figure  regarding the reference  what has  the editor comments. Thanks for those files.

Please help me regarding  this reference. I think distribution is ok


Now, I understand your problem Sourav, it was Plesmonium (Arum margaritiferum) earlier. Check the attached ref.

Attachments (7)


But what about the reference and citation cloud be in Reference list


But what about the 5 reference and citation cloud be in Reference list ?


I am not sure, you should ask someone like Nidhan Sir. Perhaps something like –
Araceae Arum margaritiferum Roxb. Hort. Bengal. 65; Fl. Ind. iii. 512.
link of above – IPNI
or
check for further info – Kew
or another ref
Biodiversity Library
from Biodiversity

or
Plesmonium margaritiferum Schott Syn. Aroid. 34. 1856 [Mar 1856]
IPNI

I think now it is ok, See the below 

Amorphophallus longituberosus (Engl.) Engl. & Gehrm
Amorphophallus longituberosus Engl. & Gehrm. – Pflanzenr. (Engler) Arac.-Lasioid. 73 (1911).
Amorphophallus napalensis (Wall.) Bogn. & Mayo
Amorphophallus napalensis (Wall.) Bogner & Mayo — Aroideana 8(1): 19 (1985):. (IK)
Amorphophallus  paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicholson
Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson — Taxon 26: 338. 1977 [28 Jun 1977]
Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson — Taxon 26(2/3) 1977 (APNI)
Amorphophallus bulbifer (Roxb.) Bl.
Amorphophallus bulbifer Blume — Rumphia 1: 148. 1837 [Apr-Jun 1837] (IK)
Amorphophallus  margaritifer Roxb
Amorphophallus margaritifer Kunth –Enum. Pl. [Kunth] 3: 34. 1841 [23-29 May 1841]

…, forwarding it to … for help ….. …, may I request you to take a look and give your opinion.
Also attached Sourav’s draft.


-Blume – Rumphia 1: 148. 1837 [Apr-Jun 1837]. Amorphophallus bulbifer Engl. & Gehrm.

– Pflanzenr. (Engler) Arac.-Lasioid.73 (1911). Amorphophallus longituberosus Kunth

-Enum. Pl. [Kunth] 3: 34. 1841 [23-29 May 1841]. Amorphophallus margaritifer (Roxb.) Kunth,

-Enum. Pl. 2: 34 (1837). Amorphophallus margaritifer (Wall.) Bogner & Mayo

– Aroideana 8(1): 19 (1985). Amorphophallus napalensis (Dennst.) Nicolson

–Taxon 26: 338. 1977 [28 Jun 1977]. Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson

– Taxon 26(2/3) 1977. Amorphophallus paeoniifolius

based on

http://www.ipni.org/ipni/plantnamesearchpage.do


.

Pl. go through Amorphophallus page (‎‎‎Araceae) with images of species in efloraofindia (done by me).

If you find any mis-identification, pl. let us know.
If anybody can send images of other species of this genera (for incorporation in the website), it will be really nice. Also, if anybody is interested to take up the activity of inserting images on efloraofindia pages from efloraofindia posts, pl. let us know.


 

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