Biodiversity in India, Volume 2 edited by T. Pullaiah (2003- with description & photos etc.- 22 species & 3 varieties of Habenaria In Maharastra)-

Habenaria crassifolia,
Habenaria foliosa var. foetida,
Habenaria marginata var. flavescens,
Habenaria multicaudata,
Habenaria ovalifolia, …, …,  
Habeneria stenopetala,
Habenaria suaveolens,
Habenaria viridiflora ……….

Flora of Davanagere District, Karnataka, India By B. K. Manjunatha, V. Krishna, T. Pullaiah (2004)- Description with Keys
Habenaria elwesii,
Habenaria multicaudata,


Habenaria Willd.: The Bog Orchid :  5 posts by 2 authors.
Habenaria Willd., Sp. Pl. 4: 44 (1805).
The name Habenaria is derived from, “habena” meaning whip or strap, referring to the thread like fringes of the lip in the flowers.
This is one of the biggest genera of terrestrial orchids inn the world represented by around 800 species distributed from Tropical and Subtropical regions to South Siberia. The genus is represented by 71 species in India distributed across the landscape.
Habenaria species have small to large underground root tubers and erect stems ~10 – 100 cm length. Leaves are lanceolate or ovate, and are borne either along the stem (cauline) or only at the base (basal).
When basal, leaves lie flat on the ground. Flowers are mostly green, white, yellow and green, or white and green, but a few exceptions have brilliant red flowers. The column is frequently complicated, with long organs sticking out of it (stigma processes, lateral rostellum arms, anther canals). The plant is a perennial deciduous, with the entire above-ground part of the plant dying back each year.
This is considered as one of the problematic group due to its complex morphology and lots of synonyms. Just the genus has around 41 synonyms. Very common indian orchid genera like Peristylus, Pecteilis, Platanthera etc have emerged from Habenaria.
I would be adding few pics from my collection of Habenaria during my next posting… Will also try to recall old posting for this eflora to make a proper set, with due credits to the respective owners of particular pictures.

Just to add, many of these pics were taken during early stages of my research when I didnt have a good camera so, please bear with the bad pictures.
Secondly, I dont know of any Habenaria is India which flowers during seasons other than in and around Monsoon. Please do let me know if any one of you has some idea about any such taxa.


Habenaria !: 1 high res. image.
8 Habenaria species from Nepal, 5 from Kathmandu Valley and 3 from West Nepal !