Leucas decemdentata (Willd.) Sm., Cycl. 20: 6 1810. (Syn: Isodeca flaccida (R.Br.) Raf.; Leucas chinensis var. oliganthos Hassk.; Leucas decemdentata var. decemdentata ; Leucas flaccida R.Br.; Leucas flaccida var. petiolaris Benth.; Leucas flaccida var. scaberula (Hook.f.) S.R.Sriniv.; Leucas javanica Benth. .; Leucas lamioides (Muschl.) Hosseus [Illegitimate]; Leucas leucocephala Miq.; Leucas melissifolia Benth.; Leucas mollissima Wall. ex Benth.; Leucas mollissima subsp. scaberula (Hook.f.) Murti & Panigrahi; Leucas mollissima var. scaberula Hook.f.; Leucas montana var. pilosa Haines; Leucas montana f. scaberula (Hook.f.) S.R.Paul; Leucas montana var. strigosa (Benth.) S.R.Paul; Leucas oxyodon Miq.; Leucas parviflora Benth.; Leucas pilosa var. pubescens Benth.; Leucas sericea Elmer; Leucas stachyoides Spreng.; Leucas strigosa Benth.; Marrubium lamioides Muschl.; Phlomis chinensis Blume [Illegitimate]; Phlomis decemdentata Willd.; Phlomis flaccida (R.Br.) Steud.; Phlomis moluccana Roxb.; Stachys decemdentata G.Forst. [Invalid]);


SK834 29 OCT-2017:ID : 5 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (7)
Location:  Suryavinayak, Bhktapur, Nepal
Date: 7 October 2017
Elevation : 5200 ft.
Leucas cephalotes (Roth) Spreng.  ??

Does not matches with images at Leucas cephalotes (Roth) Spreng.
Appears close to images at Leucas decemdentata (Willd.) Sm. (syn: Leucas mollissima Wall. ex Benth.)

Thank you …!
Leucas decemdentata (Willd.) Sm.
Nepali Names : धुसुरे खर Dhusure Khar / झुन्के घाँस Jhunke Ghaans
Syn : Leucas mollissima Wall. ex Benth.
Pachmarhi … about 3600 feet ft asl
Date / Time: 19 SEP 13 at 10:51 AM Altitude: about 3132 ft asl
Leucas ¿ species ? … (family: Lamiaceae)
Habit: herb, about 60 – 70 cm high, seeming to be a climber (or straggler)
Habitat: along forest trail in evergreen forest

Flower just about 10 mm across
Bee Falls – very popular tourist place. Large evergreen patch of forest around this water falls – a very good place for exploring flora. This source is the main supply of water to Pachmarhi town.

it is Leucas decemdentata

Jan2015sk17 Hooghly – Leucas mollissima Wall. ex Benth. ? : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (13)
This wild herb found in a village wasteplace. I didn’t have any scale, please guess approximate size by comparing the common grass yellow butterfly.
As per KEY and distribution of ‘Bengal Plants’ this should be Leucas mollissima Wall.

Yes it is Leucas mollissima Wall.

Leucas decemdentata (Willd.) Sm.
at Pachmarhi on September 19, 2013


Lamiaceae (Incl. Verbenaceae) Fortnight: Leucas for id from Chakrata- NS May 12/12 :  10 posts by 4 authors. 2 correct images.
This herb was shot from Chakrata at different times, is this Leucas aspera ?

efi page on Leucas aspera     

Seems to be Anisomeles heyneana.
Reference :Common Indian Wild Flowers, by Isaac Kehimkar.

…, please do not mind, it appears to me that L. aspera (Willd.)
Link is an ever elusive species! Where are the linear hispid bracts in
your species? Aren’t leaves are too broad? Does the calyx have oblique
mouth, even slightly?

I have also posted the same plant for ID. Hope it is resolved.

I hesitate to say that I think the species in this thread looks like- efi thread
But calyx teeth of the above species is shorter in – efi thread and in efi thread (…)
efi thread (repeat post of …, validated by Dr. Sunoj Ji efithread).
I think this species in this thread is L. mollissima or one of its var.

efi page on Leucas decemdentata (syn. Leucas mollissima Wall. ex Benth.);

I do not find difference with this species and the one linked at efi thread
But I do find difference with efi thread
Maybe my illusion!

1st and 4th pics are different from 2nd and 3rd, may be same species, but certainly recorded at different time.
KEW has several herb of L. biflora, leaves in those herb are entirely different.
Calyx teeth of 2nd and 3rd pic and leaves are similar to L. decemdentata record of efi dbase.
Slender calyx teeth in 1st and 4th pics suggest probability of L. mollissima record of efi dbase.

As per distribution given in the monograph this is, to my understanding Leucas decemdentata (Willd.) R. Br. ex Sm. var. decemdentata.

Lamiaceae (incl. Vebenaceae) Fortnight 1-14May2014: Leucas for ID from Uttarakhand DSR May 3/3 : 5 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (2)
This Leucas was photographed in Almora district at an elevation of 800m.

It is Leucas biflora

A reply in another thread:
“I do not find difference with this species and the one linked at efi thread
But I do find difference with efi thread
Maybe my illusion!”

My record of L. biflora is different to this one. Unlike … thread here number of flowers are less and calyx teeth triangular.
This much I can say.

…, please ensure it has to be procumbent to be Leucas biflora (Vahl) R. Br.

Moreover, branches should be many, pubescent with deflexed hairs; leaves should be pubescent on both sides, I am not sure of how the hairs in the photographs can be defined. The problem is hairs in L. decemdentata also varies from glabrate to villous to strigose.
Another problem area is calyx mouth is dialated, distinctly ribbed, rib excurrent to calyx teeth (a feature of L. montana not to be found in your area. calyx teeth linear-subulate). But can those teeth be called triangular-subulate (a feature of biflora, decemdentata, lanata)?
Please check my record of biflora at efi thread and … at efi thread 2 … decide yourself.

Thank you … for analyzing my species in detail. I really appreciate your efforts in concluding the IDs of plants posted in eFI.
I too agree that my plant is not L.biflora which is not known in Uttarakhand also. Leucas is represented by following species in Uttarakhand-
L.aspera (no resemblance)-
L.biflora (Little resemblance)- http://apps.kew.org/herbcat/getImage.do?imageBarcode=K001115027
L.decemdentata (=L.mollissima) resemble to a certain extent-
see also- http://www.hkwildlife.net/Forum/viewthread.php?tid=6324
L.natans (no resemblance)- http://apps.kew.org/herbcat/getImage.do?imageBarcode=K001116345
I suspect it as L.decemdentata (=L.mollissima) as in- efi thread

I agree Sir.
Haines (also noted by Dr. V. S. in the monograph) that considered close affinity of L. montana with L. decemdentata (a variable species).
As per the monograph, L. lavandulifolia Sm. was named as L. indica (L.) Vatke. “The name L. indica (L.) Vatke (1875) based on Leonurus indicus L. ……. should be rejected”.

Attached here KEY and descriptions of several var. of L. montana by Haines.
Please note Haines, unlike Prain, didn’t recognize L. mollissima Wall. as separate taxon.
Attachments (4)


Leucas decemdentata

Leucas aspera


June15sk12/12 : Leucas spp. in West Bengal : 4 posts by 1 author

It is difficult to me to differentiate the 3 spp. having truncate calyx mouth – (1) L. decemdentata var. decemdentata (2) L. lanata var. lanata (3) L. montana.

For, descriptions of the above three spp. appear similar to me. Differentiations though starts with stem indumentum are not enough to enable a non-botanist to have a good grip over the above three.
In spite of the above I think the attached plate, prepared from my one earlier thread is of Leucas decemdentata var. decemdentata for its –
  • leaves having cordate (can be rounded or cuneate) base
  • axillary whorls having few (can be many) flowers
  • subulate calyx teeth (discrepancy is tube should be glabrous to pubescent outside)
  • exserted corolla tube (not a very strong point)
Thank you
Attachments (1)

I would like to conclude this Leucas episode with an information, from the monograph, that I missed to note earlier. This is related to identification of L. decemdentata, L. lanata and L. montana. There are info on flowering season, ecology etc which may further help identification but I would skip this.
As per the monograph –
  • Leaf size = 1.5 – 4 x 0.6 – 1.7 cm =  Leucas lanata Wall. ex Benth. var. lanata (non. L. mollissima Wall. ex Benth.)
  • Leaf size = 2 – 10 x 0.7 – 5 cm = Leucas decemdentata (Willd.) R.Br. ex Sm. var. decemdentata ( L. mollissima Wall. ex Benth.)
While the first one above is perennial the 2nd one is annual.
So, please check your species where I did comment and correct the ID accordingly.


Leucas lanata Benth. (accepted name) : 7 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (9)
Sharing some pictures I guess is Leucas lanata Benth. (accepted name) shot at Gundu Nepal on 26 Aigust 2016 at 5000 ft.

Seems to match with images at Leucas lanata

It differs from Leucas lanata in shape and under surface of leaves (White pubescent) as well as Nos. of flowers in a whorl. Hence needs further confirmation.

Leucas decemdentata ??  but not listed in Nepal !

efi page at Leucas decemdentata with images

I suggested Leucas decemdentata but it seems not listed in Nepal as per the books and link as below:

Leucas decemdentata (Willd.) Sm.  ???
Nepali Names : धुसुरे खर Dhusure Khar / झुन्के घाँस Jhunke Ghaans
Syn : Leucas mollissima Wall. ex Benth.

Yes. May be.

SK854 08 NOV-2017:ID : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (8)
Location: Chobhar, Nepal
Altitude: 4600 ft.
Date: 18 July 2017
Leucas once more !

Is it not same as recently identified posts of Leucas decemdentata

Yes, it is …!  Syn: Leucas mollissima Wall. ex Benth.

Leucas decemdentata from Morni hills… : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (4)
Here am uploading some images of Leucas decemdentata taken from Morni hills on September 2018.


SK2017 01 July 2019 : 10 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (9)- around 750 kb each.
Location: Chobhar, Kathmandu
Date: 24 June 2019
Elevation: 1351 m.
Habit : Wild 
Which Leucas ??

Pl. check comparative images at /species/a—l/l/lamiaceae/leucas

I have already crossed checked.

Please check it with L. lanata

I checked but elevation is not matching.

I hope you know very well about species grows elevations, every time not important elevation If we sp. identified exactly. ex. Cleome viscosa grows at 5 m elevation and 1350 elevation too.

Yes I understand . Global warming. But to just make sure.

May be Leucas decemdentata as per your other observations herein.

Thank you …!

SK 2228 17 October 2019 : 5 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (5)- around 1 mb each.
Location: Chalnakhel, Kathmandu, Nepal
Altitude: 1570 m.
Date: 14 September  2019
Habit : Wild
Leucas sp. ! ID ?

Closest I can go as per comparative images at Leucas is Leucas decemdentata (Willd.) Sm.

SK 2288 10 November 2019 : 6 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2)- 3 mb each.
Location: Sundarijal, Kathmandu
Date: 30 September  2019
Elevation: 1577 m.
Habit : Wild 
Which Leucas ??

Attachments (2)- 3 & 4 mb each.

Attachments (1) – 7 mb.

I think close to Leucas decemdentata (Willd.) Sm. as per comparative images at Leucas

Its L. decemdentataIt is highly variable species.


SK 2799 22 October 2020 : 11 posts by 2 authors. 7 images- 5 to 7 mb each.

Location: Phulchoki, Lalitpur
Date: 07 October 2020 
Elevation: 2037m.
Habit : Wild
Leucas decemdentata var. decemdentata ??
Syn : Leucas mollissima Wall. ex Benth.

Yes, to me also appears close to Leucas decemdentata (Willd.) Sm. as per comparative images at Leucas 


Location: RAJOURI JANDK Habit: Herb- I’d requested 3: 1 high res. image.
Segregating posts with the same subject.

Please check Leucas !

Leucas chinensis I hope

I find it more closer to Leucas biflora (Vahl) R.Br. ex Sm. as per comparative images at Leucas

Can you post more images for proper id?

2 high res. images.

This looks like L. decemdentata.


Leucas lanata Benth. (accepted name) ?? : 6 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3)
Location: Pokhara , Nepal
Altitude:  2600 ft.
Date: 27 July l 2015

Looks different from images at Leucas lanata

Pl. check with the images at Leucas aspera (Willd.) Link 

I do not think  that the plant (in the photograph) has softly wooly desnely haired. In L.lanata  the leaves are densely covered with woolly hairs so that they appear silvery and leaves are short-stalked
It could be a variety of L. aspera

I still guess it is matching more to L. lanata as leaf pattern does not look like matching with L. aspera.
Altitude matching with the link below but flowering is a couple of weeks earlier due to climatic change.

L. decemdentata

Lamiaceae (incl. Verbenaceae) Fortnight: TC03 – Leucas for id. : 13 posts by 5 authors. Attachments (1)
Goa, Kolemroadsides, somewhat straggling.

Leucas species in eFloraofindia (with details/ keys from published papers/ regional floras/ FRLHT/ FOI/ Biotik/ efloras/ books etc., where ever available)

looks like Leucas chinensis

This is Leucas biflora i thoght
bcoz here stem looks quadrangular, leaves petiolate lanceolate

I remember you identified my thread of Leucas biflora.
Usually in L. biflora (Vahl) Sm. number of flowers per whorl is 1 to 4 (sometimes upto 6) and flowers are pedicellate. Here the number of flowers seems to be more than biflora and those flowers look sessile. Moreover flowers are densely arranged.
So, I request you to reconsider the ID of this species.

It is interesting to note that account of Leucas chinensis (Retz.) R. Br. in FoC is a bit different than Indin sites like http://keralaplants.in/keralaplantsdetails. Also one has to take note of calyx mouth http://apps.kew.org/herbcat/getImage.do?imageBarcode=K000929492.
Interestingly, there is also one Leucas mollissima var. chinensis, one L. chinensis var. lanata … etc which KEW thinks are synonyms of L. chinensis.

find out difference between two here please
i have seen L biflora not L chinensis so you only decide

I am happy that … is back armed with his websites and solutions with nomenclatural and identification problems.  I am sure now I will get the correct identity.

I hesitate to say that this plate or photograph is not enough to identify the plant at species level. I am sorry Smita Ji I couldn’t find differences of L. biflora and L. chinensis in the FoC and pdf links you have provided. I already have the pdf paper since 2012 – efi thread. And when I write “account of Leucas chinensis (Retz.) R. Br. in FoC is a bit different than Indian sites” it means I have read FoC description.
While some authors think that L. biflora doesn’t form flowering whorl, and quite naturally when we see that usually there are only 1 or 2 flowers per verticillaster, other authors use the term “whorl” when they note presence of 4 or more flowers.
Let’s see what are Smita Ji’s points –
  • “stem looks quadrangular” = L. chinensis stem is or can be quadrangular
  • “leaves petiolate” – as per Kerala site (I have pasted link earlier) L. chinensis leaves have petioles 0.5 to 3.5 cm long. So informs Indian Biodiversity Portal. In KEW herb petiolate leaf can be seen. Same can be seen in Taiwan site Attached here Retzius’ account.
  • “leaves lanceolate” = this is one thing I fail to find any ref. But I do not think only leaf shape can reject a probable ID. Because things are more favourable to L. chinensis thank to L. biflora.
…, I also never seen L. chinensis but then I didn’t see many many species…. yet I try.
Attachments (1)

That’s what exactly i said on the basis of two links i have given i thought it is L biflora
but as i said i have never seen L chinensis it is up to you to decide
as you have come to conclusion it is L chinensis
i mean i stand corrected

Leucas chinensis

The problem is TPL thinks L. chinensisL. chinensis var. lanataL. mollisima var. chinensis ….all synonymous (with one or more star rating). But FoC thinks otherwise –
Unfortunately FoC doesn’t feature L. biflora.
It is interesting to note IPNI detail on Leucas chinensis R. Br. The protologue can be found (attached herewith also) at http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/.. More, interesting is account of Leucas by Brown in that protologue. Here is an illustration of decemdentata (it’s a different taxon in TPL) – http://plantillustrations.org/illustration.
  • Leucas biflora
IPNI informs”basionym not stated” for Leucas biflora (Vahl) Sm. Protologue of Leucas procumbens Thwaites can be found at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/ This protologue refers Wight’s illustration. Attached herewith Wight’s account of the species.
I think I have provided ample links of websites for nomenclature and identification problems.
Unless we have the “work(s)” mentioned in another thread, along with more elaborate photographs of this species nothing is confirmed.
Attachments (3)

How about Leucas chinensis? Pl check this link- India Biodiversity portal: http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/show/251140

I would like to put a question mark on its identity as Leucas chinensis (Retz.) R. Br. The species usually has 3-8 flowers per whorl; 1-1.5 cm long calyx tube, abruptly dilated mouth, broadly triangular spreading teeth — all these characters are not clear in the attached photographs.

This can’t be L. biflora as well.
L. montana (Roth.) Spreng can be straggler, but have truncate or rounded leaf base. L. lanata var. lanata, an erect perennial, has rounded or slightly narrowed leaf base. L. decemdentata var. decemdentata, an annual can have cuneate leaf base (L. chinensis also).
So, id of this one remains unresolved.


at Kulang gad (20-09-09); Leucas Sp?? – indiantreepix | Google Groups


MS,Nov.,2022/04 Spermacoce sp. (ocimoides ?) for id.: 2 images.
Location : Hmuifang, Mizoram

Altitude : ca.1,450 m.
Date : 02-11-2022
Habit : Herb
Habitat : Wild


Pl. check

It seems L. lanata. If I get specimens, can confirm it.

Any keys, …? Appears close as per images at

What about the next page?

Next page is descriptions of L.ciliata, L.indica & L.mollissima

Out of the distributed species as per your book, there is some possibility of this being Leucas decemdentata (syn. Leucas mollissima Wall. ex Benth.) as per POWO.
… may kindly have a look pl.

It may be L. decemdentata. Material should be checked to confirm it.

SK 3665 10 December 2022: 5 very high res. images.
Location: Chandragiri, Kathmandu, Nepal
Altitude : 2299m.
Date: 05 December2022
Habitat : Wild
Leucas for ID!

To me appears close to images at

For me too, it appears as L. decemdentata.


Please ID this Leucas species: 3 images.
Found and photographed this flower of Lamiaceae family in Upper Samdong area, East Sikkim.
Please confirm whether it is Leucas lanata (Woolly Leucas) or any other Leucas species.

Leucas decemdentata (Willd.) Sm.

Yes, appears close to images at

Yes, it seems decemdentata


SK346JAN27-2017:ID : 11 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (6)

Location: Hattiban, Nepal
Altitude:  4900 ft.
Date: 5 October 2016
Leucas aspera (Willd.) Link (accepted name) again ??

Does not seem to match with images at Leucas aspera
Appears close to images images at Leucas eriostoma Hook.f. , but not found in Nepal.
This is the closest I could find as per comparative images in efi at Leucas

It is not Leucas aspera, but very close to leucas eriostoma, there is some possibility of it may come as an escape

I am unable to decide. Any how please check these links for final decision:

To me it seems to be Leucas lanata.
FLOWERS OF THE HIMALAYA by Oleg Polunin and Adam Stainton refers (page 328, se no- 1131 Plate no 104).

Thanks, … You are right.
… images matches with images of the same species in the following postings:

Thank you for the ID validation.
However, flowering period and the altitude differs according to FoN and book published in Nepal but matching altitude with FOI but flowering period differing slightly.

Thanks for the finalisation of the ID.  It should be correct.

Now only I noticed your mail. I could not operate my rediffmail so long and now rediff gave me a chance to operate after paying. So I opened it and found your mail. It is about the Leucas you had collected from Nepal, Gattiban 5 Oct 2017. It is interesting I will once again check it but I found something new. If you have specimen or about to collect anything please send it tome.

Any opinion ?

Could it be Leucas decemdentata (Willd.) Sm., since Leucas montana (Roth) Spreng.
do not have distribution in Nepal.
I could not find another plant on my later visits.

most probably it is decemdentata which has some varieties also.


The Plant List Ver.1.1  WCSP  Flora of China (Leucas mollissima Wallich ex Bentham) Flora of Pakistan (Leucas mollissima Wall. ex Benth.) Annotated checklist of Flowering plants of Nepal (Leucas mollissima Wall. ex Benth.) India Biodiversity Portal  

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