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Ficus amplocarpa E. Govindarajalu & P. Masilamoney


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Ficus exasperata Vahl

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Ficus hookeriana Corner (S. India, Nepal to S. China: Assam, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, India, Nepal as per POWO)

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Synopsis of the Genus Ficus L. (Moraceae) in India Lal Babu Chaudhary*, Jana Venkata Sudhakar, Anoop Kumar, Omesh Bajpai, Rinkey Tiwari and G. V. S. Murthy-   Taiwania, 57(2): 193-216, 2012-  
ABSTRACT: A checklist of all species of Ficus L. available in the present political boundary of India is provided. About 115 taxa (89 species and 26 infraspecific taxa) of Ficus have been recorded here based on all available information. The taxa have been arranged according to the current classification among six subgenera and 12 sections. The maximum number of the species belongs to subgenera Urostigma. For each species, correct nomenclature with first citation followed by several relevant works and important synonyms has been provided along with Indian as well as world distribution. The taxonomic comments have also been provided for many species, if found necessary. Out of the 115 taxa occurring in India, only 10 taxa have been recorded as endemic. One new combination Ficus hirta Vahl subsp. triloba (Buch.-Ham. ex Voigt) Chaudhary has been proposed. In India, the species are distributed throughout the country from South to North up to the Himalayas at about 2,000 m elevations. The maximum diversity of the species lies in the North-East region followed by the Peninsular region and Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The province like Meghalaya in the North-East region has very rich diversity of Ficus as far as the number of species is concerned. 
List of 115 taxa is as below:
Ficus abelii Miq.,
Ficus albipila (Miq.) King,
Ficus alongensis Gagnep.,
Ficus altissima Blume,
Ficus ampelas Burm. f.,
Ficus amplissima J. E. Sm.,
Ficus andamanica Corner,
Ficus arnottiana (Miq.) Miq.,
Ficus assamica Miq.,
Ficus arnottiana (Miq.) Miq. var. courtallensis King,
Ficus arnottiana (Miq.) Miq. var. subcostata Corner,
Ficus auriculata Lour.,
Ficus beddomei King,
Ficus benghalensis L.,
Ficus benghalensis L. var. krishnae (C. DC.) Corner,
Ficus benjamina L.,
Ficus benjamina L. subsp. comosa (Roxb.) Panigrahi & Murti,
Ficus callosa Willd.,
Ficus capillipes Gagnep.,
Ficus carica L.,
Ficus caulocarpa (Miq.) Miq.,
Ficus chartacea (Wall. ex Kurz) Wall. ex King,
Ficus concinna (Miq.) Miq.,
Ficus concinna (Miq.) Miq. var. dasycarpa Corner,
Ficus conglobata King,
Ficus copiosa Steud.,
Ficus costata Aiton,
Ficus crininervia Miq.,
Ficus cupulata Haines,
Ficus curtipes Corner,
Ficus cyrtophylla (Miq.) Miq.,
Ficus dalhousiae (Miq.) Miq.,
Ficus diversiformis Miq.,
Ficus drupacea Thunb.,
Ficus drupacea Thunb. var. pubescens (Roth) Corner,
Ficus elastica Roxb.,
Ficus erecta Thunb.,
Ficus exasperata Vahl,
Ficus fergusonii (King) Worthington,
Ficus filicauda Hand. – Mazz. in Anz. Akad. Wiss. Wien,
Ficus fistulosa Reinwdt. ex Blume,
Ficus fulva Reinw. ex Blume,
Ficus gasparriniana Miq.,
Ficus gasparriniana Miq. var. laceratifolia (Levl. & Vant.) Corner,
Ficus geniculata Kurz,
Ficus guttata (Wight) Kurz ex King,
Ficus hedaracea Roxb.,
Ficus heterophylla L. f.,
Ficus heteropleura Blume,
Ficus hirta Vahl,
Ficus hirta Vahl var. malayana Corner,
Ficus hirta Vahl subsp. triloba (Buch.-Ham. ex Voigt) Chaudhary, comb. nov.,
Ficus hispida L. f.,
Ficus hookeriana Corner,
Ficus ischnopoda Miq.,
Ficus lacor Buch.-Ham.,
Ficus laevis Blume,
Ficus laevis Blume var. macrocarpa (Miq.) Corner,
Ficus lamponga Miq.,
Ficus langkokensis Drake,
Ficus maclellandii King,
Ficus maclellandii King var. rhododendrifolia (Miq.) Corner,
Ficus macrophylla Desf. ex Pers.,
Ficus magnoliifolia Blume,
Ficus microcarpa L. f.,
Ficus mollis Vahl.,
Ficus montana Burm. f.,
Ficus neriifolia J. E. Sm.,
Ficus nervosa B. Heyne ex Roth in Nov.,
Ficus nervosa B. Heyne ex Roth subsp. minor (King) Berg,
Ficus nervosa B. Heyne ex Roth subsp. pubinervis (Blume) Berg,
Ficus nigrescens King,
Ficus obscura Blume var. borneensis (Miq.) Corner,
Ficus palmata Forssk. subsp. virgata (Roxb.) Browicz in Rechinger,
Ficus pellucidopunctata Griff.,
Ficus pendens Corner,
Ficus praetermissa Corner,
Ficus prostrata (Wall. ex Miq.) Miq.,
Ficus pubigera (Miq. ex Wall.) Brandis,
Ficus pubigera var. maliformis (King) Corner,
Ficus pumila L.,
Ficus punctata Thunb.,
Ficus racemosa L.,
Ficus racemosa L. var. elongata (King) Barrett,
Ficus racemosa L. var. miquelii (King) Corner,
Ficus recurva Blume,
Ficus religiosa L.,
Ficus retusa L.,
Ficus retusa L. var. nitida (Thunb.) Miq.,
Ficus ribes Reinwdt. ex Blume,
Ficus rigida Jacq.,
Ficus rigida Jacq. var. bracteata (Corner) Bennet,
Ficus rumphii Blume,
Ficus sagittata Vahl,
Ficus sarmentosa Buch.-Ham. ex. J. E. Sm.,
Ficus sarmentosa Buch.-Ham. ex. J. E. Sm. var. impressa (Champ. ex Benth.) Corner,
Ficus sarmentosa Buch.-Ham. ex. J. E. Sm. var. luducca (Roxb.) Corner,
Ficus sarmentosa Buch.-Ham. ex. J. E. Sm. var. nipponica (Franch. & Sav.) Corner,
Ficus semicordata Buch.-Ham. ex J. E. Sm.,
Ficus sinuata Thunb.,
Ficus squamosa Roxb.,
Ficus stricta (Miq.) Miq.,
Ficus subincisa Buch.-Ham. ex J. E. Sm. in Rees,
Ficus subincisa Buch.-Ham. ex J. E. Sm. var. paucidentata (Miq.) Corner,
Ficus subulata Blume,
Ficus sundaica Blume,
Ficus superba (Miq.) Miq.,
Ficus talbotii King,
Ficus tinctoria G. Forst. subsp. gibbosa (Blume) Corner,
Ficus trimenii King,
Ficus tsjahela Burm. f.,
Ficus variegata Blume,
Ficus villosa Blume,
Ficus virens Aiton,
Ficus virens Aiton var. sublanceolata (Miq.) Corner

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Binomial Habit Notes References Distribution Common name
Ficus
albipila
(Miq.) King
Tree Eastern Ghats,
Moist Deciduous Forests
Flora of Tamil
Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Rani 1985
Salem,  Dindigul, Namakkal  
Ficus amplissima J.E. Smith Tree Dry
Evergreen to Evergreen Forests, also Cultivated
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
All
districts
Ichi,
Kal-ichi
Ficus amplocarpa Govindarajulu &
Masilamoney is a synonym of Ficus laevis var. macrocarpa (Miq.) Corner
Tree Western
Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Moist Deciduous to Evergreen Forests 
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Coimbatore,
Dharmapuri, Theni, Namakkal,
Nilgiri 
 
Ficus angladei Fischer is a synonym of Ficus macrophylla Desf. ex Pers. Tree Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests, Endemic 
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Gamble & Fischer 1957
Dindigul  
Ficus arnottiana (Miq.) Miq. Shrub/small
tree
Western
Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Dry Deciduous Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Coimbatore,
Dharmapuri, Dindigul, Erode, Kanniyakumari, Namakkal, Nilgiri, Salem, Theni,
Tirunelveli, Tiruvannamalai, Vellore, Viluppuram, Virudhunagar
Kal-arasu
Ficus auriculata Lour. Tree Western
Ghats, Cultivated, Native of Indo – Chinese Region
Matthew,
1999
Dindigul  
Ficus beddomei King Tree Western
Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Evergreen Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Gamble & Fischer 1957
Coimbatore,
Dindigul, Nilgiri, Salem, Tirunelveli
 
Ficus benghalensis L. var. benghalensis Tree Deciduous
Forests, also Cultivated
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
All
districts
Aal,  Ichi, per-al
Ficus benghalensis L. var. krishnae C.DC. Tree Plains,  Cultivated Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Chennai,
Madurai, Salem, Theni 
 
Ficus benjamina L.  Tree Plains,
Cultivated , Native of Malaysian
Region 
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Fischer 1921, Mayuranathan 1929
All
districts
Malai-ichi,
Ponichi
Ficus callosa Willd. Tree Western
Ghats, Moist Deciduous to Evergreen Forests 
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Nilgiri,
Dindigul, Madurai, Tirunelveli
Koli-aal
Ficus carica L. Shrub Western
Ghats,  Cultivated, Native of  Mediterranean Region
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Dindigul,  Nilgiri Simaiyatti
Ficus dalhousiae Miq. Tree Western
Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Moist Deciduous Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Coimbatore,
Dindigul, Namakkal, Nilgiri, Theni, Tirunelveli, Vellore
Pei-aal,
Kal-aal
Ficus drupacea Thunb. var. pubescens (Roth) Corner = Ficus drupacea Thunb. Tree Western
Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Deciduous to Moist Deciduous Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Matthew 1983
Coimbatore,
Dharmapuri, Dindigul, Madurai, Namakkal, Nilgiri,  Salem, Theni, Tiruvannamalai
Kal-aal
Ficus elastica Roxb. ex Hornem. Tree Plains,
Cultivated, Native of Malaysian Region
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
All
districts
 
Ficus exasperata Vahl Tree Western
Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Dry Deciduous Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Matthew 1983
Coimbatore,
Dharmapuri,  Dindigul,  Kancheepuram, Kanniyakumari, Namakkal,  Nilgiri, Salem, Theni, Tiruchchirappalli,
Tirunelveli ,Viluppuram
Irumbarathan,
Maramthinni-atthi
Ficus glaberrima Blume var. bracteata Corner is a synonym of Ficus lawesii King Straggling
Shrub
Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Gamble & Fischer 1957
Coimbatore  
Ficus guttata (Wight) Kurz ex King is a synonym of Ficus laevis var. macrocarpa (Miq.) Corner Tree Western
Ghats, Deciduous  Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Coimbatore,
Nilgiri, Theni
 
Ficus heterophylla L.f. Shrub Western
Ghats & Eastern Ghats,  Deciduous
to Moist Deciduous Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Gamble & Fischer 1957
Coimbatore,
Dharmapuri, Namakkal, Tirunelveli
Kodi-atthi
Ficus hispida L.f. Shrub/small
tree
Dry
Evergreen to  Evergreen Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
All
districts
Peyatthi,
Sona-atthi
Ficus hookeriana Corner Tree Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Nilgiri  
Ficus laevis Blume var. macrocarpa (Miq.) Corner Tree Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests
Matthew,
1999
Dindigul  
Ficus microcarpa L.f. Tree Deciduous
Forests, also Cultivated
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
All
districts
Kal-athi
Ficus mollis Vahl Tree Dry
Evergreen to Dry Deciduous Forests,  on
Rocks
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
All
districts
Ichchi,
Kal-ichchi, Kaattarasu
Ficus nervosa Heyne ex Roth var. nervosa Tree Western
Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Deciduous to Moist Deciduous Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Matthew 1983
Coimbatore,
Nilgiri, Salem, Tirunelveli
Neer-aal
Ficus nervosa Roth var. minor King Tree Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Gamble 1957
Nilgiri  
Ficus palmata Forssk.  Tree Western
Ghats, High Altitude, Native of Saharo-Sindian Region
  Dindigul  
Ficus pumila L. Climber Plains
to High Altitude, Cultivated, Native of East
Asiatic Region
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
All
districts
 
Ficus racemosa L. Tree Deciduous
Forests, also Cultivated
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
All
districts
Atthi,
Vellaiatthi
Ficus religiosa L. Tree Plains,
Dry Localities
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
All
districts
Arasu
Ficus talbotii King Tree Western
Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Dry Deciduous Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Matthew 1983
Dharmapuri,
Madurai, Nilgiri, Salem
Itthi,
Kal-ithi
Ficus tinctoria Forst.f.  Tree Plains
to  High Altitude
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Coimbatore,
Dharmapuri, Dindigul, Erode, Kanniyakumari, Namakkal, Nilgiri, Salem, Theni,
Tirunelveli, Tiruvannamalai, Vellore, Viluppuram, Virudhunagar
 
Ficus tsjahela Burm.f. Tree Western
Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Moist Deciduous Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Matthew 1983
Coimbatore,
Dharmapuri, Kanniyakumari, Nilgiri, Salem, Tirunelveli, Tiruvannamalai,
Vellore, Viluppuram
Kal-aal
Ficus virens Ait. var. lambertiana (Miq.) Raizada Tree Western
Ghats & Eastern Ghats
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Coimbatore,
Kanniyakumari, Nilgiri, Salem, Tirunelveli, Tiruvannamalai
 
Ficus virens Ait. var. virens Tree Western
Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Dry Deciduous Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Gamble & Fischer 1957, Matthew 1983
Coimbatore,
Dharmapuri, Namakkal, Nilgiri, Salem, Tiruvannamalai, Viluppuram
Kurugatti,
Malai-ichchi
Ficus virens Ait. var. wightiana (Miq.) Chithra is a synonym of Ficus virens Aiton Tree Western
Ghats , Moist  Deciduous Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Coimbatore,
Dindigul, Nilgiri, Tirunelveli
 

.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ficus lacor BUCH.- HAM (= Ficus virens Aiton as per GRIN)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 


.

Botanical name Synonyms Family Common name
Ficus arnottiana Urostigma arnottiana Moraceae Indian Rock Fig
Ficus auriculata Ficus oligodon, Ficus roxburghii Moraceae Elephant Ear Fig
Ficus bengalensis Moraceae Banyan Tree
Ficus benghalensis var. krishnae Ficus krishnae Moraceae Krishna Fig
Ficus benjamina Moraceae Weeping Fig
Ficus callosa Ficus cordatifolia, Ficus cinerascens, Ficus porteana Moraceae Calloused Fig
Ficus carica Moraceae Anjeer
Ficus drupacea var. pubescens = Ficus drupacea Thunb. Ficus mysorensis, Ficus mysorensis var. pubescens Moraceae Mysore Fig
Ficus elastica Ficus cordata, Ficus decora Moraceae Rubber Tree
Ficus exasperata Ficus asperrima, Ficus punctifera Moraceae Brahma’s Banyan
Ficus hederacea Ficus fructicosa Moraceae Ivy Fig
Ficus hispida Ficus oppositifolia, Ficus compressa, Covellia hispida Moraceae Hairy Fig
Ficus lyrata Ficus pandurata Moraceae Fiddle Leaf Fig
Ficus microcarpa Ficus retusa, Ficus nitida Moraceae Laurel Fig
Ficus mollis Moraceae Soft Fig
Ficus natalensis subsp. leprieurii Ficus triangularis, Ficus leprieurii Moraceae Natal Fig
Ficus palmata Ficus pseudocarica Moraceae Punjab Fig
Ficus pumila Moraceae Climbing Fig
Ficus racemosa Ficus glomerata, Ficus lucescens, Ficus racemosa var. elongata Moraceae Goolar
Ficus religiosa Moraceae Peepal
Ficus semicordata Covellia cunia, Ficus cunia, Ficus conglomerata Moraceae Drooping Fig
Ficus tinctoria Ficus gibbosa, Ficus parasitica, Ficus swinhoei Moraceae Dye Fig
Ficus virens Ficus infectoria Moraceae White Fig

.

.

Ficus auriculata

Ficus benghalensis

Ficus benghalensis var. benghalensis

Ficus benghalensis var. krishnae

Ficus benjamina

Ficus carica

Ficus carica ssp. carica

Ficus carica ssp. rupestris

Ficus deltoidea

Ficus elastica

Ficus hispida

Ficus johannis

Ficus lyrata

Ficus macrophylla

Ficus microcarpa

Ficus neriifolia

Ficus neriifolia var. nemoralis

Ficus palmata

Ficus pumila

Ficus racemosa

Ficus religiosa

Ficus rubiginosa

Ficus rumphii

Ficus sarmentosa

Ficus semicordata

Ficus subincisa

Ficus tsjahela

Ficus virens


.
Species in annotated checklist of the flowering plants of Nepal :

Ficus abelii 

Ficus altissima 

Ficus arnottiana 

Ficus arnottiana var. arnottiana 

Ficus lacor (= Ficus virens Aiton as per GRIN)

.

.
Floriculture in India By Gurcharan Singh Randhawa, Amitabha Mukhopadhyay (1986)- Details-
Ficus parcellii Veitch ex Cogn. & Marchal is a synonym of Ficus aspera G.Forst.
Ficus retusa L. var. nitida (Thunb.) Miq.,
Ficus roxburghii Steud. is a synonym of Ficus auriculata Lour.  

.
Gardening in India By George Marshall Woodrow, G Marshall (1999)- Details-
Ficus myorense (? Ficus mysorensis B.Heyne ex Roth is a synonym of Ficus drupacea Thunb.)
Ficus parcellii Veitch ex Cogn. & Marchal is a synonym of Ficus aspera G.Forst.
Ficus roxburghii Steud. is a synonym of Ficus auriculata Lour.  
Ficus stipulata (Ficus stipulata Thunb. is a synonym of Ficus pumila L.)
Ficus volubile (? Ficus volubilis (Dalzell) King is a synonym of Ficus tinctoria subsp. gibbosa (Blume) Corner)

.
Flora of Davanagere District, Karnataka, India By B. K. Manjunatha, V. Krishna, T. Pullaiah (2004)- Details with keys

.
Medicinal Plants in Andhra Pradesh, India By T. Pullaiah (2002)- Details-
………….

.
Biodiversity in India, Volume 4 edited by T. Pullaiah  (2006)- Details-

I have updated eFI (efloraofindia) page on Ficus

Attempts have been made to incorporate most of the species available in India & nearby areas with details & keys directly or through links as far as possible. It’s quite possible that there may be some discrepancy in the accepted names & synonyms taken from other links.

Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.

Any comments/ corrections are welcome.


Thanks to the team lead by Dr. Chaudhary for this wonderful document: Synopsis of the Genus Ficus L. (Moraceae) in India Lal Babu Chaudhary*, Jana Venkata Sudhakar, Anoop Kumar, Omesh Bajpai, Rinkey Tiwari and G. V. S. Murthy- Taiwania, 57(2): 193-216, 2012


.

Pl. go through ‎‎Ficus (Moraceae) page with images of species in efloraofindia.

If you find any incorrect identification, pl. let us know. If anybody can send images of other species of this genera (for incorporation in the website), if any, or can identify unidentified images, it will be really nice.
Major credit for all this goes to Sh. Varun Sharma and Sh. J V Sudhakar, who helped a lot in the ids.

.

Fwd: Query and request : 6 posts by 2 authors.
A request to get about Ficus in Uttarakhand.
Any one in group is aware about number of Ficus species in Uttarakhand, apart from one publication “A Synoptic Account of the Family Moraceae in Uttarakhand – Debasmita Dutta Pramanick, 2017”. The publication is based on collected herbarium samples and earlier floral studies from the state, but still not complete, as per my knowledge 4-5 species are still missing mostly from Nainital, Chamoli, Chakrata and Dehradun; viz., Ficus neriifoliaF. mollis, F. geniculata and F. laevis etc. Still have no data about cultivated and ornamental Ficus species except F. pumila.
… may help in this query.

Kindly send the soft copy of “A Synoptic Account of the Family Moraceae in Uttarakhand – Debasmita Dutta Pramanick, 2017”. to my email.

I will check once again and help you for number of Ficus species distributed in Uttarakhand.