Keys from Flora of Bhutan (Distribution, Habitat and flowering period):
1. Stipules of lowest leaves interpetiolar and not leaf-like, of other leaves leaf like but considerably smaller than (1/3-1/3 x) the 2 true leaves of each whorl;
leaves distinctly petiolate .. .. 2
+ Stipules similar to leaves in both shape and size; leaves usually +/- sessile (except G. hoflmeisteri) .. . . .. 3
2. Leaves 10-30 x 5-18mm . . . . .. 1. G. paradoxum (Sikkim: Chunthang, Ningbil; Chumbi: unlocalised. Fir/Juniper forest, on mossy slopes and forest floors by streams, 2400—3800m. June-August; fr. until late September)
+ Leaves 3-7.5 x 1.5-2.5mm . . . .. 2. G. exile (Sikkim: unlocalised. Open grass slopes and under overhanging boulders, 3658-4573m. July-August)
3. Leaves (incl. stipules) on main stems in whorls of 4 . . .. 4
+ Leaves (incl. stipules) on main stems in whorls of (5-)6-8 . . . .. 6
4. Leaves 6-15mm wide  . . .. 4. G. elegans (var. elegans, var. punduanum (Wall.) Cufodontis, var. glabriusculum DC.)
+ Leaves 0.8-4.2mm wide . . . . .. 5
5. Leaves hirsute all over, or at least on margins and midrib; corolla lobes hirsute at apex . . . . ..3. G. hirtiflorum (Sikkim: Kaysing and unlocalised. Among boulders or shrubs often in semishade, 1676-3050m. (Late June-)July—September (fruits until October))
+ Leaves hirsute only on midrib (not on lamina or margins); corolla lobes scabrid  . . . . . ..5. G. pusillosetosum (Bhutan: C – Thimphu district (Dotena). Rhododendron aeruginosum scrub, 2750 — 3660m. Late June—late July)
6. Mericarps with hooked hairs  . . . .. 7
+ Mericarps verruculose or papillose, without hooked hairs . . . . .. 9
7. Stems armed with hooked prickles along angles; leaves in whorls of 6-8 ….. 6. G. aparine var. echinospermum (Wallroth) Cufodontis (syn. of Galium spurium) (Bhutan: C — Ha district (Ha to Damthang), Tongsa district (Shemgang (38)), Bumthang district (Bumthang, Jakar); Sikkim: unlocalised; Chumbi: Tarkapo. Weed of corn-fields, potato-fields and other crops, and in open ground in Fir/Rhododendron forest, 2600-4270m. July-September)
+ Stems unarmed, either completely glabrous or with non-hooked hairs; leaves in whorls of(4-)5 or 6 . . . . . .. 8
8. Leaves sessile or subsessile, c 4 >< as long as broad, relatively small (3.5-16 x 0.8-4.2mm), lamina glabrous but midvein hairy ….. 5. G. pusillosetosum (Bhutan: C – Thimphu district (Dotena). Rhododendron aeruginosum scrub, 2750 — 3660m. Late June—late July)
+ Leaves petiolate, c 2.5-3 x as long as broad, relatively large (6.5-23 x 2.5-10mm), lamina hairy but midvein glabrous . .. 7. G. hoffmeisteri (Bhutan: S – Chukka district (Chukka), C – Thimphu district (Taba and Upper Thimphu Chu), Punakha district (near Punakha) and Tongsa district (near Tongsa); Darjeeling: Budhwari, Sandakphu, Tanglu; Sikkim: Phusum, Jakeyripyak, Meguthang, Rathong Chhu; Chumbi: Redongbong (= Rinchingong?), Yatung. Near streams in shade of oak, birch, mixed cool broadleaved and Spruce forest, and Rhododendron/Fir forest and scrub, 1800-4300m. April—August(-September).)
9. Corolla reddish or purplish . . . . . .. 10
+ Corolla greenish, yellowish or whitish  . . .. 11
10. All cymes 2-4(-6)-flowered; epidermal cells on adaxial leaf surface inconspicuous (not readily visible under x 20 lens) . .. 10. G. rebae (Bhutan: C – Thimphu district (Motithang, Pajoding); Sikkim: Chomnagu, Lachen, Lachung, Rathong Chu, Gangtok; Chumbi: Chumbi. Evergreen oak forest, meadows, gravelly slopes, 2350-3900m. June-August.)                   

+ Most cymes 7-13-flowered (a few 2-5-flowered); epidermal cells on adaxial leaf surface conspicuous (easily seen under x 20 lens) … 11. G. craticulatum (Bhutan: C – Thimphu district (Chenkaphug). Grassy banks in cleared conifer forest, c 3000m. July.)
11. Plant forming dense mats or carpets; leaves with glabrous margins …. 8. G. acutum (Sikkim: Yakla. 3050m. October)
+ Plant scrambling, straggling or prostrate but not mat-forming; leaves with at least a few prickles on margin . . . . . .. 12
12. Internodes on main stems 0.3-2cm, stems thus appearing densely leafy; mericarps 0.7-1.1mm; cells of adaxial leaf epidermis large (clearly visible
under x 20 lens)  . . . . . ..9. G. megacyttarion (Bhutan: C – Thimphu district (valley above Motithang, Tsalimaphe); Sikkim: Domang; Chumbi: Gumboteen. Track-sides in mixed forest etc., l830—3600m. July-September.)
+ Internodes on main stems 2.5-7cm, stems thus appearing sparsely leafy; mericarps 0.4-0.6mm; cells of adaxial leaf epidermis very small (1 invisible
under x 20 lens)  . . .. 12. G. sikkimense (Bhutan: C — Thimphu, Punakha, Tongsa, Bumthang, Mongar and Tashigang districts; Darjeeling: Darjeeling to Lebong, Batasia, Rungboo, Simkuna, Sureil, Sitong, etc.; Sikkim: Gangtok, Tsomgo; Chumbi: Chubitang to Yatung. Roadside banks and walls, in mixed forest zone where forest has been cleared, 600—3900m. May-September)


.


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Galium acutum Edgew. (China South-Central; East Himalaya; Nepal; Pakistan; Tibet; West Himalaya as per Catalogue of life)

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Galium aparine L. (Afghanistan; Alabama; Alaska; Albania; Alberta; Aleutian Is.; Algeria; Argentina Northeast; Argentina Northwest; Argentina South; Arizona; Arkansas; Austria; Azores; Baleares; Baltic States; Belarus; Belgium; Bermuda; Bolivia; British Columbia; Bulgaria; Burundi; California; Canary Is.; Cape Verde; Central European Rus; Chatham Is.; Chile Central; Chile North; Chile South; China North-Central; China South-Central; China Southeast; Colombia; Colorado; Connecticut; Corse; Crozet Is.; Cyprus; Czechoslovakia; Delaware; Denmark; District of Columbia; Dominican Republic; East Aegean Is.; East European Russia; East Himalaya; Ecuador; Ethiopia; Finland; Florida; France; Froyar; Georgia; Germany; Great Britain; Greece; Greenland; Gulf States; Haiti; Hawaii; Hungary; Iceland; Idaho; Illinois; India; Indiana; Iowa; Iran; Iraq; Ireland; Italy; Japan; Juan Fernndez Is.; Kansas; Kentucky; Kirgizstan; Korea; Kriti; Krym; Labrador; Lebanon-Syria; Libya; Louisiana; Madeira; Maine; Manchuria; Manitoba; Maryland; Masachusettes; Mexican Pacific Is.; Mexico Northeast; Mexico Northwest; Michigan; Minnesota; Mississippi; Missouri; Mongolia; Montana; Morocco; Nansei-shoto; Nebraska; Nepal; Netherlands; Nevada; New Brunswick; New Hampshire; New Jersey; New Mexico; New South Wales; New York; New Zealand North; New Zealand South; Newfoundland; Nigeria; North Carolina; North Dakota; North European Russi; Northwest European R; Norway; Nova Scotia; Ogasawara-shoto; Ohio; Oklahoma; Ontario; Oregon; Pakistan; Palestine; Pennsylvania; Peru; Poland; Portugal; Prince Edward I.; Qubec; Rhode I.; Romania; Sardegna; Saskatchewan; Saudi Arabia; Selvagens; Sicilia; South Australia; South Carolina; South Dakota; South European Russi; Spain; Svalbard; Sweden; Switzerland; Tasmania; Tennessee; Texas; Tibet; Tristan da Cunha; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkey-in-Europe; Ukraine; Uruguay; Utah; Vermont; Victoria; Vietnam; Virginia; Washington; West Himalaya; West Virginia; Wisconsin; Wyoming; Yugoslavia; Zare as per Catalogue of Life)

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Galium asperifolium Wall. (Afghanistan; Assam; Bangladesh; China South-Central; Nepal; Pakistan; Sumatera; Thailand; Tibet; West Himalaya as per Catalogue of Life)
Images by Dinesh Valke (Id by Balkar Singh & Gurcharan Singh) (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more images & complete details, click on the links)

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Galium asperuloides Edgew. (Afghanistan; East Himalaya; India; Nepal; Pakistan; West Himalaya as per Catalogue of Life)

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Galium boreale L. (Afghanistan; Alaska; Albania; Alberta; Amur; Arizona; Austria; Baltic States; Belarus; Belgium; British Columbia; Bulgaria; California; Central European Rus; China North-Central; China South-Central; Colorado; Connecticut; Czechoslovakia; Delaware; Denmark; East European Russia; Finland; France; Germany; Great Britain; Greenland; Hungary; Iceland; Idaho; Illinois; India; Indiana; Inner Mongolia; Iowa; Iran; Ireland; Italy; Japan; Kamchatka; Kentucky; Khabarovsk; Korea; Magadan; Maine; Manchuria; Masachusettes; Michigan; Minnesota; Missouri; Mongolia; Montana; Nebraska; Netherlands; Nevada; New Hampshire; New Jersey; New Mexico; New York; North Dakota; North European Russi; Northwest European R; Norway; Ohio; Ontario; Oregon; Pakistan; Pennsylvania; Poland; Primorye; Qinghai; Qubec; Rhode I.; Romania; Saskatchewan; South Dakota; South European Russi; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Tennessee; Texas; Tibet; Transcaucasus; Turkey; Ukraine; Utah; Vermont; Virginia; Washington; West Himalaya; West Siberia; West Virginia; Wisconsin; Wyoming; Xinjiang; Yugoslavia; Yukon as per Catalogue of life)
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Galium elegans Wall. ex Roxb. (Assam; Bangladesh; Borneo; China North-Central; China South-Central; China Southeast; East Himalaya; India; Jawa; Myanmar; Nepal; Pakistan; Philippines; Qinghai; Taiwan; Thailand; Tibet; West Himalaya as per Catalogue of life

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Galium ghilanicum Stapf (Afghanistan; Iran; Iraq; Kirgizstan; Lebanon-Syria; Nepal; Pakistan; Tadzhikistan; Transcaucasus; Turkey; West Himalaya; Xinjiang as per Catalogue of Life)

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Galium hirtiflorum Req. ex DC. (East Himalaya; Nepal; West Himalaya as per Catalogue of Life)
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Galium hoffmeisteri (Klotzsch) Ehrend. & Schönb.-Tem. ex R.R.Mill (Afghanistan; China North-Central; China South-Central; China Southeast; East Himalaya; India; Korea; Manchuria; Myanmar; Nepal; Pakistan; Tibet; West Himalaya as per Catalogue of Life)
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Galium spurium subsp. ibicinum (Boiss. & Hausskn.) Ehrend. (Afghanistan; Iran; Iraq; Pakistan; Tadzhikistan; Turkey; Turkmenistan as per Catalogue of life)

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Galium spurium subsp. spurium (Temp. Northern Hemisphere to Africa as per WCSP)
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Galium tricornutum Dandy (Afghanistan; Albania; Argentina Northeast; Austria; Baleares; Belgium; Brazil Northeast; Bulgaria; California; Canary Is.; Central European Rus; China North-Central; China South-Central; China Southeast; Corse; Cyprus; Czechoslovakia; East Aegean Is.; Egypt; France; Germany; Great Britain; Greece; Gulf States; Hungary; India; Iran; Iraq; Italy; Kirgizstan; Kriti; Krym; Lebanon-Syria; Libya; Madeira; Mauritius; Netherlands; New South Wales; North Caucasus; Norway; Oklahoma; Pakistan; Palestine; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Runion; Sardegna; Sicilia; Sinai; South Australia; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Tibet; Transcaucasus; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkey-in-Europe; Ukraine; Uzbekistan; Victoria; West Himalaya; Western Australia; Xinjiang; Yugoslavia as per Catalogue of life)

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Galium verum subsp. verum (Albania; Algeria; Altay; Austria; Baltic States; Belarus; Belgium; Bulgaria; California; Central European Rus; China North-Central; China South-Central; China Southeast; Czechoslovakia; Denmark; East Aegean Is.; East European Russia; Finland; France; Germany; Great Britain; Greece; Greenland; Hungary; Iceland; Inner Mongolia; Iran; Iraq; Ireland; Italy; Japan; Kamchatka; Kazakhstan; Kirgizstan; Krym; Lebanon-Syria; Manchuria; Missouri; Mongolia; Morocco; Netherlands; New York; New Zealand North; New Zealand South; North European Russi; Northwest European R; Norway; Pakistan; Palestine; Poland; Portugal; Qinghai; Romania; Sardegna; Sicilia; South European Russi; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Tasmania; Transcaucasus; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkey-in-Europe; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; Uzbekistan; Virginia; West Himalaya; West Siberia; Xinjiang; Yugoslavia as per Catalogue of life)

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Binomial Habit Notes References Distribution
Galium
asperifolium
Wall.
Herb Western Ghats
& Eastern Ghats, Evergreen Forests
Flora of Tamil
Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Dindigul,
Nilgiri, Salem
Galium rotundifolium L.  Herb Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Coimbatore,
Dindigul,  Nilgiri, Tirunelveli


Botanical name Synonyms Family Common name
Galium acutum Rubiaceae Tiny Bedstraw
Galium aparine Galium uncinatum, Galium pseudoaparine, Aparine vulgaris Rubiaceae Goose Grass
Galium asperifolium Rubiaceae Rough-Leaved Clivers
Galium asperuloides Asperula consanguinea Rubiaceae Rough Goose Grass
Galium elegans Galium hamiltonii, Galium vestitum, Galium requienianum Rubiaceae Elegant Goose Grass
Galium spurium subsp. ibicinum Galium ibicinum, Galium linczevskyi Rubiaceae West-Asian Galium
Galium tricornutum Galium tricorne var. microcarpum, Galium tricorne var. laeve Rubiaceae Corn Cleavers
Galium verum Rubia vera Rubiaceae Yellow Bedstraw

Galium acutum Edgew. (Temperate Himalayas, Nepal, Sikkim, India and Pakistan)
Galium aparine L. (Europe, North Africa, Asia minor, Siberia, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India)
Galium asperifolium var. asperifolium (Himalayas, Nepal, Pakistan, Afghanistan and China)
Galium asperuloides var. asperuloides (Pakistan, Afghanistan, Himalayas and China)
Galium boreale L. (Europe, Asia minor, Caucasus, Siberia, Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan, India, Kashmir, Korea, China, Japan and North America) 
Galium ceratophylloides Hook. f. (Kashmir and Punjab (Murree hills))
Galium elegans Wall. in Roxb. (India, Pakistan, Himalayas, China-Yunnan)
Galium hirtiflorum Requien ex DC. (Temperate Himalayas, Pakistan, Kashmir to Nepal)
Galium pauciflorum Bunge (N. China, W. Tibet, Kashmir and northern areas of Pakistan)
Galium serpylloides Royle ex Hook. f. (Western Himalayas and Kashmir)
Galium setaceum Lamk. (Mediterranean region, Asia minor, India, Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan)
Galium tenuissimum M. Bieb. (W. Asia from Syria and Caucasus to Greece, Kashmir and Pakistan)
Galium tricornutum subsp. tricornutum (Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan, Western Asia, Caucasia, N. Africa and Central & South Europe)
Galium verum L. (Eurasia, N. Africa, Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan)

Galium acutum Edgew. (Himalaya (Kashmir to Bhutan), S. Tibet)
Galium aparine L.
Galium aparine var. aparine L. (Europe, W. Asia, N. America, widely naturalised in Asia)
Galium aparine var. echinospermum L. (Africa, Temperate Eurasia; widely naturalized) 
Galium asperifolium var. asperifolium Wall. (Afghanistan, Himalaya (Kashmir to Sikkim), India, Thailand)
Galium asperifolium var. sikkimense Wall. (Himalaya (Punjab to Bhutan), India, Ceylon, Burma, W. & C. China)
Galium asperuloides subsp. asperuloides Edgew. (Afghanistan, Himalaya (Kashmir to Nepal))
Galium elegans forma elegans Wall. ex Roxb. (Himalaya (Kashmir to Bhutan), Assam, N. Burma, Thailand, W. China, Taiwan)
Galium elegans forma vestitum (D. Don) H. Hara (Himalaya (Garhwal to Bhutan), India, Burma, Thailand)
Galium elegans var. glabriusculum Requien ex DC. (Himalaya (Kashmir to Sikkim), China) 
Galium exile Hook. f. (Himalaya (Kumaun to Sikkim), W. & N. China)
Galium hirtiflorum Req. ex DC. (Himalaya (Kashmir to Sikkim))
Galium nepalense Ehrend. & Schonb.-Tem. (No distribution given)
Galium paradoxum Maxim. (Himalaya (Nepal, Sikkim), China, E. Siberia, Korea, Japan)
Galium pusillosetosum H. Hara (E.Himalaya (Nepal, Bhutan))
Galium saipalense Ehrend. & Schonb.-Tem. (No distribution given)
Galium serpylloides Royle ex Hook. f. (Himalaya (Lahul, Kunawar, W. Nepal))

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Galium acutum var. acutum [India, Nepal, Pakistan]
Galium aparine Linnaeus [originally in W Eurasia and the Mediterranean, but today nearly worldwide as an adventive]
Galium asperifolium var. asperifolium  [Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand].
Galium asperuloides Edgeworth  [Afghanistan, India, Kashmir, Pakistan]
Galium boreale var. angustifolium (Freyn) Cufodontis [Japan, Kashmir, Russia; NE Europe].
Galium boreale var. boreale [India, Korea, Pakistan, Russia; Europe, North America]
Galium boreale var. kamtschaticum (Maximowicz) Nakai  [Kashmir, Korea, Mongolia, Russia; C Asia (“Turkestan”), NE Europe].
Galium elegans var. elegans [Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Kashmir, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Thailand].
Galium hoffmeisteri (Klotzsch) Ehrendorfer & Schön­beck-Temesy ex R. R. Mill [Afghanistan, Bhutan, India, ?Japan, Kashmir, Korea, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan].
Galium innocuum Miquel [India, Indochina, Indonesia (Java, Sumatra), New Guinea].
Galium megacyttarion R. R. Mill [Bhutan, India, Nepal].
Galium paradoxum subsp. paradoxum [Bhutan, Korea, Russia].
Galium rebae R. R. Mill [Bhutan, India (Sikkim), Nepal].
Galium spurium Linnaeus [Africa, Eurasia, and the Mediterranean; today sporadically adventive worldwide].
Galium tricornutum Dandy [India, Pakistan; N Africa, SW Asia, Europe, North America].

Galium verum var. verum [India, Japan, Korea, Pakistan; SW Asia, Europe; adventive in North America and elsewhere].


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The Flora of British India, Volume 3 By Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker (1882)- Details-
Galium verum
Galium vestitum D.Don is a synonym of Galium elegans Wall. ex Roxb.

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Wild Edible Vegetables of Lesser Himalayas By Arshad Mehmood Abbasi, Munir Hussain Shah and Mir Ajab Khan- Details-
Galium aparine

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Galium (‎Rubiaceae) : 1 post by 1 author.

I have updated eFI (efloraofindia) page on Galium (Pl. click).

Attempts have been made to incorporate most of the species available in India & nearby areas with details & keys directly or through links as far as possible. It’s quite possible that there may be some discrepancy in the accepted names & synonyms taken from other links.

Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.

If someone can provide complete list of Indian species with source references it will be wonderful.
Any comments/ corrections are welcome.


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Galium‎ ‎(‎Rubiaceae) page with images of species in efloraofindia : 2 posts by 1 author.

Pl. go throughGalium ‎(‎Rubiaceae) page with images of species in efloraofindia.

I request you to pl. go through & point out mistakes, if any. I hope this will aid in identifications in future. If anybody can send images of other species of this genera (for incorporation in the website), if any, or can identify unidentified images, it will be really nice.


 

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