Zanthoxylum acanthopodium DC. (India (Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Nagaland, Mizoram, Manipur, Meghalaya, Darjeeling), Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Thailand, Sumatra, peninsular Malaysia (Cameron Highlands, Pahang), China (S-Yunnan, W-Guangxi, Guizhou, Sichuan), SE-Tibet, Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar [Burma] (Bago, Chin, Kachin, Magway, Sagaing, Shan, Yangon) as per CoL)

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Zanthoxylum armatum DC. (Indian Subcontinent to Temp. E. Asia and Malesia: Assam, Bangladesh, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, India, Japan, Korea, Laos, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam, West Himalaya as per POWO)

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Zanthoxylum beecheyanum K. Koch (Introduced)

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Zanthoxylum khasianum Hook. fil. (Assam to China (W. Yunnan): Assam, China South-Central as per POWO)

 


Zanthoxylum ovalifolium Wight (Tropical Asia to NE. Queensland: Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, East Himalaya, India, Lesser Sunda Is., Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Queensland as per POWO)

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Zanthoxylum oxyphyllum Edgew. (Nepal to China (W. Yunnan) and Myanmar: Assam, China South-Central, East Himalaya, Myanmar, Nepal, Tibet as per POWO)
 

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Zanthoxylum rhetsa DC. (Tropical Asia to N. Australia: Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, East Himalaya, India, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Myanmar, New Guinea, Northern Territory, Queensland, Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Vietnam, Western Australia as per POWO)
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Zanthoxylum scandens Blume (Assam to Nansei-shoto and W. Malesia: Assam, Cambodia, China South-Central, China Southeast, Hainan, Jawa, Laos, Malaya, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Taiwan, Vietnam as per POWO)
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Zanthoxylum tetraspermum Wight & Arn. (India: Evergreen or semi evergreen forests of southern W. Ghats, up to 2000 m altitude. Tamil Nadu and Karnataka; Sri Lanka as per BSI Flora of India)
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Keys in Flora of Bhutan:
1. Perianth uniseriate +/- irregularly biseriate with 4-8 equal undifferentiated segments; branches usually armed with pseudo stipular, straight, +/-compressed spines; petioles and leaf rachis usually winged (except Z. bungeanum)…… 2
+ Perianth biseriate, clearly differentiated into 4 — 5 sepals and 4 — 5 petals: branches armed with scattered, short, straight or hooked spines; petioles and leaf rachises unwinged  ……. 4
2. Branches usually ferruginous pubescent or sometimes glabrous; lateral veins up to 30 pairs: inflorescences axillary, 0.5 – 2cm: carpels 2 — 5 …… 3. Z. acanthopodium
+ Branches mostly completely glabrous; lateral veins up to 15pairs; inflorescences terminal on short lateral branches 3 — 8cm: carpels 1 — 3 …….. 3
3. Leaf rachis winged between leaflets …………… 1. Z. armatum
+ Leaf rachis unwinged between leaflets ………… 2. Z. bungeanum
4. Leaves always palmately 3-foliolate: carpel solitary……… 4. Z. ovalifolium
+ Leaves pinnate, or if 3-foliolate then carpel more than one …………. 5
5. Tall erect trees with septate pith: inflorescence terminal, corymbose: spines on branches with broad stout conical bases ………… 6
+ Scrambling shrubs with non-septate pith: inflorescence tenninal or axillary; spines without conical bases ……….. 7
6. Flowers 4-merous: carpels solitary ……….. 5. Z. rhetsa
+ Flowers 5-merous: carpels 4. abortive ones persisting at base of follicle ……. 6. Z. myriacanthum
7. Leaflets 2 — 3 pairs, 5 — 15 x 2.5 – 6cm ………. 7. Z. nitidum
+ Leaflets 6 -10 pairs. 3.5 — 6 x 1- 3cm …………… 8
8. Branchlets and inflorescence +/- glabrous: flowers to 0.7cm, subumbellate ………..8. Z. oxyphyllum
+ Branchlets and inflorescence brownish tomentose; flowers c0.5cm, in sparsely branched panicles ………… 9. Z. tomentellum

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BSI Flora of India Vol. 4 with Keys (1997) (Distribution):

Name Distribution Habitat
Zanthoxylum acanthopodium Uttar Pradesh, W. Bengal, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Nagaland, Mizoram, Manipur and Meghalaya.
Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, S.W. China, Thailand and Sumatra
Evergreen forests of the Himalayas and N.E. India, up to 2000 m.
Zanthoxylum armatum Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Meghalaya, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh.
Pakistan, Nepal, Myanmar, China, Japan, N. & S. Korea, N. Vietnam, Taiwan, Lesser Sunda Islands, Philippines, Malaya peninsula and Sumatra
In evergreen thickets throughout Himalayas up to 2000 m, and in Eastern Ghats of peninsular India between 90 – 1000 m. Occasionally cultivated.
Zanthoxylum burkillianum Arunachal Pradesh. Endemic Evergreen thickets of E. Himalayas.
Zanthoxylum myriacanthum Sikkim, Assam and Nagaland.
Bangladesh, China, Sumatra, Malay peninsula and Philippines
Evergreen forests of E. Himalayas and N. E. India, up to 600 m.
Zanthoxylum nitidum Bihar, W. Bengal, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Meghalaya and Andaman Islands.
Thailand, N. & S. Vietnam, China, Taiwan, Ryuku Islands, Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, java, Anabas Islands, Philippines, Celebes, Moluccas, New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Australia
Evergreen forests between 100 – 300 m.
Zanthoxylum ovalifolium W. Bengal, Sikkim, Assam, Nagaland, Meghalaya, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala, Andaman & Nicobar Islands.
Myanmar, Java, Lesser Sunda Islands, Papua & New Guinea
Evergreen forests up to 1500 m altitude.
Zanthoxylum oxyphyllum Uttar Pradesh, W. Bengal, Sikkim, Manipur, Meghalaya and Arunachal Pradesh.
Nepal and Bhutan
Mostly in temperate forests at higher altitudes up to 2700 m; occasionally also found at lower elevations.
Zanthoxylum pseudoxyphyllum Manipur and Arunachal Pradesh. So far known only from these two states, and report of this species from Arunachal Pradesh constitutes a new distributional record.
Zanthoxylum rhetsa Bihar, W. Bengal, Sikkim, Assam, Meghalaya, Orissa, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Andaman Islands.
Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand, S. Vietnam, Malay peninsula, Java, Philippines, Celebes, Moluccas & Papua
Evergreen or moist deciduous forests up to 600 m.
Zanthoxylum scandens Mizoram and Meghalaya.
China, Taiwan, Ryuku Islands, Sumatra, Java and N. Borneo
Moist evergreen forests up to 2000 m.
Zanthoxylum tetraspermum Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.
Sri Lanka
Evergreen or semi evergreen forests of southern W. Ghats, up to 2000 m altitude.
Zanthoxylum tomentellum Sikkim and Meghalaya.
Bhutan
In temperate forests of E. Himalayas at higher elevations.

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Flora of Peninsular India:
Zanthoxylum armatum
Zanthoxylum ovalifolium
Zanthoxylum rhetsa
Zanthoxylum tetraspermum


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Species with description & keys from Flora of Pakistan (Distribution):
Zanthoxylum armatum DC. (Himalays, from Swat to Bhutan, Khasia Hills; Japan, Korea, China)


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Species with distribution in annotated checklist of Flowering plants of Nepal (Distribution):
Zanthoxylum acanthopodium DC. (1600-2800 m; Himalaya (Kumaun to Bhutan), Khasia, east to China, Malaysia)
Zanthoxylum armatum DC. (1100-2500 m; Himalaya (Kashmir to Bhutan), N. India, east to China, Taiwan, Philippines, Lesser Sunda Isl.)
Zanthoxylum nepalense Babu (2700-3100 m; Nepal) (syn. of Zanthoxylum bungeanum var. bungeanum as per POWO)
Zanthoxylum nitidum (Roxb.) DC. (2700 m; Nepal, Assam, Andaman Isl., Burma, Indo-China, Taiwan, W. Malaysia)
Zanthoxylum ovalifolium Wight (250 m; Himalaya (Nepal, Sikkim), India, Andaman Isl., Burma, Malaysia)
Zanthoxylum oxyphyllum Edgew. (2100-2800 m; Himalaya (Garhwal to Bhutan), Khasia, Burma)
Zanthoxylum tomentellum Hook. f. (1600 m; Himalaya (Nepal to Bhutan), India)


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Some species found in Indian Subcontinent with description & keys from Flora of China (Distribution):
Zanthoxylum acanthopodium Candolle (Upland open forests and thickets; 1400-3200 m. W Guangxi, Guizhou, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan [Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, Vietnam])
Zanthoxylum armatum Candolle (Found in many habitats; below 3100 m. Anhui, Fujian, S Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, S Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Shandong, S Shanxi, Sichuan, N Taiwan, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Japan (including Ryukyu Islands), Kashmir, Korea, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam])
Zanthoxylum avicennae (Lamarck) Candolle (Secondary forests in lowland flat areas, hillsides, valleys; 400-700 m. S Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, S Yunnan [India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam]) (No distribution shown in India as per POWO)
Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maximowicz (Found in many habitats; below 3200 m. Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Liaoning, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, SE Xinjiang, S and SE Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Bhutan])
Zanthoxylum khasianum J. D. Hooker (Hillside thickets and open forests; 1500-2500 m. W Yunnan [India])
Zanthoxylum myriacanthum Wallich ex J. D. Hooker (Hillside forests, forests; 200-1500 m. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, SE Guizhou, Hainan, S Hunan, Jiangxi, S Yunnan, S Zhejiang [Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Vietnam])
Zanthoxylum nitidum (Roxburgh) Candolle (Below 800 m. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, S and SE Guizhou, Hainan, S Hunan, Taiwan, Yunnan, S Zhejiang [India, Indonesia, Japan (Ryukyu Islands), Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam; Australia, SW Pacific islands])
Zanthoxylum oxyphyllum Edgeworth (Open forests, forest margins; 1800-2900 m. S Xizang, W Yunnan [Bhutan, NE India, Myanmar, Nepal])
Zanthoxylum scandens Blume (Lowland forests, open forests, thickets; near sea level to 1500 m. S Anhui, Chongqing, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [India, Indonesia, Japan (Ryukyu Islands), Malaysia, Myanmar])
Zanthoxylum tomentellum J. D. Hooker (Moist valleys; 2000-3000 m. NW and W Yunnan [Bhutan, NE India, Myanmar, Nepal])


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The Genus Zanthoxylum Linn. (Rutaceae) in India (1974) by C R Babu: (Full pdf can be downloaded):
Abstract: This paper deals with the taxonomic revision of the genus Zanthoxylum Linn. as occurring in India. A total number of 13 species is recognised in the area, of which 3 specics, Z. burkillianum Babu, Z. nepalense Babu and Z. pseudoxyphyllum Babu are new to science. Z. nitidum (Roxb.) DC. is recorded for the first time from Andaman Islands. Z. myriacanthum Wall, ex Hook. f. and Z. tomentellum Hook. f. are new records to Sikkim and Assam H malayas respectively. The description of Z. tomentellum Hook. f. is imended. Z. acanthopodium DC. var. timbor Hook. f. and Z. hamiltonianum Wall, ex Hook. f. var. tomentosum Hook. f. are reduced to synonyms of Z. acanthopodium DC. and Z. nitidum (Roxb.) DC., respectively. Z. nitidim Wall, semu Hook. f. is deleted from the synonymy of Toddalia asiatica (Linn.) Lamk. and ascertained to Z. nitidum (Roxb.) DC. Each species is described in detail, and its synonymy, flowering and fruiting times, distribution, uses, etc. are ascertained. Lectotypes for Z. oxyphyllum Edgew., Z. tetraspermum Wt. and Z. tomentellum Hook. f. are designated for the first time.

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Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae) page with comparative images:
Pl. go through‎ Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae) page with comparative images of species in efloraofindia. On clicking the link of species, one can check the complete details. Genus pages generally give details of most of the species found in India.
I request you to pl. go through & point out mistakes, if any. I hope this will aid in identification in the future. If anybody can send images of other species of this genus (for incorporation in the website), if any, or can identify unidentified images, it will be really nice.


 

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