Perspective of the genus Delphinium Linnaeus (Ranunculaceae) in India– Priyanka Agnihotri, Satya Narayan Jena, Danish Husain and Tariq Husain- Pleione 8(2): 344 – 352. 2014.-
(Abstract- The present work deals with enumeration of 27 species, one sub-species and one variety of the genus Delphinium Linnaeus (Ranunculaceae) from India. Out of total 29 taxa, 15 are confined to the Western Himalayan region, while Eastern Himalaya is enriched with 11 taxa, one species, D. malabaricum is endemic to Western Ghats of South India. The genus forms the group of high altitude flowering plants and maximum diversity has been observed between 4000 – 4500 m asl. Very showy flowers for ornamental purposes and variety of alkaloids having spectacular medicinal values add the economic)

Table 1. Distribution of the genus Delphinium Linneaus in India and adjacent countries [Abbreviations for Indian state names: A.P.=Arunachal Pradesh; H.P. = Himachal Pradesh; J.&K. = Jammu & Kashmir; SK=Sikkim; MG = Meghalaya; MH = Maharashtra; MN =
Manipur; OD = Odisha; Utk = Uttarakhand; W.B. = West Bengal]
Name of Taxa Altitude in Metres, Distribution India Other countries.
D. altissimum Wallich 1400 – 2500 SK, AP, MG, MN Bhutan, China, Nepal
D. brunonianum Royle 3100 – 6000 J. & K., H.P., Utk Afghanistan, Nepal, China, Pakistan
D. caeruleum Jacquin 3800 – 5800 H.P., Utk, SK, W.B. Bhutan, China, Nepal
D. candelabrum Ostenfeld 4500 – 5200 SK China, Bhutan
D. cashmerianum Royle 2800 – 5000 J.& K., H.P., Utk China, Pakistan
D. densiflorum Duthie ex Huth 3000 – 6000 H.P., Utk Nepal, China
D. denudatum Wallich ex Hooker f. & Thomson 1525 – 4000 J.& K., H.P., Utk Pakistan
D. drepanocentrum (Brühl ex Huth) Munz 3500 – 5000 SK Nepal, Bhutan, China
D. glaciale Hooker f. & Thomson 5000 – 6500 SK, W.B. Nepal, Bhutan China
D. incisum (Hooker f. & Thomson) Wallich ex Munz 2000 – 3000 Utk Nepal
D. kingianum Brühl ex Huth 4000 – 4800 SK China
D. koelzii Munz 1600 H.P. D. kohatense (Brühl) Munz 2000 – 3500 J.& K. Pakistan, Afghanistan
D. kamaonense Huth 3000 – 4500 Utk Nepal
D. lacostei Danguy 4000 – 5500 H.P. Pakistan, China
D. ludlowii Munz 2700 – 3700 SK Bhutan
D. malabaricum (Huth) Munz var. malabaricum 900 – 1200 MH
D. malabaricum (Huth) Munz var. ghaticum Billore 900 – 1200 MH
D. micropetalum Finet & Gagnepain 3300 – 4400 J.& K. Nepal, China, Myanmar
D. nortonii Dunn 4000 – 5000 SK China, Nepal
D. pyramidale Royle 2000 – 3500 J.& K., H.P., Utk, W.B. Pakistan, Nepal, China
D. roylei Munz 1600 – 4200 J.& K., H.P., Utk, OD
D. scabriflorum D. Don 1500 – 2400 A.P., MG Nepal, Bhutan
D. stapeliosum Brühl ex Huth 2000 – 3000 MG Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, China
D. uncinatum Hooker f. & Thomson 1200 – 2000 J.& K. Pakistan, Afghanistan
D. vestitum Wallich ex Royle 2250 – 4500 J.& K., H.P., Utk Nepal, China, Pakistan
D. viscosum Hooker f. & Thomson 3600 – 4700 SK, A.P., W.B. Nepal, China, Myanmar
D. nordhagenii Wendelbo 4500 – 5000 J.& K. Pakistan, China
D. elatum Linneaus ssp. alpinum (Waldstein & Kitaibel) Tzvelev 1500 – 2000 MG

Rau (1993) has mentioned presence of following species of Delphinium in India-

  1. Delphinium altissimum Wallich
  2. D. brunonianum Royle
  3. D. caeruleum Jacquem. ex Cambess.
  4. D. candelabrum Ostenf.
  5. D. cashmerianum Royle
  6. D. densiflorum Duthie ex Huth
  7. D. denudatum Wallich
  8. D. drepanocentrum (Bruehl ex Huth) Munz (synonym of Delphinium umbrosum var. drepanocentrum (Brühl ex Huth) W.T.Wang & M.J.Warnock)
  9. D. glaciale Hook.f. & Thomson
  10. D. incisum (Hook.f & Thomson) Wallich ex Munz
  11. D. kamaonense Huth
  12. D. koelzii Munz
  13. D. kohatense (Buehl) Munz
  14. D. lacostei Danguy
  15. D. ludlowii Munz
  16. D. malabaricum (Huth) Munz
  17. D. nortonii Dunn
  18. D. pyramidale Royle
  19. D. roylei Munz
  20. D. scabriflorum D. Don
  21. D. stapeliosum Bruehl ex Huth
  22. D. uncinatum Hook.f. & Thomson
  23. D. vestitum Wallich ex Royle
  24. D. viscosum Hook.f. & Thomson


Rau, M.A. 1993. Ranunculaceae. In; Sharma, B.D., Balakrishnan, N.P., Rao, R.R. and Hajra, P.K. (eds.) Flora of India vol-1 Ranunculaceae- Barclayaceae. Botanical
Survey of India, Calcutta, pp.84-102.
Binomial Habit Notes References Distribution English name
Herb Western Ghats,
Cultivated, Native of Mediterranean Region
Matthew, 1999 Dindigul Larkspur

Botanical name Synonyms Family Common name
Delphinium brunonianum Delphinium jacquemontianum Ranunculaceae Musk Larkspur
Delphinium cashmerianum Ranunculaceae Kashmir Larkspur
Delphinium malabaricum Ranunculaceae Malabar Delphinium
Delphinium denudatum Ranunculaceae Jadwar
Delphinium roylei Delphinium incanum Ranunculaceae Royle’s Larkspur
Delphinium vestitum Delphinium chitralicum, Delphinium rectivenium Ranunculaceae Clothed Delphinium

Delphinium centeteroides (Bruehl) Munz (No distribution in India)
Delphinium kohatense (Bruehl) Munz (No distribution in India) 
Delphinium lacostei Danguy (No distribution in India) 
Delphinium latesquamatum Gilli (No distribution in India)
Delphinium nordhagenii Wendelbo (No distribution in India)
Delphinium suave Huth (No distribution in India)


Delphinium cooperi Munz (No distribution in India)
Delphinium dictyocarpum subsp. tibeticum Bruhl (Doubtful) (No distribution in India)
Delphinium grandiflorum L. (No distribution in India)
Delphinium himalayae Munz (No distribution in India)
Delphinium ludlowii Munz (No distribution in India)
Delphinium nepalense Kitam. & Tamura (No distribution in India)
Delphinium tabatae Tamura (No distribution in India)
Delphinium unifolium Tamura (No distribution given)
Delphinium williamsii Munz (No distribution in India)

Floriculture in India By Gurcharan Singh Randhawa, Amitabha Mukhopadhyay (1986)- Brief details-
Delphinium ajacis a synonym of Consolida ajacis (L.) Schur
Delphinium belladonna (Kelway) Bergmansis a synonym of Delphinium elatum L.
Delphinium consolida a synonym of Consolida regalis Gray
Delphinium hybridum a synonym of Delphinium elatum L.


Delphinium incanum Royleis a synonym of Delphinium roylei Munz

1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants edited by Kerry Scott Walter, Harriet J. Gillett –
Delphinium koelzii Munz- Indeterminate- Himachal


Indian Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated Dictionary edited by C.P. Khare (2007)- Details-


Tibetan Medicinal Plants edited by Christa Kletter, Monika Kriechbaum (2001)- Good details-


Gardening in India By George Marshall Woodrow, G Marshall (1999)- Details-
Delphinium ajacis a synonym of Consolida ajacis (L.) Schur


Biodiversity in India, Volume 2 edited by T. Pullaiah (2003)- p. 35-
Delphinium malabaricum (Huth) Munz– Vulnerable
Delphinium malabaricum var. ghaticum Billore- Extinct (?) (is a synonym of Delphinium malabaricum (Huth) Munz)


Forest Plants of Eastern India By Amal Bhusan Chaudhuri (1993)- Brief details- p. 89-


Delphinium ‎(Ranunculaceae) :  5 posts by 2 authors.

I have updated eFI (efloraofindia) page on Delphinium (Pl. click).

Attempts have been made to incorporate most of the species available in India & nearby areas with details & keys directly or through links as far as possible. It’s quite possible that there may be some discrepancy in the accepted names & synonyms taken from other links.

Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.

If someone can provide complete list of Indian species with source references it will be wonderful.
Any comments/ corrections are welcome.

I have added list of Indian species based on Flora of India vol-I.

Thanks a lot, … Species at other links match well except for a few cultivated species. 

Missings wild species are:

Delphinium nortonii Dunn is there in the list added by me. However, D. elatum is not mentioned in Flora of India.

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