Comparative images of Polygonaceae are given below except for the genus: Bistorta, Koenigia, Persicaria, Polygonum, Rumex (whose comparative images can be seen at these links):
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Antigonon leptopus Hook. & Arn. (Introduced) (Mexico to Central America: Belize, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua; Introduced into: Alabama, Andaman Is., Argentina Northwest, Aruba, Ascension, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Chad, Christmas I., Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Georgia, Gilbert Is., Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Haiti, Hawaii, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Laos, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Malawi, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Mississippi, Mozambique, Nauru, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, Niue, Pakistan, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Pitcairn Is., Puerto Rico, Rwanda, Réunion, Seychelles, Society Is., Somalia, South Carolina, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Texas, Thailand, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, Windward Is., Zaïre as per POWO)

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Calligonum comosum L’Hér. (N. Africa to Sahara, Socotra (Abd al Kuri), W. Asia to Pakistan and Arabian Peninsula: Afghanistan, Algeria, Chad, Egypt, Gulf States, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Sinai, Socotra, Sudan, Tunisia, Western Sahara as per POWO)
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Calligonum polygonoides L. (Punjab, Rajasthan as per BSI Flora of India Checklist) (E. Medit. to Iran and Arabian Peninsula, Pakistan: Gulf States, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Lebanon-Syria, Pakistan, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Sinai, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Yemen as per POWO)

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Coccoloba uvifera (L.) L. (Introduced) (Florida to Peru, Caribbean to N. South America: Aruba, Bahamas, Belize, Bermuda, Cayman Is., Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Florida, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Panamá, Peru, Puerto Rico, Southwest Caribbean, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.; Introduced into: Cook Is., Gilbert Is., Guinea-Bissau, Line Is., Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Mauritius, New Caledonia, Phoenix Is., Pitcairn Is., Réunion, Society Is., Solomon Is., Thailand, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Vietnam, Wake I. as per POWO)

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Fallopia convolvulus (L.) A. Löve (Macaronesia to N. Africa, Temp. Eurasia: Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, Canary Is., Central European Rus, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Egypt, Finland, France, Føroyar, Germany, Greece, Hungary, India, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Irkutsk, Italy, Kamchatka, Kazakhstan, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Madeira, Magadan, Manchuria, Mongolia, Morocco, Nepal, Netherlands, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Norway, Pakistan, Panamá, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Qinghai, Romania, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Sicilia, South European Russi, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yugoslavia; Introduced into: Alabama, Alaska, Alberta, Aleutian Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, British Columbia, California, Cape Provinces, Chile Central, Chile South, Colorado, Connecticut, Cuba, Delaware, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, Ethiopia, Florida, Free State, Georgia, Great Britain, Greenland, Hawaii, Iceland, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Ireland, Japan, Kansas, Kentucky, Kenya, Labrador, Lesotho, Louisiana, Maine, Manitoba, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Mozambique, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Caledonia, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, New Zealand North, Newfoundland, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, North Dakota, Northern Provinces, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Palestine, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Prince Edward I., Québec, Rhode I., Saskatchewan, South Carolina, South Dakota, Svalbard, Taiwan, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yukon as per POWO)

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Fallopia dentatoalata (F.Schmidt) Holub (Russian Far East to Japan and W. Himalaya: China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Inner Mongolia, Japan, Khabarovsk, Korea, Manchuria, Pakistan, Primorye, Qinghai, West Himalaya as per POWO)

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Fagopyrum dibotrys (D. Don) H. Hara (Himalaya to China and Indo-China: Assam, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam, West Himalaya; Introduced into: France, Great Britain, Japan as per POWO)

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Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (Introduced) (E. Tibet to China (Sichuan, Yunnan): China South-Central, Tibet; Introduced into: Alabama, Alaska, Albania, Alberta, Altay, Amur, Arizona, Assam, Austria, Bahamas, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Bermuda, Bolivia, Botswana, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, California, Cape Provinces, Central European Rus, China North-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colorado, Connecticut, Corse, Costa Rica, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ethiopia, Finland, Florida, France, Free State, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Hungary, Iceland, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Iraq, Irkutsk, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kamchatka, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Louisiana, Magadan, Maine, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Mozambique, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Norway, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Pennsylvania, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Sicilia, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vermont, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yakutskiya, Yugoslavia, Yukon, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe as per POWO)

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Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn. (Introduced) (Tibet to Central China: China North-Central, China South-Central, Tibet; Introduced into: Afghanistan, Albania, Alberta, Altay, Amur, Bangladesh, Belgium, Buryatiya, Central European Rus, China Southeast, Chita, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East European Russia, East Himalaya, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Inner Mongolia, Irkutsk, Japan, Kamchatka, Kazakhstan, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Krasnoyarsk, Magadan, Maine, Manchuria, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, Netherlands, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New York, Newfoundland, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Norway, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Pakistan, Pennsylvania, Poland, Primorye, Qinghai, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Sakhalin, Saskatchewan, South European Russi, Sweden, Tadzhikistan, Transcaucasus, Tuva, Ukraine, Vermont, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yugoslavia as per POWO)

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Fallopia pterocarpa (Meisn.) Holub (East Himalaya, Nepal, West Himalaya as per POWO)

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Knorringia sibirica subsp. thomsonii (Meisn. ex Steward) S. P. Hong (Afghanistan to Central Asia and W. & Central Himalaya: Afghanistan, Kirgizstan, Nepal, Qinghai, Tadzhikistan, Tibet, West Himalaya as per POWO)

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Muehlenbeckia platyclada (F. Muell.) Meisn. (Introduced) (Throughout India as per BSI Flora of India Checklist) (New Guinea, Solomon Is.; Introduced into: Assam, Bangladesh, Comoros, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Fiji, Guatemala, Haiti, Mauritius, Mexico Southwest, New Caledonia, Pakistan, Panamá, Puerto Rico, Réunion, Sri Lanka, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Vietnam as per POWO)
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Oxygonum sinuatum (Hochst. & Steud ex Meisn.) Dammer (Introduced) (Tropical & S. Africa, Arabian Peninsula: Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Caprivi Strip, Chad, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Socotra, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe; Introduced into: Cape Verde, India, Mauritius as per POWO)

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Oxyria digyna (L.) Hill (Subarctic & Subalpine: Afghanistan, Alaska, Albania, Alberta, Aleutian Is., Altay, Arizona, Austria, British Columbia, Bulgaria, California, China North-Central, China South-Central, Chita, Colorado, Corse, Czechoslovakia, East European Russia, East Himalaya, Finland, France, Føroyar, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Greenland, Iceland, Idaho, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Japan, Kamchatka, Kazakhstan, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kuril Is., Labrador, Lebanon-Syria, Magadan, Manchuria, Mongolia, Montana, Nepal, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Mexico, Newfoundland, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Norway, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Oregon, Pakistan, Poland, Québec, Romania, Sakhalin, South Dakota, Spain, Svalbard, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Tuva, Ukraine, Utah, Uzbekistan, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yugoslavia, Yukon as per POWO

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Rheum australe D. Don (Keys between Rheum australe (Flowers purple red, Inflorescence fastigiately branched, 0.3-1 m erect leafy panicle) and Rheum webbianum (Flowers pale yellowish, Inflorescence diffusely branched, mostly axillary, less commonly terminal) at Flora of Pakistan and Flora of China)

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Rheum moorcroftianum Royle (W. & Central Tibet and Nepal: Nepal, Tibet, West Himalaya as per POWO)
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Rheum nobile Hook. f. & Thomson (Afghanistan to S. Tibet and N. Myanmar: Afghanistan, East Himalaya, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Tibet as per POWO)


Rheum webbianum Royle (Keys between Rheum australe (Flowers purple red, Inflorescence fastigiately branched, 0.3-1 m erect leafy panicle) and Rheum webbianum (Flowers pale yellowish, Inflorescence diffusely branched, mostly axillary, less commonly terminal)) at Flora of Pakistan and Flora of China)
(Pakistan to SW. Tibet and W. Nepal: Nepal, Pakistan, Tibet, West Himalaya as per POWO)
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Triplaris weigeltiana (Rchb.) Kuntze (Introduced)

  
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Wikipedia


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Fwd: Polygonaceae of India : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1).
Pl find attached herewith the pdf copy of my paper on Polygonaceae of India

appreciate the key and the pdf itself


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Polygonaceae of India : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1)- Polyg India.pdf


Congratulation Sir!
Thanks for generating this important information on flora of India.
Hope complete Polygonaceae of India will be published soon, eagerly waiting for it.


Congratulations …
That’s a huge body of work and that too by a single person!
How many years of work does does the present paper represent?


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As per efi thread:
The former complex genus has now been split into at least four major genera.
Here is a simpler key:
Flowers in axillary clusters (stamens inflated at base, inner larger; nectaries absent or inconspicuous) … Polygonum
Flowers in Panicles, Spikes or Heads (All stamens equal, not inflated at base; nectaries present and conspicuous)
Flowers in clusters forming panicle or flat-topped corymb … Koenigia
Flowers in well-defined spikes or heads
Plants rhizomatic perennials with prominent basal leaves; styles 3, free and elongate … Bistorta
Plants annual, rarely perennials with rooting branches; leaves evenly distributed; style 1, bifid or trifid … Persicaria

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Polygonaceae Fortnight: May_2014_Introduction_RKC : 5 posts by 4 authors.
Family of the fortnight: POLYGONACEAE
Distribution: The family includes approximately 46 genera and 1200 species (Mabberley, 2008) from the world and mostly distributed in north temperate regions.  
Two subfamilies Polygonoideae and Eriogonoideae are universally accepted based on the presence or absence of the ochrea (sometimes rudimentary in Eriogonoideae).
All Indian genera belong to Polygonoideae, a subfamily of almost 790 species defined by the presence of ocreae, a monopodial branching pattern, and lack of involucre.
The Eriogonoideae (ca. 330 species) are found only in the New World. (Li Anjen et al., 2003). 
Description: Members of Polygonaceae are either annual or perennial herbs, shrubs or trees. The leaves are simple, alternate, seldom opposite or whorled, usually entire and revolute, usually in spirals, petiolate to sessile.
The presence of ochrea is the most distinguishing feature, but in the subfamily Eriogonoideae, it is either absent or reduced in size.

Variation can be seen in the axillary or terminal inflorescence which is composed of simple or branched thyrsi panicle-, raceme-or spike-like in appearance which however, are formed of dichasia or helicoid cymes.

The flowers are small, trimerous, hermaphrodite or unisexual with tepals 2-6, forming two whorls of 3 elements or one whorl of 5 elements with characteristic quincuncial aestivation.

The number of stamens ranges from 2 to 9 or rarely more whereas the pollen character varies from tricolporate to pantoporate. The ovary is superior 2-4 carpellate (generally 3-carpellate) and unilocular whereas the fruits are an achene which is trigonous or lenticular.

Taxonomic treatments:
Recently, Sanchez et al. (2011) proposed a new taxonomic classification for Polygonoideae based on molecular data that includes five tribes: Calligoneae, Fagopyreae, Persicarieae, Polygoneae, and Rumiceae.
Polygonum s.l. is the largest genus in Polygonaceae and a member of the core eudicots in the flowering plants (Judd et al. 2002). It is represented by about 230 species in the world and distributed mostly in N temperate regions (Li Anjen et al, 2003). The genus (commonly known as Knotweeds) has long been a taxonomic puzzle and is widely debated.
The traditional method of classification has led to disagreement among taxonomists with regard to which species should be included in the genus Polygonum and which taxa should be elevated to their own genus due to the presence of at least one distinguishing characteristic. (Meisner, 1826, 1856, 1857; Bentham & Hooker, 1880; Dammer, 1892; Gross, 1913 a, 1913b; Jaretzky, 1925; Hedberg, 1946; Roberty& Vautier, 1964; Graham & Wood, 1965; Holub, 1971; Sojak, 1974; Haraldson, 1978; Tzvelev, 1987; Ronse Decraene & Akeroyd, 1988; Hassan, 1991, 1997; Hassan & Khan, 1992; Hong et al, 1998; Ronse Decraene et al., 2000).
The biomolecular studies by Cuenound et al. (2002), Lamb Frye & Kron (2003), Kim et al. (2005), Kim & Donoghue (2008) and Sanchez and Kron (2008) have revealed that Polygonum s.l. is polyphyletic, and should be divided into several genera. The treatment of subfamily Polygonoideae by Haraldson (1978) Ronse Decraene (1988) have suggested species of Polygonum in the broad sense to be segregated into two separate tribes, Polygoneae and Persicarieae.
Medicinal Value:
Medicinal uses of 31 species belonging to 7 genera Viz. Calligonium, Pteropyrum, Polygonum, Fagopyrum, Rheum, Oxyria and Rumex, were recorded by Kirtikar & Basu (1980).
Thirty four species of Polygonum (s.l.) have been reported for medicinal uses (Choudhary et al., 2011).
Some useful references:
FOC (pdf)

Thanks … for a very informative introduction. It would surely help the members.


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FAMILY : POLYGALACEAE ON INDIANTREEPIX :

FAMILY : POLYGALACEAE

Milkwort family
Polygala (Latin) means much milk. Cattle feeding on these plants are supposed to give more milk.
There are 17 genera and 900-1000 species around the world. 50 % of the plants are in genus Polygala.

Vegetative characters:

It is a small cosmopolitan family of herbaceous plants, shrubs and small trees. Leaves are alternate, always simple, usually without stipules. Polygalas have Irregular flowers and superficially resembling Fabaceae.

Inflorescence and flowers:

Flowers are generally in spikes or racemes, each flower subtended by a bract and two bracteoles.

Sepals are 5 and unequal, two side sepals are often larger and coloured like petals. Uppermost sepal is keeled(Ridged in a way that resembles two connected petals or sepals. There are three petals united at base and the lower one boat shaped or saucer shaped -keelwith a fringed crest;enclosing 8 stamens and a pistil style. Stamens are often fused by their filaments into a split sheath. Ovary of two fused carpels, 2 chambered, each chamber one seeded;

Fruits and the seeds: Fruit is a capsule.

Examples: From Maharashtra

1. Leaves amplexicaul; flowers in spike; stamens 4-5; capsule toothed… Salomonia

1. Leaves not as above; flowers in racemes; stamens 8 capsule entire.… Polygala

2. Shrubs… P. arillata

2. Herbs

3. Flowers Pink…P. bulbothrix

P.irregularis

P.persicarifolia

3. Flowers yellow

P. furcata

… P.erioptera

… P.elongata

… P arvensis.

… P. Linarifolia


Our next episode will cover family Polygonaceae from May 1 to 14, 2014. Dr. Ritesh Kumar Choudhary who is a very well known expert on the group has kindly consented to coordinate the fortnight. Members are requested to take full advantage of his expertise and upload both identified photographs for validation and also those meant for identification. Kindly follow the format for convenient documentaion.


Thanks a lot dear … for introduction.
I also request members to upload clear photographs with much possible details specially those of flowers, ochrea, nuts, leaves etc. Keeping in mind the morphological variations found in Polygonum, Persicaria and other genera, these characters are very important for identification.
I hope people would find enough time to search their disc drives for Polygonaceae members in the coming weekend.


Thanks, …, for coordinating Polygonaceae fortnight.
16 Genera already discussed in efloraofindia (on clicking them one can see the species under them): …….

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All existing genera pages of Polygonaceae in efi has been updated.
Pl. see: ……………….
Hope this helps a bit during Polygonace​ae Fortnight.

Thank you very much … for all your efforts… Surely this will help a lot…


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PLANT TAXONOMY 2E By SHARMA – 2011- Details of Polygonaceae family


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polygonaceae : 5 posts by 3 authors.
As per my observations, there are 121 species & 29 vars belonging to 12 genera (s.s.)

Thanks, … Can you provide the complete list pl. ?


As per my observations, there are 121 species & 29 varieties belonging to 12 genera (s.s.) in India including the introduced ones which have become almost naturalised in India.


Yes. I shall send it soon.


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Pages of Polygonaceae‎‎‎ are now with comparative images:
Species, genera & family pages of‎‎‎‎ Polygonaceae‎‎‎ are now with comparative images. On clicking the link of species, one can check the complete details. Genus pages generally give details of most of the species found in India.
May I request you to pl. go through & point out mistakes, if any. I hope this will aid in identification in future. If anybody can send images of other species of this family (for incorporation in the website), if any, or can identify unidentified/ wrongly identified images, it will be really nice.
Credit goes to Ritesh ji, for identifying most of the Polygonaceae posts.


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