Keys available at Flora of Pakistan
.


Polygonum arenastrum Boreau (Macaronesia, NW. Africa, Temp. Eurasia: Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, Central European Rus, Chita, Corse, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Irkutsk, Italy, Kamchatka, Khabarovsk, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., Madeira, Magadan, Manchuria, Mongolia, Morocco, Netherlands, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Norway, Pakistan, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Romania, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Sicilia, Sinai, South European Russi, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Ukraine, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Yakutskiya, Yugoslavia; Introduced into: Alabama, Alaska, Alberta, Arizona, Arkansas, British Columbia, California, Chile Central, Chile South, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Great Britain, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Ireland, Kansas, Kentucky, Labrador, Louisiana, Maine, Manitoba, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mexico Northwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, New Zealand North, Newfoundland, North Carolina, North Dakota, Northwest Territorie, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Prince Edward I., Québec, Rhode I., Saskatchewan, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Zimbabwe as per POWO)

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Polygonum aviculare L. (Temp. Northern Hemisphere, Macaronesia to Eritrea: Afghanistan, Alabama, Alaska, Albania, Alberta, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Arizona, Arkansas, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, California, Canary Is., Central European Rus, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colorado, Connecticut, Corse, Costa Rica, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Finland, Florida, France, Føroyar, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hainan, Hungary, Iceland, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Kamchatka, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., Labrador, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Louisiana, Madeira, Magadan, Maine, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Morocco, Myanmar, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Northwest Territorie, Norway, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Pennsylvania, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Qinghai, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tennessee, Texas, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Utah, Uzbekistan, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Yukon; Introduced into: Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Bolivia, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Cape Provinces, Chad, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, Colombia, Ecuador, Falkland Is., Free State, Guatemala, Hawaii, Juan Fernández Is., Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Massachusetts, Mexico Central, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Namibia, New Zealand North, Newfoundland, Northern Provinces, Paraguay, Prince Edward I., Svalbard, Tristan da Cunha, Uruguay, Zimbabwe as per POWO)
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Polygonum cognatum Meisn. (E. Medit. to Mongolia and W. Himalaya: Altay, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon-Syria, Mongolia, North Caucasus, Pakistan, Palestine, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Turkmenistan, West Himalaya, Xinjiang as per POWO)


Polygonum effusum Meisn. (Stamens are generally 5 in P. plebeium here I can clearly see 8 stamens, distinctly pedicellate flowers exserted from ochrea and equal size tepals. Hence I think your plant is Polygonum effusum Meisn.)
(Afghanistan to Indian Subcontinent: Afghanistan, Assam, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, West Himalaya as per POWO)

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Polygonum paronychioides C.A. Mey. (E. Turkey to Central Asia and W. Himalaya: Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, North Caucasus, Pakistan, Tadzhikistan, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, West Himalaya as per POWO)

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Polygonum plebeium R.Br. (Polygonum plebeium is one of the most troublesome and morphologically variable species. In Flora of British India, Hooker hesitatingly described almost 11 forms of this species, some of which got escalated later to the species level. The plant is also confused very often with P. aviculare, P. cognatum and other species which are different)
(Tropical & Subtropical Old World: Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Cambodia, Cape Provinces, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, India, Inner Mongolia, Jawa, Kazakhstan, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Manchuria, Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, New South Wales, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Pakistan, Philippines, Qinghai, Queensland, Senegal, South Australia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Victoria, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe as per POWO)

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Polygonum recumbens Royle ex Bab. (NE. Pakistan to Central Himalaya: Nepal, Pakistan, West Himalaya as per POWO)

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Polygonum rottboellioides var. tibetica (Hook. f.) R.R. Stewart (N. Pakistan to SW. Tibet and W. Himalaya: Pakistan, Tibet, West Himalaya as per POWO)
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As per efi thread :
Treatments of Polygonum and related genera (subfamily Polygonoideae) those by Haraldson and Ronse Decraene & Akeroyd, have segregated species of Polygonum in the broad sense adopted into two separate tribes, Polygoneae and Persicarieae. The remainder of Polygonum in the broad sense is generally assigned to Persicaria (or a varying number of segregate genera, such as Aconogonon and Bistorta) which, with Antenoron and Koenigia, comprises the tribe Persicarieae.
Characters for segregation of Two species:
Polygonum: . Flowers axillary, solitary or in small clusters, sometimes forming lax leafy spikes. Perianth (4- or)5-parted, not enlarged in fruit. Stamens 5-8, reduced in number in outer whorl; filaments, especially the inner, strongly dilated at base.
Persicaria: Inflorescence spicate, spikes usually several. Tepals fused for about 1/3 their length. Nectaries free, globular. Styles 1, bifid or trifid.


Listed species as per BSI Flora of India (with Distribution):

Name Distribution
Polygonum arenastrum Jammu & Kashmir
Polygonum aviculare Jammu & Kashmir, Uttarakhand
Polygonum bellardii EXCLUDED SPECIES
Polygonum biaristatum Jammu & Kashmir
Polygonum cognatum Jammu & Kashmir
Polygonum maritimum EXCLUDED SPECIES
Polygonum molliiforme Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, West Bengal
Polygonum paronychioides Jammu & Kashmir
Polygonum plebeium var. plebeium: Almost Throughout India; var. effusum: Assam, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Manipur, Uttarakhand
Polygonum polycnemoides Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir
Polygonum recumbens var. recumbens: Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttarakhand; var. roylii: Jammu & Kashmir
Polygonum rottboellioides var. rottboellioides : Jammu & Kashmir; var. tibetica : Jammu & Kashmir
Polygonum setosum Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttarakhand

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Binomial Habit Notes Ref. Distrib.
Polygonum
dichotomum
Blume (= Persicaria dichotoma (Blume) Masam.) var. angustissima (Hook.f.) Chandrasekaran 
Herb Western Ghats,
Evergreen Forests
Flora of Tamil
Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Nilgiri
Polygonum dichotomum Blume (= Persicaria dichotoma (Blume) Masam.) var. nilagirica (Hook.f.) Chandrasekaran Herb Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Gage 1903
Dindigul,
Nilgiri
Polygonum dichotomum Blume (= Persicaria dichotoma (Blume) Masam.) var. robusta (Hook.f.) Chandrasekaran Herb Western
Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Evergreen Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Nilgiri,
Salem, Theni
Polygonum glabrum Willd. var. glabrum = Persicaria glabra (Willd.) M. Gómez Herb Plains,
Aquatic
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
All
districts
Polygonum glabrum Willd. var. scabrinervis Hook.f. Herb Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Dindigul
Polygonum minus Huds. = Persicaria minor (Huds.) Opiz Herb Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests, Marsh Localities
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Gage 1903
Coimbatore,
Dindigul, Nilgiri, Tirunelveli
Polygonum molle D.Don = Aconogonon molle (D. Don) H. Hara Shrub Western
Ghats, Cultivated/ Naturalized, Native of
Himalayas
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Nilgiri
Polygonum orientale L. = Persicaria orientalis (L.) Spach Herb Western
Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Moist Deciduous Forests, Marsh Localities
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Dindigul,  Namakkal, Theni, Tiruvanna malai,
Vellore,  Viluppuram
Polygonum plebeium R. Br. Herb Plains
to  High Altitude, Dry Localities
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
All
districts
Polygonum sphaerocephalum Wall.ex Meisner is a synonym of Polygonum microcephalum var. sphaerocephalum (Wall. ex Meisn.) H. Hara Creep ing
Herb
Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Nilgiri,
Theni
Polygonum strigosum R. Br. is a synonym of Persicaria strigosa (R.Br.) Nakai Herb Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests, Marsh Localities
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Dindigul,  Nilgiri, Theni

Persicaria attenuata ( R.Br. ) Sojak subsp. pulchra (Blume) K.L.Wilson (Syn: Polygonum pulchrum Blume) Herb Aquatic Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 Coimbatore, Theni,  Tirunelveli, Vellore  

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Polygonum flaccidum ROXB. (? Polygonum flaccidum Meisn.is a synonym of Polygonum pubescens Blume)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Polygonum posumbi HAM. = Persicaria posumbu (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) H. Gross
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

.
Botanical name Synonyms Family Common name
Polygonum affine = Bistorta affinis (D. Don) Greene Persicaria affinis, Polygonum brunonis, Polygonum donianum Polygonaceae Himalayan Fleeceflower
Polygonum aviculare subsp. depressum = Polygonum arenastrum Boreau Polygonum aviculare var. depressum, Polygonum calcatum, Polygonum
arenastrum
Polygonaceae Prostrate Knotweed
Polygonum aviculare Avicularia vulgaris, Polygonum erectum, Polygonum heterophyllum Polygonaceae Common Knotgrass
Polygonum filicaule = Koenigia nepalensis Koenigia nepalensis Polygonaceae Nepal Purslane
Polygonum milletii Bistorta milletii, Persicaria milletii Polygonaceae Crimson Knotweed
Polygonum molle = Aconogonon molle (D. Don) H. Hara Polygonum molle, Aconogonum molle, Persicaria mollis Polygonaceae Sikkim Knotweed
Polygonum paronychioides Polygonaceae Fuzzy Knotweed
Polygonum plebeium Polygonum plebejum Polygonaceae Small Knotweed
Polygonum pubescens = Persicaria pubescens (Blume) H. Hara Persicaria pubescens, Polygonum flaccidum, Polygonum roettleri Polygonaceae Drooping Knotweed
Polygonum recumbens Polygonum mirajabii Polygonaceae Creeping Knotweed
Polygonum runcinatum Persicaria runcinata Polygonaceae Lobed Leaf Knotweed
Polygonum sibiricum var. thomsonii = Knorringia sibirica subsp. thomsonii Knorringia pamirica, Knorringia sibirica subsp. thomsonii, Polygonum
pamiricum
Polygonaceae Pamir Knotweed
Polygonum tortuosum = Aconogonon tortuosum (D. Don) H. Hara Aconogonum tortuosum, Polygonum tortuosum var. tibetanum Polygonaceae Twisted Knotweed
Polygonum vacciniifolium = Bistorta vacciniifolia (Wall. ex Meisn.) Greene Bistorta vaccinifolia, Persicaria vaccinifolia Polygonaceae Rose Carpet Knotweed

Polygonum ganderbalensis (? Polygonum ganderbalense Munshi & Javeidis a synonym of Polygonum aviculare L.)
.

.

Polygonum capitatum = Persicaria capitata (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) H. Gross
Polygonum forrestii = Koenigia forrestii (Diels) Mesícek & Soják
Polygonum glabrum = Persicaria glabra (Willd.) M. Gómez
Polygonum posumbu = Persicaria posumbu (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) H. Gross
.
Flora of Davanagere District, Karnataka, India By B. K. Manjunatha, V. Krishna, T. Pullaiah (2004)- Details with keys

.
.
Forest Plants of Eastern India By Amal Bhusan Chaudhuri (1993)-
Polygonum islandicum (L.) Hook.f. is a synonym of Koenigia islandica L. 
Polygonum perpusillum Hook. f. is a synonym of Bistorta perpusilla (Hook.f.) Greene
Polygonum sinuatum Royle ex Bab. is a synonym of Persicaria sinuata (Royle ex Bab.) Rajbh. & R.Joshi
Polygonum sphaerostachyum Meisn. is a synonym of Polygonum macrophyllum D. Don

.

Gardening in India By George Marshall Woodrow, G Marshall (1986)- Details-

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.

I have updated eFI (efloraofindia) page on Aconogonon, Bistorta, Fagopyrum, Fallopia, Koenigia, Persicaria, Polygonum & Rubrivena

Attempts have been made to incorporate most of the species available in India & nearby areas with details & keys directly or through links as far as possible. It’s quite possible that there may be some discrepancy in the accepted names & synonyms taken from other links.

Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.

If someone can provide complete list of Indian species with source references it will be wonderful.

Any comments/ corrections are welcome.


In my opinion most of the above genera should be treated under Polygonum sensu lato.  I am working on Indian Polygonaceae but it needs thorough field work. The taxonomic complexes are to be solved with the help of SEM/Molecular studies. I have listed all Indian species but it is not yet published.


Thanks a lot, … I have taken GRIN as the basis as it relied on the latest litrature published in 2011 or 2012. Other efloras & The Plant List etc. has also been considered where ever a taxa is not available in GRIN.
As & when new findings are published it can be updated again.

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Polygonum page with comparative images:
Pl. go through Polygonum (Polygonaceae) page with comparative images of species in efloraofindia. On clicking the link of species, one can check the complete details. Genus pages generally give details of most of the species found in India.
I request you to pl. go through & point out mistakes, if any. I hope this will aid in identification in future. If anybody can send images of other species of this genus (for incorporation in the website), if any, or can identify unidentified images, it will be really nice.
Credit goes to Ritesh ji, for identifying most of the Polygnum and Polygonaceae posts.


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