Comparative images of this family are given below except for the genus (Alpinia, Amomum, Boesenbergia, Curcuma, Globba, Hedychium, Zingiber), for which click on these links):

Caulokaempferia secunda (Wall.) K.Larsen (E. Himalaya to Myanmar: Assam, Bangladesh, East Himalaya, Myanmar as per POWO)


Caulokaempferia sikkimensis (King ex Baker) K.Larsen (E. Himalaya to Assam: Assam, East Himalaya as per POWO)

Cautleya gracilis (Sm.) Dandy (India (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim, West Bengal, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh), Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand and Vietnam as per Taxonomic revision of the genus Cautleya (Zingiberaceae) in India with a description of a new variety (pdf)- Kizhakkethil AISHWARYA , Mamiyil SABU- Taiwania 66(1): 79‒88, 2021)


Cautleya gracilis var. robusta (K.Schum.) Sanjappa (Himalaya to China (Yunnan): China South-Central, East Himalaya, Nepal, Tibet, West Himalaya as per POWO)

Cautleya spicata (Sm.) Baker (India (Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Sikkim, Uttarakhand and West Bengal), Bhutan, China, Myanmar and Nepal as per Taxonomic revision of the genus Cautleya (Zingiberaceae) in India with a description of a new variety (pdf)- Kizhakkethil AISHWARYA , Mamiyil SABU- Taiwania 66(1): 79‒88, 2021)

Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton (SW. India as per POWO)


Etlingera elatior (Jack) R.M.Sm. (Introduced) (Peninsula Thailand to W. Malesia: Borneo, Jawa, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Sumatera, Thailand; Introduced into: Caroline Is., China South-Central, Comoros, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Gulf of Guinea Is., Honduras, Maluku, Mauritius, New Guinea, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Sulawesi, Trinidad-Tobago, Vanuatu as per POWO)


Etlingera fenzlii (Kurz) Škorničk. & M.Sabu (Andaman and Nicobar Islands as per POWO)

Etlingera linguiformis (Roxb.) R.M.Sm. (Darjiling to India and Myanmar: Assam, Bangladesh, East Himalaya, India, Myanmar as per POWO)



Hellenia speciosa (J. Koenig ex Smith) S. Dutta (Tropical & Subtropical Asia to NE. Queensland: Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Cambodia, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Hainan, India, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Philippines, Queensland, Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, West Himalaya; Introduced into: Belize, Caroline Is., Comoros, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Fiji, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mauritius, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, New Caledonia, Nicaragua, Panamá, Puerto Rico, Réunion, Trinidad-Tobago, Vanuatu, Windward Is. as per POWO)


Hemiorchis pantlingii King (E. Nepal to Sikkim: East Himalaya, Nepal as per POWO)



Kaempferia elegans (Wall.) Baker (Cultivated) (China (Sichuan) to Indo-China, Borneo: Borneo, China South-Central, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam as per POWO)


Kaempferia galanga L. (India to China (S. Yunnan) and Indo-China: Assam, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China South-Central, India, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam; Introduced into: China Southeast, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan as per POWO)


Kaempferia parviflora Wall. ex Baker (Cultivated) (SE. Bangladesh to Indo-China: Bangladesh, Cambodia, Myanmar, Thailand as per POWO)


Kaempferia rotunda L. (Indian Subcontinent to S. China: Assam, Bangladesh, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Hainan, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, West Himalaya; Introduced into: Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Jawa, Malaya, Sri Lanka as per POWO)

Larsenianthus careyanus (Benth.) W.J.Kress & Mood (E. Himalaya to Myanmar: Assam, Bangladesh, East Himalaya, Myanmar as per POWO)


Rhynchanthus longiflorus Hook.f. (Assam to Thailand: Assam, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand as per POWO)

Roscoea alpina Royle (N. Pakistan to Himalaya: East Himalaya, Nepal, Pakistan, West Himalaya as per POWO)


Roscoea auriculata K.Schum. (E. Nepal to Sikkim and S. Central Tibet: East Himalaya, Nepal, Tibet as per POWO)


Roscoea purpurea Sm. (W. & Central Himalaya: Nepal, West Himalaya as per POWO)


Zingiberaceae – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


A family of 45 genera and 750 species distributed in the tropical regions chiefly Indo Malaysia. In India there are 17 genera and 112 species occurring in Eastern Himalayas and Western ghats.

Vegetative characters:

They are perennial herbs with creeping, horizontal or tuberous rhizomes. The plants are usually aromatic.
The aerial stem when present is short and leafy or scapose and bearing only flowers as in Curcuma and Zingiber. The leaves are basal or cauline and are in two rows. They have a sheathing base and a petiole may or may not present between sheath and blade. The blade is linear to elliptical often large with numerous closely parallel and pinnate veins diverging obliquely from the midrib. A characteristic ligule is present at the junction of the petiole and blade.

Inflorescence and flowers:

The inflorescence is either terminal on the leafy shoot or on a scale leaf bearing scape(Curcuma) or produced directly from the rootstock at the base of the stem(Amomum).It is a spike (Curcuma) or a dense head(Costus) or panicle.Sometimes the flowers are solitary as in Gastrochilus.
The flowers are bracteate and the bracts are often coloured and distichous or spirally arranged. They are mostly bisexual, zygomorphic or actinomorphic, trimerous and epigynous. The perianth is of six members in two trimerous whorls. It is differentiated into an outer calyx and and an inner corolla. The three sepals are united into a tube. The odd sepal is anterior. The petals are also more or less united and the three segments are similar or dissimilar and then the posterior segment is usually the largest and covers the edges of lateral segments. The petals are often very showy and delicate. The androecium is of six stamens in two trimerous whorls. The anterior stamen of the outer whorl is always absent while the other two are represented by large and leafy staminodes. The posterior stamen of the inner whorl and the other two are united to form a petaloid labellum which embraces the fertile stamen and is often the most conspicuous part of the flower. The fertile stamen and the staminodes are inserted on the mouth of the corolla tube. The fertile stamen has a slender and deeply grooved filament and a dithecous anther dehiscing vertically. The gynoecium is tricarpellary and syncarpous. The ovary is inferior and trilocular.The style is simple and terminal and is more or less enevoloped in the groove of the filament of the fertile stamen. Sometimes the style is two lipped or dentate. The stigma is simple or capitate.
A pair of nectar secreting epigynous glands are often present.

Fruits and seeds:

The fruit is usually a loculicidal capsule. The seeds are rounded or angular with copious hard or mealy endosperm and straight embryo.

Pollination and dispersal:

The showy flowers favour insect pollination. The fruits are distributed by animals.


Zingiber officinale (Ginger, adrak, Ale)
Curcuma longa L. (Turmeric,Haldi)
Curcuma angustifolia Roxb.(East Indian arrowroot, Tikhur)
Curcuma neilgherrensis
Amomum cardamomum (Cardamum,Choti Elayachi)
Elettaria cardamomum (Cardamon, Elaychi)
Hitchenia caulina

Significance of gingers (Zingiberaceae) in Indian System of Medicine – Ayurveda : 7 posts by 6 authors. Attachments (1)- AncientSciLife324253-1519975_041319.pdf (1 MB)-
Pls find the article for more reference about gingers used in various Ayurvedaic formulations

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION– The study documented 13 ginger species mainly used in Ayurveda viz., Alpinia calcarata (Haw.) Roscoe, A. galanga (L.) Retz., Amomum subulatum Roxb., Curcuma angustifolia Roxb., C. amada Roxb., C. aromatica Salisb., C. zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe, C. longa L., Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton, Hedychium spicatum Buch.-Ham. Ex J.E. Sm., Kaempferia galanga L., K. rotunda L. and Zingiber offi cinale Roscoe.

Congrats, …, for the wonderful efforts.

As already announced our next Fortnight episode in August, from 1 to 14 will include Araceae, Arecaceae and Zingiberaceae. Following experts have agreed to coordinate
Zingiberaceae      Dr. Prabhu Kumar
Members are requested to kindly adjust subject line accordingly for the convenience of experts:
“Araceae, Arecaceae and Zingiberaceae Fortnight:Zingiberaceae………………”
Please don’t forget to include your serial number at the end of subject line, say GSAUG01, GSAUG02, etc, repl GS with your initials.
For non botanists genera covered under each family have been listed by … in another thread.

Our next monthly Fortnight would cover Araceae, Arecaceae and Zingiberaceae from August 1 to 14, 2014. Members are requested to kindly organise their photographs for upload during the Fortnight.
Hope this proves to be another successful Fortnight.

The following genera of Zingiberaceae already discussed in efloraofindia (one can see the species & their details under them by clicking on these links): ……………

Zingiberaceae‎‎‎ now with comparative images:
Species, genus & family pages of‎‎‎ Zingiberaceae‎‎‎ are now with comparative images. On clicking the link of genus or species, one can check the complete details. Genus pages generally give details of most of the species found in India.
May I request you to pl. go through & point out mistakes, if any. I hope this will aid in identification in future.
Thanks to Mamiyil Sabu ji, who has identified most of our posts.
If anybody can send images of other species of this family to
 jmg… or indian… (for incorporation in the website), if any, or can identify unidentified images, it will be really nice. Pl. circulate it widely, for the benefit of all concerned.

Thank you very much … for your continuous efforts to increase the quality of the site and data.