Keys in BSI Flora of India, Flora of Pakistan and Flora of China
.


Botanical classification followed here as in POWO:
,


Citrus × aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle (Introduced) (Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Cambodia, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central American Pac, Chad, Christmas I., Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, Galápagos, Gambia, Gilbert Is., Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Haiti, India, Laos, Line Is., Malaya, Marianas, Marshall Is., New Caledonia, Niger, Niue, Oman, Pakistan, Puerto Rico, Sri Lanka, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Windward Is. as per POWO)
C. hystrix × C. medica as per POWO;
(Kaghzi nimbu; Sour lime)
(Fruits small; Leaflets small; Petioles narrowly winged; wings spathulate to obcordate articulate above with the base of blade; Fruits with pericarp thin compared to thick pericarp of Citrus × limon (L.) Osbeck (Bada Nimbu; Lemon))

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Citrus × aurantium L. (Introduced) (Under it included as per POWOCitrus × aurantium L.: Sour orange, KhattaCitrus × reticulata Blanco: Orange, SantraCitrus × sinensis (L.) Osbeck: Sweet orange, Musambi)
(Introduced)
C. deliciosa × C. maxima as per POWO;
Fruits large; Petioles marginate or narrowly winged; wings up to 6 mm broad; Small to medium size trees as per BSI Flora of India;

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Citrus cavaleriei H.Lév. ex Cavalerie (India: Evergreen forests of the E.Himalayas, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland; S.W. China as per BSI Flora of India (Citrus ichangensis Swingle))
(Keys between this(Citrus macroptera syn. of Citrus hystrix DC. as per POWO) and Citrus ichangensis (syn. of Citrus cavaleriei H.Lév. ex Cavalerie as per POWO) at BSI Flora of India and Flora of China)

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Citrus hystrix DC. (E. Himalaya to China (Yunnan, N. Guangxi) and New Guinea, Wallis Island: Assam, Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Cambodia, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Philippines, Solomon Is., Sulawesi, Sumatera, Thailand, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is.; Introduced into: Caroline Is., Fiji, Laos, Marianas, New Caledonia, Samoa, Society Is., Sri Lanka, Trinidad-Tobago as per POWO)
(Fruits medium to large; Petioles broadly winged, often longer than blade as per BSI Flora of India)

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Citrus indica Tanaka (Assam as per POWO)
(Indian wild orange)
(Fruits small, Petioles slightly winged, articulated at apex, leaflets large)

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Citrus japonica Thunb. (Introduced) (SE. China to Hainan; Introduced into: Assam, California, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Gambia, Haiti, Japan, Korea, Puerto Rico, Trinidad-Tobago, Vietnam as per POWO)
(Fruits smallest, petiole narrowly winged, leaflet also smallest as per description in Flora of China)

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Citrus × limon (L.) Osbeck (Introduced) (Introduced into: Albania, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Borneo, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Cape Verde, Chad, China Southeast, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, El Salvador, Fiji, Florida, Galápagos, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Haiti, Honduras, India, Jamaica, Korea, Laos, Leeward Is., Mexico Southeast, Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, New Caledonia, Oman, Peru, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Spain, Sri Lanka, Tadzhikistan, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Vietnam as per POWO)
C. deliciosa × C. maxima × C. medica as per POWO;
(Bara nimbu; Lemon)
(Fruit small; Leaflet small; Petioles marginate or narrowly winged, often articulate at apex with base of blade; Fruits with rather thick pericarp compared to thin pericarp of Citrus × aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle (Kagazi Nimbu; Sour Lime))

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Citrus maxima (Burm.) Osbeck (Assam to W. & Central Malesia: Assam, Borneo, Cambodia, East Himalaya, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Myanmar, Nicobar Is., Sulawesi, Sumatera, Thailand, Vietnam; Introduced into: Andaman Is., Bangladesh, Bolivia, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cuba, Dominican Republic, Fiji, Galápagos, Gambia, Hainan, Haiti, India, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Puerto Rico, Society Is., Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Windward Is. as per POWO)
(The larger flowers, large winged petiole and big fruit are distinctive)

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Citrus medica L. (W. Central Himalaya to Myanmar: Assam, Bangladesh, East Himalaya, Myanmar, Nepal, West Himalaya; Introduced into: Alabama, Algeria, Andaman Is., Benin, Borneo, Canary Is., China South-Central, China Southeast, Comoros, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Fiji, Florida, Haiti, India, Jamaica, Laos, Leeward Is., Madeira, Mauritania, Mexico Central, Mexico Southeast, Morocco, Nicobar Is., Oman, Peru, Puerto Rico, Society Is., Sri Lanka, Tibet, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Vietnam as per POWO)
(Bijaura; Citron)
(Fruits big, Petioles wingless, imperfectly or not articulate at base of blade, leaflet large)

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Citrus × taitensis Risso syn. Citrus × jambhiri Lush. (Introduced)
(Hybrid of C. deliciosa × C. medica as per POWO)
Fruit is characterized by its warty-bumpy, rough rind.

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Citrus trifoliata L. (Introduced) (China (Anhui, Chongqing, S-Gansu, N-Guangdong, N-Guangxi, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, NW-Jiangxi, S-Shaanxi, Shandong, S-Shanxi, Zhejiang), Taiwan (I), Japan (I), Korea (I), Tajikistan, Vietnam (I), Turkey (I) (NE-Anatolia (I)), India (I), USA (I) (Alabama (I), Arkansas (I), Delaware (I), Florida (I), Georgia (I), Louisiana (I), Maryland (I), Mississippi (I), North Carolina (I), Oklahoma (I), Pennsylvania (I), South Carolina (I), Tennessee (I), Texas (I), Virginia (I), West Virginia (I)), Argentina (I), Croatia (I) as per Catalogue of Life)

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BSI Flora of India Vol. 4 with Keys (1997) (Distribution):

Name Distribution
Citrus assamensis Assam to Bangladesh as per POWO 4 0
Citrus aurantifolia Probably a native of Malesia. Cultivated in many parts of India and other subtropical countries (Citrus × aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle: C. hystrix × C. medica as per POWO) 4 0
Citrus aurantium Probably a native of S. China and Indochina. Frequently cultivated in India, perhaps becoming naturalized in Assam (Citrus × aurantium L.: C. deliciosa × C. maxima as per POWO) 4 0
Citrus indica India: Evergreen forests of N.E. India. Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya and Nagaland 4 0
Citrus jambhiri This is considered a hybrid between the true lemon and some type of citron (Citrus × jambhiri Lush. syn. of Citrus × taitensis Risso (artificial cross: C. deliciosa × C. medica) as per POWO) 4 0
Citrus karna The description of the fruits is suggestive of its suspected hybrid origin from parents like lemon (C. limon) and the sour orange (C. aurntium) (Citrus × karna Raf. syn. of Citrus × aurantium L.: C. deliciosa × C. maxima as per POWO) 4 0
Citrus limetta Its supposed hybrid origin cannot be ruled out.  (Citrus × limetta Risso syn. of Citrus × limon (L.) Osbeck (Artificial hybrid: C. deliciosa × C. maxima × C. medica) as per POWO) 4 0
Citrus limon Native of S. E. Asia: cultivated throughout India and other tropical and Subtropical countries (Citrus × limon (L.) Osbeck: Artificial hybrid: C. deliciosa × C. maxima × C. medica as per POWO) 4 0
Citrus maxima Probably a native of S. E. Asia and cultivated in India and various other subtropical countries (var. maxima Assam to W. & Central Malesia as per POWO) and (Citrus maxima var. uvacarpa Merr. syn. of Citrus × aurantium L.: C. deliciosa × C. maxima as per POWO) 4 2
Citrus medica var. medica: Probably indigenous in India, particularly in the foot- hills of the Himalayas and Khasi hills &  var. digitata Lush. (syn. C. sarcodactylis Noot.) is a syn. of Citrus medica L. as per POWO) 4 2
Citrus megaloxycarpa Suspected to be a hybrid between true pomelo and lemon (syn. of Citrus hystrix DC. as per POWO) 4 0
Citrus nobilis Believed to have originated as a chance hybrid between mandarin orange (C. reticulata Blanco) and sweet orange or pomelo (Citrus × nobilis Lour. syn. of Citrus × aurantium L.: C. deliciosa × C. maxima as per POWO) 4 0
Citrus reticulata Probably a native of S. E. Asia. Cultivated in India and other Subtropical countries (Citrus × reticulata Blanco syn. of Citrus × aurantium L.: C. deliciosa × C. maxima as per POWO)) 4 0
Citrus sinensis Probably a native of N. E. India or S. China and Indochina. Cultivated in India (Citrus × sinensis (L.) Osbeck syn. of Citrus × aurantium L.: C. deliciosa × C. maxima as per POWO)) 4 0
Citrus x madurensis Most probably a hybrid between a kumquat and the sour mandarin orange (i.e. C. reticulala Blanco var. austera Swingle) (Citrus madurensis Lour. syn. of Citrus japonica Thunb. as per POWO) 4 0

BSI Flora of India Vol. 4 with Keys (1997) (Distribution):

Name Distribution
Citrus ichangensis India: Evergreen forests of the E.Himalayas, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland; S.W. China (syn. of Citrus cavaleriei H.Lév. ex Cavalerie and no distribution shown in India as per POWO ) 4 0
Citrus latipes India: Evergreen forests of the Khasi and Naga hills in N.E. India. Meghalaya and Nagaland. Wild and semi wild; N.Myanmar 4 0
Citrus macroptera India: Evergreen forests of N.E. India and moist deciduous forests of the N. Himalayas. Assam (Cachar, Mikir, Nowgong and Sibsagar), Meghalaya (Khasi hills) and Uttar Pradesh (Almora-Gori Valley); Bangladesh, Myanmar, Indochina and Thailand (syn. of Citrus hystrix DC. as per POWO) 4 1

BSI Flora of India Checklist (Distribution):
Fortunella japonica (Thunb.) Swingle (Cultivated taxa) (syn. of Citrus japonica Thunb. as per POWO)


BSI Flora of India Checklist (Distribution):
Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. (Cultivated taxa) (syn. of Citrus trifoliata L. as per POWO)


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Flora of Peninsular India:
Citrus aurantiifolia
Citrus aurantium
Citrus grandis (syn. of Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr. as per POWO)
Citrus limetta (Citrus × limetta Risso syn. of Citrus × limon (L.) Osbeck (Artificial hybrid: C. deliciosa × C. maxima × C. medica) as per POWO)
Citrus limon
Citrus lycopersiciformis (syn. of Citrus deliciosa Ten. as per POWO)
Citrus maderaspatana (syn. of Citrus × aurantium L.: C. deliciosa × C. maxima as per POWO)
Citrus maxima
Citrus maxima var. uvacarpa (syn. of Citrus × aurantium L.: C. deliciosa × C. maxima as per POWO)
Citrus medica
Citrus nobilis (Citrus × nobilis Lour. syn. of Citrus × aurantium L.: C. deliciosa × C. maxima as per POWO)
Citrus pennivesiculata (syn. of Citrus hystrix DC. as per POWO)
Citrus reshni (syn. of Citrus × aurantium L.: C. deliciosa × C. maxima as per POWO)
Citrus reticulata (Citrus × reticulata Blanco syn. of Citrus × aurantium L.: C. deliciosa × C. maxima as per POWO))
Citrus sinensis (Citrus × reticulata Blanco syn. of Citrus × aurantium L.: C. deliciosa × C. maxima as per POWO))
Citrus tangerina (syn. of Citrus deliciosa Ten. as per POWO)


..

Binomial Habit Notes Ref. Distrib.
Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle Shrub or small
Tree
Plains to Mid
elevation, Cultivated,  Native of
Malaysian   Region
Flora of Tamil
Nadu, VOL. I, 1983
All districts
Citrus aurantium L. Small
Tree
Plains
to Mid elevation, Cultivated, Native of Indo – Chinese Region
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983
All
districts
 
Citrus limon (L.) Burm.f. Small
Tree
Western
Ghats, Cultivated, Native of South East
Asiatic  Region
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983
Coimbatore,
Dindigul, Nilgiri, Salem, Theni
Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr. Tree Western
Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Cultivated, Native of South East  Asiatic
Region
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983
Dindigul,
Kanniya kumari, Nilgiri, Salem, Tirunelveli, Theni
 
Citrus medica L. Small
Tree
Western
Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Cultivated
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983; Gamble, 1957; Matthew, 1983
All
districts 
Citrus nobilis Lour. syn. of Citrus × aurantium L. as per POWO) Tree Western
Ghats, Cultivated, Native of Indo – Chinese Region
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983
Dindigul,
Nilgiri
 
Citrus reticulata Blanco syn. of Citrus × aurantium as per POWO Tree Western
Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Dry Deciduous to Moist Deciduous Forests,  Cultivated, Native of South East  Asiatic
Region
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983; Tanaka, 1937
Dharmapuri,
Dindigul, Kanniya kumari, Nilgiri,
Salem, Theni, Tirunelveli 

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Citrus acida PERS. (syn. of Citrus medica L. as per POWO)
 
 
Citrus bergamia RISSO.  (syn. of Citrus × limon (L.) Osbeck (Artificial hybrid: C. deliciosa × C. maxima × C. medica) as per POWO)
 
 
 
Citrus karna RAFIN. (Citrus × karna Raf. syn. of Citrus × aurantium L.: C. deliciosa × C. maxima as per POWO)
 
Citrus limetta RISSO (Citrus × limetta Risso syn. of Citrus × limon (L.) Osbeck (Artificial hybrid: C. deliciosa × C. maxima × C. medica) as per POWO)
 
Citrus macroptera Montr. Var. annamensis Tanaka (syn. of Citrus hystrix DC. as per POWO)
 
Citrus madurensis LOUR. syn. of Citrus japonica Thunb. as per POWO
 
 
Citrus paradisi MACF. syn. of Citrus × aurantium L.: C. deliciosa × C. maxima as per POWO
 
Citrus reticulata BLANCO syn. of Citrus × aurantium L.: C. deliciosa × C. maxima as per POWO
Citrus sinensis (L.) OSBECK syn. of Citrus × aurantium L.: C. deliciosa × C. maxima as per POWO

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Botanical name Synonyms Family Common name
Citrus aurantifolia Rutaceae Lime
Citrus limon Rutaceae Lemon
Citrus maxima Citrus grandis Rutaceae Pomelo
Citrus medica Rutaceae Citron
Citrus sinensis syn. of Citrus × aurantium L.: C. deliciosa × C. maxima as per POWO Rutaceae Sweet Orange

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Species with description & keys in Flora of Pakistan :

Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle
Citrus aurantium Linn.
Citrus grandis Osbeck = Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr.
Citrus limetta Risso (Citrus × limetta Risso syn. of Citrus × limon (L.) Osbeck (Artificial hybrid: C. deliciosa × C. maxima × C. medica) as per POWO)
Citrus limon (Linn.) Burm. f.
Citrus madurensis Lour. syn. of Citrus japonica Thunb. as per POWO
Citrus medica var. acida Brandis (? syn. of Citrus medica L. as per POWO)
Citrus paradisii Macfadyen syn. of Citrus × aurantium L.: C. deliciosa × C. maxima as per POWO

Citrus pyxidata (LINN.) FR.
Citrus reticulata Blanco (syn. of Citrus × aurantium L.: C. deliciosa × C. maxima as per POWO))
Citrus sinensis (Linn.) Osbeck (syn. of Citrus × aurantium L.: C. deliciosa × C. maxima as per POWO))

.
Citrus jambhiri (syn. of Citrus × taitensis Risso (artificial cross: C. deliciosa × C. medica) as per POWO)
Citrus junos (Citrus × junos Siebold ex Yu.Tanaka: C. cavaleriei × C. deliciosa as per POWO)
Citrus limettioides (syn. of Citrus × limon (L.) Osbeck: Artificial hybrid: C. deliciosa × C. maxima × C. medica as per POWO)
Citrus limon
Citrus reticulata (syn. of Citrus × aurantium L.: C. deliciosa × C. maxima as per POWO)
Citrus sinensis (syn. of Citrus × aurantium L.: C. deliciosa × C. maxima as per POWO)

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Citrus reticulata (syn. of Citrus × aurantium L.: C. deliciosa × C. maxima as per POWO)
Citrus trifoliata 

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Citrus: 3 posts by 2 authors.

I have updated eFI (efloraofindia) page on Citrus

Attempts have been made to incorporate most of the species available in India & nearby areas with details & keys directly or through links as far as possible. It’s quite possible that there may be some discrepancy in the accepted names & synonyms taken from other links.

Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.

If someone can provide complete list of Indian species with source references it will be wonderful.
Any comments/ corrections are welcome.


I have added a list of wild Indian species of Citrus based on Flora of India vol-4.


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Citrus (Rutaceae) page with comparative images:
Pl. go through‎ Citrus (Rutaceae) page with comparative images of species in efloraofindia, following botanical classification as in POWO. On clicking the link of species, one can check the complete details. Genus pages generally give details of most of the species found in India.
I request you to pl. go through & point out mistakes, if any. I hope this will aid in identification in future. If anybody can send images of other species of this genus (for incorporation in the website), if any, or can identify unidentified images, it will be really nice. Pl. circulate it widely, for the benefit of all concerned.


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