Commelina appendiculata C.B.Clarke (Image by Sourav Mahmud

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Commelina benghalensis L. (Images by Gurcharan Singh)

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Commelina clavata C.B.Clarke (Image by Prashant Awale – Id by Mayur Nandikar)

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Commelina coelestis Willd. (Images by Balkar Singh – Id by Mayur Nandikar) 

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Commelina diffusa Burm.f. (Images by Balkar Singh – Id by Mayur Nandikar, (For more photos & complete details, click on the links))

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Commelina ensifolia R.Br. (Images by Muthu Karthick – Id by Mayur Nandikar) 

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Commelina forsskalii Vahl (Images by Gurcharan Singh) 

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Commelina indehiscens E.Barnes ?  (Images by Aarti Khale – probable Id by Mayur Nandikar) 

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Commelina maculata Edgew. (Images by Balkar Singh & (J.M.Garg – Id by Satish Pardeshi), (For more photos & complete details, click on the links))

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Commelina paleata Hassk. (Images by (Narendra Joshi – Id by Mayur Nandikar) & (Alka Khare – Id by Mayur Nandikar))

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Commelina paludosa Blume (Images by Surajit Koley, (For more photos & complete details, click on the link), (inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))

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Commelina petersii Hassk. ? (Images by Aarti Khale – Id by Mayur Nandikar) 

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Commelina subulata Roth (Images by Mayur Nandikar & Santhan P

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Commelina suffruticosa Blume (Images by Prashant Awale (Identified by Mayur Nandikar) & Dinesh Valke (Inserted by J.M.Garg))

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Commelina undulata R.Br. (Images by (J.M.Garg – Id by Robert B. Faden), Mayur Nandikar & (Muthu Karthick – Id by Mayur Nandikar), (For more photos & complete details, click on the links))

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Cyanotis adscendens Dalzell (Images by (Anurag Sharma – Id by Mayur Nandikar) & (Niyas Palakkal – Id by Mayur Nandikar))- C. pillosa is very close to C. adscendens, but C. adscendens is with fusiform tuberous root, few flowered inflorescence and plant of high elevation.

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Cyanotis arachnoidea C.B.Clarke (Images by (Badri Narayanan – validation by Mayur Nandikar) & Santhan P

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Cyanotis axillaris (L.) D.Don ex Sweet (Images by Surajit Koley) – Differences: Cyanotis fasciculata: Section Encyanotis-cymes enclosed in biseriate falcately lanceolate imbricating bracteoles; annual, dwarf, decumbent, floccosely silky or hairy; leaves linear or lanceolate, 2.5-5 cm long; petals rose-purple; capsule oblong. Cyanotis axillaris: section ochreaeflora-flowers axillary in sheaths of leaves, bracteoles small not imbricating;annual, sparsely hairy or glabrous; leaves 5-15 cm long; petals blue 

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Cyanotis beddomei (Hook.f.) Govaerts ? (Image by Subhajyoti Roy – Id by Mahadeswara Swamy)  

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Cyanotis cristata (L.) D.Don (Images by Bhagyashri Ranade (1,2,3) & Karuna Kanta Das (4)) 

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Cyanotis fasciculata (B.Heyne ex Roth) Schult. & Schult.f. (Images by Bhagyashri Ranade)-  Differences: Cyanotis fasciculata: Section Encyanotis-cymes enclosed in biseriate falcately lanceolate imbricating bracteoles; annual, dwarf, decumbent, floccosely silky or hairy; leaves linear or lanceolate, 2.5-5 cm long; petals rose-purple; capsule oblong. Cyanotis axillaris: section ochreaeflora-flowers axillary in sheaths of leaves, bracteoles small not imbricating;annual, sparsely hairy or glabrous; leaves 5-15 cm long; petals blue 

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Cyanotis pilosa Schult. & Schult.f. (Images by Mayur Nandikar & Muthu Karthick, (For more photos & complete details, click on the links))- Although C. pillosa is the traditional name that has been applied to this species, but I didn’t find extreme pilose leaf surfaces, it has very similar leaf surfaces like other Cyanotis speciesThis species is very close to C. adscendens, but C. adscendens is with fusiform tuberous root, few flowered inflorescence and plant of high elevation

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Cyanotis thwaitesii Hassk. (Images by (Balkar Singh – Id by Manudev Mahadevan), (For more photos & complete details, click on the links))- The species is close to Cyanotis fasciculata, C. fasciculata var. rosea and Cyanotis glabrescens but differs in its perennial habit, somewhat rosette leaves and most common thing in this complex cobwebby hairs ………….

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Cyanotis vaga (Lour.) Schult. & Schult.f. (Images by Gurcharan Singh & Karuna Kanta Das, (For more photos & complete details, click on the links))- Scandent to erect herb distinct from C. cristata in linear-lanceolate (not ovate-oblong) leaves, longer bracteoles 5-10 mm (against 5 mm) and oblong 4 mm long sepals (against linear-oblong, 3 mm) and lacking falcate spathes, flower clusters axillary as well as terminal.   

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Cyanotis villosa (Spreng.) Schult. & Schult.f. ? (Images by Nidhan Singh – Id by Mayur Nandikar) 

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Images by Anurag N. Sharma

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Images by Shivaprakash and Mayur Nandikar

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Images by Prashant Awale (Id by Mayur Nandikar) & Anurag N Sharma (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more images & complete details, click on the links) 

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Murdannia loriformis (Hassk.) R.S.Rao & Kammathy ?-  Apparently look likes Murdannia loriformisM. simplex has little robust habit. Need basal leaves pictures for confirm its ID.


Murdannia nimmoniana (J. Graham) Bole & M. R. Almeida var. juncoides (Wight) Nandikar & Gurav – Endemic species, allied to Murdannia semiteres but differs in perennial habit with bulbous base and seed with flaky material on testa.


 


Murdannia nimmoniana (J. Graham) Bole & M. R. Almeida var. nimmoniana (syn. Murdannia semiteres (Dalzell) Santapau)

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Murdannia pauciflora (G.Brückn.) G.Brückn. – Basic difference between these two plants are Murdannia lanuginose- Typical plant of laterite soil or either found on high altitude. Root fusiform tuberous. Leaves linear to linear lanceolate with broad base, compactly arranged, margin undulate. Seeds trigonus, bi-seriate.  Murdannia pauciflora Syn Murdannia wightii- Commonly found undergrowth of forest and along the road sides in Ghats (towards south). Root fibrous, Leaves ovate, margin entire. Seeds uniseriate and squarish to rectangular in Shape.


 

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Tradescantia fluminensis Vell. (Cultivated) (Images by Gurcharan Singh, Aarti S. Khale, Anil Kumar Thakur & Ushaprabha Page (Inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade & J.M.Garg))


Tradescantia pallida (Rose) D.R.Hunt (Cultivated) (Images by Gurcharan Singh & (Surajit Koley – Id by Pankaj Kumar), (For more photos & complete details, click on the links))

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Tradescantia spathacea Sw. (Cultivated) (Images by Bhagyashri Ranade)

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Tradescantia virginiana L. (Cultivated) (Images by Nalini – validation by Tanay Bose, (For more photos & complete details, click on the links))

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Tradescantia zanonia (L.) Sw. (Cultivated- Poland) (Images by Promila Chaturvedi – Id by Varun Sharma) 

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Tradescantia zebrina Bosse (Cultivated) (Images by (Arundhati Boyce – Id by Nidhan Singh) & (B. Rathinasabapathy– Id by Bala Subramaniam)) 

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Commelinales and Zingiberales Week: Commelinaceae:  FEW WORDS ABOUT COMMELINACE
           Spiderworts, the members of family Commelinaceae, are widely distributed throughout the world, however, in spite of their vegetative propagation species are sparsely distributedand many of them are endemic. The three major centers of taxonomic diversity of Commelinaceae are: Tropical Africa; Mexico and Northern Central America; and the Indian subcontinent. In the family only six genera (Aneilema, Buforrestia, Commelina, Floscopa, Murdannia and Pollia) have indigenous species in both the New World and the Old World (Faden, 1978).
          Family Commelinaceae comprises about 41 genera and 650 species distributed mostly in the tropical and warm temperate regions of the world (Faden, 2000). According to Faden (1998a) Peninsular India and the foothills of Himalayas to Thailand and Southwestern China is major center of diversity for Commelinaceae. It is represented in India with 14 genera and 85 species (Karthikeyan and Jain, 1989).
Systematic Position:
           The family Commelinaceae is very natural and mostly very well defined. Its characters and relationship with other families belonging to Farinosae have been fully discussed by Hamann (1961, 1962 and 1963). Bruckner (1926) classified the family in two subfamilies- Tradescantieae with actinomorphic and Commelineae with zygomorphic flowers. Tradescantieae is further divided into ‘Declinatae’ and ‘Inclinatae’ determined by floral buds being bent away and towards the axis respectively. The genera Murdannia Royle are separated from Aneilema R. Br. on the basis of floral symmetry (Bruckner, 1926).  According to him Aneilema in the restricted sense belongs to sub family Commelineae, whereas Murdanniato Tradescantieae. Woodson (1942) also recognized two tribes in Commelinaceae viz. Tradescantieae and Commelineae; the former has paired sessile scorpoid cymes which appear as two sided units superficially, whereas in the later ultimate branches of inflorescence of individual scorpoid cymes appear one sided. Supposedly he rejected the idea of sorting out Murdannia from Aneilemaand kept them in his tribe Commelineae.
            Bentham and Hooker (1883) put the Family Commelinaceae in the series ‘Coronariae’ along with the families Roxburghiaceae, Liliaceae, Pontenderiaceae, Philydraceae, Xyridaceae, Mayaceae and Rapataceae. Engler (1895 and 1897) and Rendle (1904) placed the family in order ‘Farinosae’ under sub-order ‘Commelinae’ consisting single family Commelinaceae. Order Farinosae of Engler and Prantle (1915) also includes Flagellariaceae, Restionaceae, Centrolepidaceae, Mayaceae, Xyridaceae, Eriocaulaceae and Philydraceae; and is characterized by copious mealy endosperm. Bessey (1915) placed the family in his order ’Liliales’, which include Liliaceae and Najadaceae, along with many families of Farinosae of Engler. According to Hutchinson (1934) his order Commelinales including Commelinaceae, Mayaceae, Flagellariaceae and Cartonemataceae to be a basic terrestrial stock of his Calyciflorae, from which has evolved his order Zingiberales. The seeds of the members of Commelinales are characterized by having an ‘embryotega’, a special development of micropyle (Hutchinson, loc. cit.).
            The predominant trend, which begun by Meisner (1842), was to divide the family into two major groups. His tribe Tradescantieae had 6 fertile stamens while tribe Commelineae had a reduced number of fertile stamens. Hasskarl (1870) used Meisner’s classification, as did Clarke (1881), who also separated out a small, third tribe, Pollieae for genera with berries or berrylike fruits.
           Bruckner (1926 and 1930) raised the two major divisions of the family to subfamily rank and distinguished them on the basis of floral symmetry- subfamily ‘Tradescantieae’ (flowers actinomorphic) and subfamily ‘Commelineae’ (flowers zygomorphic). Subfamily Tradescanteae was divided into tribes Hexandreae (6 fertile stamens) and Triandreae (3 fertile stamens). Subfamily Commelineae was split into tribes Declinatae (buds bent downward, the posterior stamens less developed and usually sterile) and Inclinatae (buds curved inward, the 3 anterior stamens less developed and usually sterile).
            Woodson (1942) and Rohweder (1956), focusing on the American genera, returned to 2 tribes, Commelineae and Tradescantieae, but defined them on the basis of inflorescence rather than floral characters.
            Pichon (1946) was the first worker to completely break away from the tradition of dividing the family into 2 major components. He recognized 10 tribes-Tradescantieae, Callisieae, Anthericopsideae, Commelineae, Geogenantheae, Cochliostemateae, Pseudoparideae, Zebrineae, Cyanoteae and Dichorisandreae, on the basis of morphological characters. He further separated the genus Cartonema into its own family Cartonemataceae, based in part, on anatomical grounds.
            Brenan (1966) recognized 15 informal ‘groups’, using a combination of morphological characters. He predicted that not all of his groups would prove to be of equal taxonomic rank.
            The history of the subdivision of the Commelinaceae was summarized by Faden and Hunt (1991) (briefly previwed by Faden, 1985), accepted 2 subfamilies- subfamily Cartonematoideae (tribes Cartonemeae and Triceratelleae) and subfamily Commelinoideae (tribes Tradescantieae with 25 genera and 285 species and Commelineae with 13 genera and 348 species). Within the tribe Tradescantieae, 7 subtribes were accepted- Palisotinae, Dichorisandrinae, Thyrsantheminae, Streptoliriinae, Cyanotinae, Coleotrypinae and Tradescantiinae.
Hereby I am attaching a image,  represents diversity among the family Commelinaceae in India.


All these above mentioned genera are differentiate on the basis of capsule and stamen character.
Stamens 6……………Tradescantieae (Cyanotis, Amischtolype, Callisia, Tradescantia, Belosynapsis, etc.)
Stamens 2-3 ……………………………… Commelina, Murdannia, Pollia, Rhopalephora, Dictyospermum
Stamens antesepalous………………….Murdannia
Stamens all anterior……………………….
Fruits sticky with hook-hairs……. ……Rhopalephora
Fruit indehiscent, berry like……………Pollia
Fruit dehiscent ……………………………Dictyospermum
  

 
Species, genera & family pages of‎‎‎ Commelinaceae are now with images. I request you to pl. go through & point out mistakes, if any. I hope this will aid in identifications in future.


 

 
 

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