Phyllanthus acidus (L.) Skeels (Introduced) (Brazil (Pará); Introduced into: Andaman Is., Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Borneo, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Cayman Is., Christmas I., Comoros, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Florida, Gabon, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Hawaii, India, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Marianas, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Myanmar, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Southwest Caribbean, Tanzania, Thailand, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Vietnam, Windward Is., Zaïre as per POWO)
Phyllanthus amarus Schumach. & Thonn. (Introduced) (Differentiated from closely related species in its male and female flowers occurring in adjacent pairs and 5 perianth members in the flower)
Phyllanthus debilis Klein ex Willd. (Maldives to W. Malesia: Andaman Is., India, Jawa, Malaya, Maldives, Nicobar Is., Sri Lanka, Sumatera; Introduced into: Bangladesh, Brazil Southeast, Caroline Is., East Himalaya, Fiji, Florida, Hawaii, Kazan-retto, Leeward Is., Line Is., Marianas, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, New Guinea, Niue, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Samoa, Society Is., Taiwan, Thailand, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Windward Is. as per POWO)
Phyllanthus emblica L. (Tropical & Subtropical Asia: Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Hainan, India, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Myanmar, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Sumatera, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, West Himalaya as per POWO)
Phyllanthus fraternus G.L.Webster (Pakistan to W. India: India, Laccadive Is., Nepal, Pakistan, West Himalaya; Introduced into: Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Bermuda, Botswana, Burkina, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Chad, Comoros, Cuba, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Florida, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Louisiana, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mississippi, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Puerto Rico, Rwanda, Senegal, Somalia, South Carolina, Sudan, Tanzania, Texas, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Windward Is., Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe as per POWO)
Phyllanthus maderaspatensis L. (Africa, W. Indian Ocean, Arabian Peninsula, Pakistan to Australia: Aldabra, Andaman Is., Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, China Southeast, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Ghana, Gulf States, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Lesotho, Madagascar, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oman, Pakistan, Queensland, Rwanda, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Socotra, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Vietnam, Western Australia, Yemen, Zaïre as per POWO)
Phyllanthus palakondensis K. Raja Kullayiswamy, N. Sarojini Devi, K. Praveen Karanth (Palakonda hills of Andhra Pradesh)
Phyllanthus pseudoparvifolius R.L.Mitra & Sanjappa (Nepal to Myanmar: Assam, East Himalaya, Myanmar, Nepal as per POWO)
Phyllanthus reticulatus Poir. (Tropical & Subtropical Asia to N. Australia: Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Hainan, India, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Northern Territory, Pakistan, Philippines, Queensland, Santa Cruz Is., Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia as per POWO)
Phyllanthus rotundifolius Klein ex Willd. (Cape Verde, Trop. Africa, Arabian Pen., Pakistan to Sri Lanka: Burkina, Cape Verde, Chad, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gulf States, India, Kenya, Laccadive Is., Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Oman, Pakistan, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Socotra, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zaïre (as per POWO))
Phyllanthus sanatandharmae JOSE MATHEW & REGY YOHANNAN (Southern Western Ghats)
Phyllanthus simplex Retz. (Tropical & Subtropical Asia to Pacific: Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, Caroline Is., China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Cook Is., East Himalaya, Fiji, Hainan, India, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Marianas, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicobar Is., Niue, Northern Territory, Pakistan, Philippines, Queensland, Samoa, Society Is., South Australia, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Thailand, Tonga, Tubuai Is., Vanuatu, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Western Australia as per POWO (Phyllanthus virgatus G.Forst.))
Phyllanthus tenellus Roxb. (Tanzania to Mozambique, SW. Arabian Peninsula, W. Indian Ocean: Angola, Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Tanzania, Yemen; Introduced into: Alabama, Argentina Northeast, Azores, Bahamas, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Cook Is., Costa Rica, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Illinois, India, Iran, Jamaica, Japan, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Madeira, Marquesas, Mexico Central, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Nansei-shoto, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, Northern Territory, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Seychelles, Sicilia, Society Is., South Carolina, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Tennessee, Texas, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Vanuatu, Venezuela, Virginia, Western Australia, Windward Is. as per POWO)
Phyllanthus urinaria L. (Tropical & Subtropical Asia to N. Australia: Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, Caroline Is., China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Hainan, India, Japan, Jawa, Korea, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maldives, Marianas, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Pakistan, Philippines, Queensland, South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia; Introduced into: Alabama, Arkansas, Belize, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Central American Pac, Chagos Archipelago, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Illinois, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Kansas, Leeward Is., Liberia, Louisiana, Madagascar, Marquesas, Mauritius, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, New Caledonia, New York, Nicaragua, Nigeria, North Carolina, Peru, Puerto Rico, Réunion, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Society Is., South Carolina, Suriname, Tennessee, Texas, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Tubuai Is., Venezuela, Virginia, Windward Is., Zaïre as per POWO)
Phyllanthus amarus Schumach. & Thonn.
Phyllanthus anamalayanus (Gamble) G.L.Webster
Phyllanthus andamanicus N.P.Balakr. & N.G.Nair
Phyllanthus arbuscula (Sw.) J.F.Gmel.
Phyllanthus baeobotryoides Müll.Arg.
Phyllanthus baillonianus Müll.Arg.
Phyllanthus beddomei (Gamble) M.Mohanan
Phyllanthus brevipes Hook.f.
Phyllanthus clarkei Hook.f.
Phyllanthus cinereus Mull.Arg.
Phyllanthus chandrabosei Govearts & Radcl.-Sm.
Phyllanthus columnaris Müll.Arg.
Phyllanthus debilis Klein ex Willd.
Phyllanthus emblica L.
Phyllanthus fimbriatus (Wight) Müll.Arg.
Phyllanthus fraternus G.L.Webster
Phyllanthus gageanus (Gamble) M.Mohanan
Phyllanthus glaucus Wall. ex Müll.Arg.
Phyllanthus gomphocarpus Hook.f.
Phyllanthus griffithii Müll.Arg.
Phyllanthus heyneanus Müll.Arg.
Phyllanthus indofischeri Bennet
Phyllanthus lawii J.Graham
Phyllanthus leschenaultii Müll.Arg.
Phyllanthus macraei Müll.Arg.
var. hispidus Gamble
Phyllanthus macrocalyx Müll.Arg.
Phyllanthus maderaspatensis L.
Phyllanthus megacarpus (Gamble) Kumari & Chandrab.
Phyllanthus myrtifolius (Wight) Baill.
Phyllanthus narayanswamii Gamble
Phyllanthus petiolaris Roxb. (Doubtful/ imperfectly known Taxa)
Phyllanthus pendulus Roxb. (Doubtful/ imperfectly known Taxa)
Phyllanthus pinnatus (Wight) G.L.Webster
Phyllanthus polyphyllus Willd. syn. of Phyllanthus racemosus
Phyllanthus praetervisus Müll.Arg.
Phyllanthus pseudoparvifolius R.L.Mitra & Sanjappa
Phyllanthus pulcher Wall. ex Müll.Arg.
Phyllanthus rangachariarii C. Murugan, K.A.A.Kabeer & G.V.S.Murthy
Phyllanthus reticulatus Poir.
Phyllanthus rheedei Wight
Phyllanthus roeperianus Wall. ex Müll.Arg.
Phyllanthus rotundatus Poir. 491 (Doubtful/ imperfectly known Taxa)
Phyllanthus rotundifolius Klein ex Willd.
Phyllanthus sanjappae Chakrab. & M.Gangop.
Phyllanthus scabrifolius Hook.f.
Phyllanthus sikkimensis Müll.Arg.
Phyllanthus singampattianus (Sebastine & A.N.Henry) Kumari & Chandrab.
Phyllanthus simplex Retz.
var. gardnerianus (Wight) Müll.Arg.
Phyllanthus talbotii Sedgew.
Phyllanthus tenellus Roxb.
Phyllanthus tetrandrus Roxb.
Phyllanthus urinaria L. (Doubtful/ imperfectly known Taxa)
Species with description & keys from Flora of Pakistan (Distribution):
Some species found in Indian Subcontinent with description & keys from Flora of China [Distribution other than China]:
Phyllanthus key for eFlora of India … : 8 posts by 6 authors.
Here is a simple key to identify species of Phyllanthus using simple exomorphic characters. To start with i have included only species which are collected from my study area (Tiruvannamalai in Tamil Nadu). I think it includes most of the species discussed earlier in this group. But, there are about 50 species of Phyllanthus in India. So, we need more pictures and information on other species too, to make it complete. I am working on description and other aspects of these taxa, in line with our (ambitious) ‘eflora of India’ program.
Key to species of Phyllanthus L.
1a Trees or shrubs …… 2
1b Herbs or subshrubs ……… 6
2a Tepals 5; fruits berries, bluish black ……. Phyllanthus reticulatus
2b Tepals 6; fruits drupes or capsules, other than bluish black ……3
3a Tepals oblanceolate; fruits drupes ……… 4
3b Tepals ovate; fruits capsules …….. 5
4a Leaves less than 5 mm wide, more than 60 per branchlet ……. Phyllanthus emblica
4b Leaves more than 5 mm wide, less than 40 per branchlet ……. Phyllanthus indofischeri
5a Leaves ovate-elliptic to suborbicular, more than 1 cm wide, glaucous beneath ……. Phyllanthus pinnatus
5b Leaves oblong, less than 0.6 cm wide, not glaucous beneath ….. Phyllanthus polyphyllus
6a Tepals 5 …. Phyllanthus amarus
6b Tepals 6 …….. 7
7a Leaves obovate; seeds vertically muriculate ….. Phyllanthus maderaspatensis
7b Leaves other than obovate; seeds other than the above …… 8
8a Capsules smooth; seeds longitudinally striate ..…. 9
8b Capsules verrucose or warty; seeds not striate .…11
9a Leaves narrowly elliptic-oblong, < 5 mm wide, green beneath …… Phyllanthus debilis
9b Leaves broadly elliptic-ovate, > 8 mm wide, glaucous beneath ….10
10a Leaves papery; female calyx-lobes with wide scarious margins ……. Phyllanthus kozhikodianus
10b Leaves subfleshy; female calyx-lobes with narrow scarious margins ……. Phyllanthus rheedii
11a Leaves oblong; capsules verrucose; seeds transversely ridged ……….. Phyllanthus urinaria
11b Leaves oblong-lanceolate; capsules warty; seeds tuberculate ….. Phyllanthus virgatus
Thank you … for this simple and easy to understand effort.
its a difficult question to give a straight forward answer, so…let me try!
Hope i have not confused you so much!
Also pl read:
Thank you so much … for the explanation and further links. You have made a very complicated subject simple to understand ! Atleast now I know why the mix- up, the confusion is due to Mueller ! I will read up more on the two facts mentioned by you.
Thanks for great contribution … Here is link to my recent research contributions on Phyllanthus.
Phyllanthus amarus and P. fraternus : 1 post by 1 author.
Interesting paper on molecular distinction of Phyllanthus amarus, P. fraternus, P. debilis and P. urinarius
Phyllanthus Species: Scientific Evaluation and Medicinal Applications edited by Ramadasan Kuttan, K.B. Harikumar (2011)-
Phyllanthus : 1 post by 1 author.
I have updated eFI (efloraofindia) page on Phyllanthus in line with Flora of India Vol. 23 (2012).
Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.
Any comments are welcome.
Phyllanthus page with comparative images of species:
Pl. go through Phyllanthus (Phyllanthaceae) page with comparative images of species in efloraofindia. On clicking the link of species, one can check the complete details. Genus pages generally give details of most of the species found in India.
I request you to pl. go through & point out mistakes, if any. I hope this will aid in identification in future. If anybody can send images of other species of this genus (for incorporation in the website), if any, or can identify unidentified images, it will be really nice.
Most of the credit goes to Tapas ji.
The genus Phyllanthus is split into ten genera based on molecular studies and this page requires overhauling. True Phyllanthus is native of tropical America.
Do you think it will stand the scrutiny of time compared to the existing concept?
Let us hope experts in the field will decide that.
In my opinion, if we see the initial molecular studies, there were suggestions to combine the genera Glochidion, Sauropus and Breynia under Phyllanthus but people opposed this idea that it will render Phyllanthus a mega genus making the already difficult taxonomy of the group more complicated.
The recent studies showed that Phyllanthus itself is polyphyletic:
Accordingly a new classification of tribe Phyllantheae has been proposed by correlating molecular data with morphology.
I believe this new classification will get wide acceptance.
The above points are my personal opinion and the experts of the group may differ.
When the genus Quisqualis (Combretaceae) was combined under Combretum, the same was followed by eFI but when Anogeisssus was united under Terminalia, eFI did not adopt the consequent name changes. Thus it is up to eFI to decide whether this group will adopt the new classification of tribe Phyllantheae and go for the name changes or leave Phyllanthus, sensu lato as such.
I think these things will keep on changing.
For me what is important is the correct identification whether it remains under Quisqualis or Combretum OR Anogeisssus or Terminalia
I too agree with …, first we should go for rectification of identification mistakes, if any…. the names of taxa corresponding to digital images must be as accurate as possible… the classification changes can be incorporated at later stages.. but links to recent changes can be provided..