Phyllanthus acidus (L.) Skeels (Introduced) (Brazil (Pará); Introduced into: Andaman Is., Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Borneo, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Cayman Is., Christmas I., Comoros, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Florida, Gabon, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Hawaii, India, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Marianas, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Myanmar, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Southwest Caribbean, Tanzania, Thailand, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Vietnam, Windward Is., Zaïre as per POWO)

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Phyllanthus airy-shawii Jean F.Brunel & J.P.Roux (Indian Subcontinent to N. Thailand: Assam, Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, West Himalaya as per POWO)
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Phyllanthus amarus Schumach. & Thonn. (Introduced) (Differentiated from closely related species in its male and female flowers occurring in adjacent pairs and 5 perianth members in the flower)
(S. Mexico to Tropical America: Argentina Northeast, Aruba, Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Cayman Is., Chile North, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Southwest Caribbean, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Uruguay, Venezuela, Windward Is.; Introduced into: Alabama, Aldabra, Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Borneo, Burkina, Cambodia, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Central American Pac, Chad, Chagos Archipelago, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., East Himalaya, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Howland-Baker Is., India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Line Is., Madagascar, Malaya, Maldives, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Niue, Oman, Philippines, Phoenix Is., Queensland, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Society Is., South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Tuvalu, Uganda, Wake I., Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Western Australia, Yemen, Zaïre as per POWO)

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Phyllanthus buxifolius (Blume) Müll.Arg. (Introduced) (Borneo; Jawa; Lesser Sunda Is.; Philippines as per Catalogue of Life)

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Phyllanthus cinereus Müll.Arg. (SW. India, Sri Lanka as per POWO)
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Phyllanthus clarkei Hook.f. (Himalaya to S. China and Indo-China: China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam, West Himalaya as per POWO)

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Phyllanthus columnaris Müll.Arg. (Andaman Is., Myanmar to N. Pen. Malaysia: Andaman Is., Bangladesh, Malaya, Myanmar, Thailand as per POWO)

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Phyllanthus debilis Klein ex Willd. (Maldives to W. Malesia: Andaman Is., India, Jawa, Malaya, Maldives, Nicobar Is., Sri Lanka, Sumatera; Introduced into: Bangladesh, Brazil Southeast, Caroline Is., East Himalaya, Fiji, Florida, Hawaii, Kazan-retto, Leeward Is., Line Is., Marianas, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, New Guinea, Niue, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Samoa, Society Is., Taiwan, Thailand, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Windward Is. as per POWO)

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Phyllanthus emblica L. (Tropical & Subtropical Asia: Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Hainan, India, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Myanmar, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Sumatera, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, West Himalaya as per POWO)

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Phyllanthus epiphyllanthus L. (Introduced) (Caribbean: Bahamas, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Leeward Is., Puerto Rico, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Windward Is. as per POWO)

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Phyllanthus fraternus G.L.Webster (Pakistan to W. India: India, Laccadive Is., Nepal, Pakistan, West Himalaya; Introduced into: Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Bermuda, Botswana, Burkina, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Chad, Comoros, Cuba, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Florida, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Louisiana, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mississippi, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Puerto Rico, Rwanda, Senegal, Somalia, South Carolina, Sudan, Tanzania, Texas, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Windward Is., Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe as per POWO)

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Phyllanthus gageanus (Gamble) M.Mohanan (SW. India as per POWO)

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Phyllanthus gardnerianus (Wight) Baill. (S. India, Sri Lanka as per POWO)
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Phyllanthus glaucus Wall. ex Müll.Arg. (Nepal to S. China: Assam, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Hainan, Nepal, Tibet as per POWO)

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Phyllanthus griffithii Müll.Arg. (Assam; East Himalaya; Nepal as per Catalogue of Life)

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Phyllanthus indofischeri Bennet (S. India as per POWO)

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Phyllanthus lawii J.Graham (India as per POWO)

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Phyllanthus leschenaultii Müll.Arg. (India to Assam: Assam, East Himalaya, India as per POWO)

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Phyllanthus macraei Müll.Arg. (SW. India as per POWO)

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Phyllanthus maderaspatensis L. (Africa, W. Indian Ocean, Arabian Peninsula, Pakistan to Australia: Aldabra, Andaman Is., Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, China Southeast, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Ghana, Gulf States, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Lesotho, Madagascar, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oman, Pakistan, Queensland, Rwanda, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Socotra, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Vietnam, Western Australia, Yemen, Zaïre as per POWO)
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Phyllanthus myrtifolius (Wight) Müll.Arg. (Introduced) (Central & S. Sri Lanka; Introduced into: China Southeast, Hainan, India, Taiwan, Thailand as per POWO)

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Phyllanthus narayanswamii Gamble (Peninsular India as per Flora of Peninsular India)
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Phyllanthus palakondensis K. Raja KullayiswamyN. Sarojini DeviK. Praveen Karanth (Palakonda hills of Andhra Pradesh)

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Phyllanthus parvifolius Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don (Nepal as per POWO)

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Phyllanthus pseudoparvifolius R.L.Mitra & Sanjappa (Nepal to Myanmar: Assam, East Himalaya, Myanmar, Nepal as per POWO)

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Phyllanthus racemosus L.f. (S. India, Sri Lanka as per POWO)

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Phyllanthus reticulatus Poir. (Tropical & Subtropical Asia to N. Australia: Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Hainan, India, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Northern Territory, Pakistan, Philippines, Queensland, Santa Cruz Is., Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia as per POWO)
(Phyllanthus reticulatus is a variable and widespread species)

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Female flower above the male:
Male flower:

Female flowers:



Phyllanthus rheedei Wight (Indian Subcontinent: Assam, East Himalaya, India, Sri Lanka as per POWO)

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Phyllanthus rotundifolius Klein ex Willd. (Cape Verde, Trop. Africa, Arabian Pen., Pakistan to Sri Lanka: Burkina, Cape Verde, Chad, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gulf States, India, Kenya, Laccadive Is., Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Oman, Pakistan, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Socotra, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zaïre (as per POWO))

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Phyllanthus sanatandharmae JOSE MATHEW & REGY YOHANNAN (Southern Western Ghats)


Phyllanthus scabrifolius Hook.f. (W. & S. India as per POWO)

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Phyllanthus sikkimensis Müll.Arg. (Nepal to N. Peninsula Malaysia: Assam, Bangladesh, East Himalaya, Malaya, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand as per POWO)

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Phyllanthus simplex Retz. (Tropical & Subtropical Asia to Pacific: Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, Caroline Is., China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Cook Is., East Himalaya, Fiji, Hainan, India, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Marianas, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicobar Is., Niue, Northern Territory, Pakistan, Philippines, Queensland, Samoa, Society Is., South Australia, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Thailand, Tonga, Tubuai Is., Vanuatu, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Western Australia as per POWO (Phyllanthus virgatus G.Forst.))

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Phyllanthus talbotii Sedgw. (SW. India (Goa, Karnataka) as per POWO)

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Phyllanthus tenellus Roxb. (Tanzania to Mozambique, SW. Arabian Peninsula, W. Indian Ocean: Angola, Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Tanzania, Yemen; Introduced into: Alabama, Argentina Northeast, Azores, Bahamas, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Cook Is., Costa Rica, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Illinois, India, Iran, Jamaica, Japan, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Madeira, Marquesas, Mexico Central, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Nansei-shoto, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, Northern Territory, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Seychelles, Sicilia, Society Is., South Carolina, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Tennessee, Texas, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Vanuatu, Venezuela, Virginia, Western Australia, Windward Is. as per POWO)

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Phyllanthus tetrandrus Roxb. (Assam to Bangladesh as per POWO)

  


Phyllanthus urinaria L. (Tropical & Subtropical Asia to N. Australia: Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, Caroline Is., China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Hainan, India, Japan, Jawa, Korea, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maldives, Marianas, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Pakistan, Philippines, Queensland, South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia; Introduced into: Alabama, Arkansas, Belize, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Central American Pac, Chagos Archipelago, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Illinois, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Kansas, Leeward Is., Liberia, Louisiana, Madagascar, Marquesas, Mauritius, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, New Caledonia, New York, Nicaragua, Nigeria, North Carolina, Peru, Puerto Rico, Réunion, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Society Is., South Carolina, Suriname, Tennessee, Texas, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Tubuai Is., Venezuela, Virginia, Windward Is., Zaïre as per POWO)

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Species as per Flora of India Vol 23 (2012)
(Editors N. P. Balakrishnan, T. Chakrabarty, M. Sanjappa, P. Lakshminarsimhan & P. Singh- by Botanical Survey of India):
Phyllanthus acidus (L.) Skeels
Phyllanthus airy-shawii Brunel & Roux
Phyllanthus ajmerianus L.B.Chaudhary & R.R.Rao

Phyllanthus amarus Schumach. & Thonn.
Phyllanthus anamalayanus (Gamble) G.L.Webster
Phyllanthus andamanicus N.P.Balakr. & N.G.Nair
Phyllanthus arbuscula (Sw.) J.F.Gmel.
Phyllanthus baeobotryoides Müll.Arg.
Phyllanthus baillonianus Müll.Arg.
Phyllanthus beddomei (Gamble) M.Mohanan
Phyllanthus brevipes Hook.f.
Phyllanthus clarkei Hook.f.
Phyllanthus cinereus Mull.Arg.
Phyllanthus chandrabosei Govearts & Radcl.-Sm.
Phyllanthus columnaris Müll.Arg.
Phyllanthus debilis Klein ex Willd.
Phyllanthus emblica L.
Phyllanthus fimbriatus (Wight) Müll.Arg.
Phyllanthus fraternus G.L.Webster
Phyllanthus gageanus (Gamble) M.Mohanan
Phyllanthus glaucus Wall. ex Müll.Arg.
Phyllanthus gomphocarpus Hook.f.
Phyllanthus griffithii Müll.Arg.
Phyllanthus heyneanus Müll.Arg.
Phyllanthus indofischeri Bennet
Phyllanthus lawii J.Graham
Phyllanthus leschenaultii Müll.Arg.
Phyllanthus macraei Müll.Arg.
var. hispidus Gamble
var. macraei
Phyllanthus macrocalyx Müll.Arg.
Phyllanthus maderaspatensis L.
Phyllanthus megacarpus (Gamble) Kumari & Chandrab.
Phyllanthus myrtifolius (Wight) Baill.
Phyllanthus narayanswamii Gamble
Phyllanthus petiolaris Roxb. (Doubtful/ imperfectly known Taxa)
Phyllanthus pendulus Roxb. (Doubtful/ imperfectly known Taxa)
Phyllanthus pinnatus (Wight) G.L.Webster
Phyllanthus polyphyllus Willd. syn. of Phyllanthus racemosus
Phyllanthus praetervisus Müll.Arg.
Phyllanthus pseudoparvifolius R.L.Mitra & Sanjappa
Phyllanthus pulcher Wall. ex Müll.Arg.
Phyllanthus rangachariarii C. Murugan, K.A.A.Kabeer & G.V.S.Murthy
Phyllanthus reticulatus Poir.
Phyllanthus rheedei Wight
Phyllanthus roeperianus Wall. ex Müll.Arg.
Phyllanthus rotundatus Poir. 491 (Doubtful/ imperfectly known Taxa)
Phyllanthus rotundifolius Klein ex Willd.
Phyllanthus sanjappae Chakrab. & M.Gangop.
Phyllanthus scabrifolius Hook.f.
Phyllanthus sikkimensis Müll.Arg.
Phyllanthus singampattianus (Sebastine & A.N.Henry) Kumari & Chandrab.
Phyllanthus simplex Retz.
var. gardnerianus (Wight) Müll.Arg.
var. simplex
Phyllanthus talbotii Sedgew.
Phyllanthus tenellus Roxb.
Phyllanthus tetrandrus Roxb.
Phyllanthus urinaria L. (Doubtful/ imperfectly known Taxa)


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Flora of Peninsular India with keys at species links, if any:

Phyllanthus acidus.
Phyllanthus airy-shawii.
Phyllanthus amarus.
Phyllanthus asperulatus.
Phyllanthus baillonianus.
Phyllanthus beddomei.
Phyllanthus chandrabosei.
Phyllanthus debilis.
Phyllanthus emblica.
Phyllanthus fimbriatus.
Phyllanthus fraternus.
Phyllanthus gageanus.
Phyllanthus gardnerianus.
Phyllanthus indofischeri.
Phyllanthus leschenaultii.
Phyllanthus longiflorus.
Phyllanthus macraei.
Phyllanthus macrocalyx.
Phyllanthus maderaspatensis.
Phyllanthus megacarpus.
Phyllanthus myrtifolius.
Phyllanthus narayanswamii.
Phyllanthus pinnatus. (No distribution in India as per POWO. Possibilly Phyllanthus cinereus Müll.Arg.)
Phyllanthus polyphyllus.
Phyllanthus rangachariarii.
Phyllanthus reticulatus.
Phyllanthus rheedei.
Phyllanthus rotundifolius.
Phyllanthus scabrifolius.
Phyllanthus singampattianus.
Phyllanthus speciosus.
Phyllanthus talbotii.
Phyllanthus tenellus.
Phyllanthus urinaria.
Phyllanthus virgatus


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Species with description & keys from Flora of Pakistan (Distribution):
Phyllanthus acidus (L.) Skeels (widely cultivated for its edible fruits. Near sea-level)
Phyllanthus amarus Schum. & Thonn. (Native of Tropical America, but now a pantropical weed; on sandy loam in the plains near Karachi; near sea-level)
Phyllanthus emblica L. (Pakistan, throughout India, Sri Lanka and east to S. China and W. Malesia. Wild in the foothills of the Himalayas and cultivated in the plains; 2000’/610 m. – 4500’/1370 m.)
Phyllanthus fraternus webster (Pakistan, Kashmir, N.W. India; introduced into Arabia, Africa and the West Indies; on sandy clay soil in moist habitats, e.g. parks, gardens, canesugar fields. Near sea-level to 4500’/1370 m)
Phyllanthus maderaspatensis L. (Africa, Arabia, Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, China, Java, Australia; on sandy clay soil, on limestone, stony ground, in forests; arable fields, maize-fields, on waste-ground near villages and by roadsides from near sea-level to 4920’/1500 m.)
Phyllanthus parvifolius Ham. (From North-West Frontier Province eastwards along the Himalayas to Bhutan, and also in the Khasi Hills (Meghalaya). On shady banks near water, and on limestone rocks; 4000’/1220 in. – 8000’/2440 m.)
Phyllanthus reticulatus Pair. (Throughout the Old World Tropics; in Pakistan in lowland habitats and near the coast, often in areas subject to flooding; near sea-level. In Pakistan represented by the var. reticulates. The var. glaber (Thw.) Muell. Arg., also widespread, is quite glabrous.)
Phyllanthus rotundifolius Klein ex Willd. (Africa, Arabia, Socotra, Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka; on grassy plains and in sandy river-beds, near sea-level)
Phyllanthus urinaria L. (Pantropical (Hooker, l.c., Airy Shaw, 1972); Tropical Asia, introduced elsewhere (Webster, 1957). By river-banks, in forests, 2000’/610m. -3000’/1914 m.)
Phyllanthus virgatus Forst. f. (From Pakistan, Kashmir & India to Indo-China and S. China, and throughout Malesia to Polynesia. On grassy banks in pine-forest; 2200’/670 m. – 2500’/ 760 m.)


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Species with distribution in annotated checklist of Flowering plants of Nepal (Distribution):
Phyllanthus acidus (L.) Skeels (260 m; According to Webster, l.c. (1957), native of N.E. Brazil; widely eultivated throughout the tropics)
Phyllanthus airy-shwii Brunel & J.P. Roux (Ca. 300 m; nepal (E), Bhutan, India, Thailand)
Phyllanthus amarus Schumach. & Thonn. (470-900 m; Believed to be native of central America, now pantropical)
Phyllanthus clarkei Hook. f. (1500-2500 m; Himalaya (Nepal to Bhutan), Assam)
Phyllanthus debilis Klein ex Willd. (150 – 1100 m; Nepal (W,C), S. India, Sri Lanka)
Phyllanthus emblica L. (150-1400 m; India, Himalaya (Kumaun to Bhutan), Assanl, N. Burma, S. China, Indo-China, Malaysia)
Phyllanthus fraternus G.L. Webster (Ca. 200 m; E. Nepal, Native of Central America; Pantropics)
Phyllanthus glaucus Wall. ex Mull. Arg. (1700-2100 m; Himalaya (Nepal to Bhutan))
Phyllanthus parvifolius Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don (1100-2000 m; Himalaya (Kumaun to Bhutan), Assam)
Phyllanthus reticulatus Poir. (400-760 m; Tropical Africa, India, Himalaya (Kumaun to Sikkim), Ceylon, S.E. Asia, S. China, Malaysia)
Phyllanthus sikkimensis Mull. Arg. (200-1300 m; E. Hin1alaya (Nepal to Bhutan), Assam, Thailand, N. Malay Peninsula)
Phyllanthus urinaria L. (760-1700 m; Pantropical)
Phyllanthus virgatus G. Forst. (150-1400 m; India, Himalaya (Nepal to Bhutan), Indo-China, S. China, Malaysia, Polynesia)


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Some species found in Indian Subcontinent with description & keys from Flora of China [Distribution other than China]:
Phyllanthus amarus Schumacher & Thonning [pantropical weed possibly originating in the Americas].
Phyllanthus clarkei J. D. Hooker  [India, Myanmar, Pakistan, Thailand, Vietnam].
Phyllanthus cochinchinensis (Loureiro) Sprengel  [Cambodia, India, Laos, Vietnam].
Phyllanthus emblica Linnaeus [Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand; South America (cultivated)].
Phyllanthus glaucus Wallich ex Müller Argoviensis [Bhutan, India, Nepal].
Phyllanthus maderaspatensis Linnaeus [India, Indonesia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka; Africa, SW Asia, Australia].
Phyllanthus myrtifolius (Wight) Müller Argoviensis in A. Candolle [native to Sri Lanka].
Phyllanthus pulcher (Baillon) Wallich ex Müller Argoviensis  [Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Vietnam].
Phyllanthus reticulatus Poiret in Lamark [Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; W Africa, NE Australia].
Phyllanthus urinaria Linnaeus [Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; South America].
Phyllanthus virgatus G. Forster [Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; Pacific islands (Polynesia)].


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Phyllanthus key for eFlora of India … : 8 posts by 6 authors.
Here is a simple key to identify species of Phyllanthus using simple exomorphic characters. To start with i have included only species which are collected from my study area (Tiruvannamalai in Tamil Nadu). I think it includes most of the species discussed earlier in this group. But, there are about 50 species of Phyllanthus in India. So, we need more pictures and information on other species too, to make it complete. I am working on description and other aspects of these taxa, in line with our (ambitious) ‘eflora of India’ program.
Key to species of Phyllanthus L.
1a   Trees or shrubs …… 2
1b   Herbs or subshrubs ……… 6
2a   Tepals 5; fruits berries, bluish black ……. Phyllanthus reticulatus
2b   Tepals 6; fruits drupes or capsules, other than bluish black ……3
3a   Tepals oblanceolate; fruits drupes ……… 4
3b   Tepals ovate; fruits capsules …….. 5
4a   Leaves less than 5 mm wide, more than 60 per branchlet ……. Phyllanthus emblica
4b   Leaves more than 5 mm wide, less than 40 per branchlet ……. Phyllanthus indofischeri
5a   Leaves ovate-elliptic to suborbicular, more than 1 cm wide, glaucous beneath ……. Phyllanthus pinnatus
5b   Leaves oblong, less than 0.6 cm wide, not glaucous beneath ….. Phyllanthus polyphyllus
6a   Tepals 5 …. Phyllanthus amarus
6b   Tepals 6 …….. 7
7a   Leaves obovate; seeds vertically muriculate ….. Phyllanthus maderaspatensis
7b   Leaves other than obovate; seeds other than the above …… 8
8a   Capsules smooth; seeds longitudinally striate ..…. 9
8b   Capsules verrucose or warty; seeds not striate .…11
9a   Leaves narrowly elliptic-oblong, < 5 mm wide, green beneath …… Phyllanthus debilis
9b   Leaves broadly elliptic-ovate, > 8 mm wide, glaucous beneath ….10
10a Leaves papery; female calyx-lobes with wide scarious margins ……. Phyllanthus kozhikodianus
10b Leaves subfleshy; female calyx-lobes with narrow scarious margins ……. Phyllanthus rheedii
11a Leaves oblong; capsules verrucose; seeds transversely ridged ……….. Phyllanthus urinaria
11b Leaves oblong-lanceolate; capsules warty; seeds tuberculate ….. Phyllanthus virgatus

Thank you … for this simple and easy to understand effort.
I was checking the Kew herbarium for Glochidion and Caesaria plant, to my surprise I got several herbarium specimens for Glochidion ellipticum with type specimen name mentioned as Phyllanthus diversifolius in one and in another as Phyllanthus malabaricus, why is this so ? would request you to enlighten us on this please. Thank you.


its a difficult question to give a straight forward answer, so…let me try!
Its all part of taxonomy and nomenclature! It shows the different level of our understanding about taxa at different periods of time. It also illustrates the complexity of the group with diverse habit/morphology within this group.
The names mentioned by you were published during 1860s when the understanding about the genus was completely different. Due to some common feature, for e.g. ‘phyllanthoid branching’ several different species were treated under the genus Phyllanthus even they are morphologically very different. However recent molecular phylogenetic studies helped us to understand the possible relationship between different taxa and thus their improved taxonomic treatment. The taxon namely Phyllanthus malabaricus (for e.g.) was considered a species under Phyllanthus by Mueller who described the plant during 1865. But the latest revisioners (Webster, Govaerts etc.) realized that this plant has more affinity with and having similar morphological characters (also pollen morphology) to Glochidion and further realized that it is nothing but one of the several forms/variations of an existing species G. ellipticum described by Beddome, in this case. Hence the name Phyllanthus malabaricus has become a taxonomic synonym (based on different Type) to Glochidion ellipticum.
Fact: 1. Genera like Phyllanthus, Glochidion, Flueggea, Berynia, Sauropus etc come under same tribe – Phyllantheae (these are closely related).
Fact: 2. Several species, treated earlier under different genera (as much as 55 genera) are currently treated under the genus Phyllanthus http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/genus.pl?9303), an another development of taxonomic research!]
To put it in a simple way, in the present case, Mueller misidentified his collection and published as a new species under wrong genus! However, we should remember that one-and-a-half centuries ago, there was not much information technology, communication etc. and a botanist at one corner of world had less chance to know the happenings of taxonomic research development at the other corner. We are now in a far better environment, wherein we can access the information real time, across the globe!!!

Hope i have not confused you so much!
Also pl read:
4. Link

Thank you so much … for the explanation and further links. You have made a very complicated subject simple to understand ! Atleast now I know why the mix- up, the confusion is due to Mueller ! I will read up more on the two facts mentioned by you.
One of the journal articles has given the distinction of floral disc- present in Phyllanthus but totally absent in Glochidion this should help us in identifying them. Will have to read in detail and perhaps will have more questions ! Thank you once again.


Thanks for great contribution … Here is link to my recent research contributions on Phyllanthus.
http://www.google.co.in/webhp3c68a9e
Large pdf files may take sometime to open. Hundreds of new links will be visible very soon through above mentioned link, as Google is bit slow in indexing the contributions.


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Common herbaceous Phyllanthus species (amarus, tenellus, debilis, fraternus, urinaria, kozhikodianus (now rheedei), rotundifolius, scbrifolius, maderaspatensis & virgatus) and key characters to distinguish them
…, at FRLHT, we produce series of educational products including posters on various themes, one among them is Phyllanthus complex. In this poster (attached here, can’t help with the file size to maintain readability) we have provided pictures of common herbaceous Phyllanthus species (amarus, tenellus, debilis, fraternus, urinaria, kozhikodianus (now rheedei), rotundifolius, scbrifolius, maderaspatensis & virgatus) and key characters to distinguish them. Hope this will be useful.
(Phyllanthus complex_FRLHT.jpg 2 MB) 


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Phyllanthus amarus and P. fraternus : 1 post by 1 author.
Interesting paper on molecular distinction of Phyllanthus amarus, P. fraternus, P. debilis and P. urinarius
http://www.faqs.org/patents/app/20090061434

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Phyllanthus Species: Scientific Evaluation and Medicinal Applications edited by Ramadasan Kuttan, K.B. Harikumar (2011)-
Phyllanthus acidus,
P. airyshawii,
P. ajmerianus,
P. amarus,
P. annmalayanus,
P. andamanicus,
P. arbuscula,
P. baeobotryoides,
P. baillonianus,
P. beddomei,
P. brevipes,
P. chandrabosei,
P. clarkei,
P. columnaris,
P. debilis,
P. emblica,
P. fimbriatus,
P. fraternus,
P. gageanus,
P. glaucus,
P. gomphocarpus,
P. griffithii,
P. heyneanus,
P. indofischeri,
P. juniperinoides,
P. leschenaultii,
P. macraei,
P. macrocalyx,
P. maderaspatensis,
P. megacarpus,
P. myrtifolius,
P. narayanaswamii,
P. parvifolius,
P. pendulus,
P. pinnatus,
P. polyphyllus,
P. praetervisus,
P. pseudoparvifolius,
P. pulcher,
P. reticulatus,
P. rheedei,
P. roeperianus,
P. rotundifolius,
P. sanjappae,
P. scabrifolius,
P. sikkimensis,
P. simplex,
P. singampattianus,
P. talbotii,
P. tenellus,
P. tatrandrus,
P. urinaria,
P. wightianus

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Phyllanthus : 1 post by 1 author.
I have updated eFI (efloraofindia) page on Phyllanthus in line with Flora of India Vol. 23 (2012).

Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.

Any comments are welcome.


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Phyllanthus‎‎ page with comparative images of species:
Pl. go through‎ Phyllanthus‎‎ (Phyllanthaceae) page with comparative images of species in efloraofindia. On clicking the link of species, one can check the complete details. Genus pages generally give details of most of the species found in India.
I request you to pl. go through & point out mistakes, if any. I hope this will aid in identification in future. If anybody can send images of other species of this genus (for incorporation in the website), if any, or can identify unidentified images, it will be really nice.
Most of the credit goes to Tapas ji.


The genus Phyllanthus is split into ten genera based on molecular studies and this page requires overhauling. True Phyllanthus is native of tropical America.
You can consult Phytotaxa, vol. 40, no. 1. 18 March 2022, pp. 1- 100.
I do not have a copy of this.


Do you think it will stand the scrutiny of time compared to the existing concept?


Let us hope experts in the field will decide that.
In my opinion, if we see the initial molecular studies, there were suggestions to combine the genera Glochidion, Sauropus and Breynia under Phyllanthus but people opposed this idea that it will render Phyllanthus a mega genus making the already difficult taxonomy of the group more complicated.
The recent studies showed that Phyllanthus itself is polyphyletic:
Accordingly a new classification of tribe Phyllantheae has been proposed by correlating molecular data with morphology.
I believe this new classification will get wide acceptance.
The above points are my personal opinion and the experts of the group may differ.

When the genus Quisqualis (Combretaceae) was combined under Combretum, the same was followed by eFI but when Anogeisssus was united under Terminalia, eFI did not adopt the consequent name changes. Thus it is up to eFI to decide whether this group will adopt the new classification of tribe Phyllantheae and go for the name changes or leave Phyllanthus, sensu lato as such.


I think these things will keep on changing.
For me what is important is the correct identification whether it remains under Quisqualis or Combretum OR Anogeisssus or Terminalia

I too agree with …, first we should go for rectification of identification mistakes, if any…. the names of taxa corresponding to digital images must be as accurate as possible… the classification changes can be incorporated at later stages.. but links to recent changes can be provided..


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