Images by Mohina Macker, Identified by E.S. Santhosh Kumar (Inserted by J.M.Garg)

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Strobilanthes angustifrons C.B.Clarke (Images by Gurcharan Singh, Identified by JRI Wood (Inserted by J.M.Garg))

 


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Strobilanthes attenuata (Nees) Nees (Images by Balkar Singh (Validated by Gurcharan Singh) , Gurcharan Singh & Alka Khare (Identified by John Wood) (Inserted by J.M.Garg))

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Strobilanthes auriculata Nees (Images by Anurag N. Sharma)

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Strobilanthes aurita J. R. I. Wood

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Strobilanthes barbata Nees (Images by A. Shivaprakash (Identified by Giby Kuriakose) & P. Santhan (Inserted by J.M.Garg))

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Strobilanthes callosa Nees (Images by Anita Kindre, Alka Khare, Satish Phadke & Dinesh Valke (Inserted by J.M.Garg))

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Strobilanthes carinei J. R. I. Wood Images by E S SANTHOSH KUMAR (Inserted by J.M.Garg)

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Strobilanthes ciliata Nees in Wall. (Images by Anurag N. Sharma & Giby Kuriakose (Inserted by Anurag N. Sharma & J.M.Garg))

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Strobilanthes consanguinea (Nees) T. Anders. (Images by Giby Kuriakose, Identified by Dr. Mark Carine (Inserted by J.M.Garg))

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Strobilanthes consanguinea (Nees) T. Anders. (Images by Muthu Karthick (Identified Dr. Mark Carine) (Inserted by J.M.Garg))

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Strobilanthes cordifolia (Vahl) J. R. I. Wood(Images by N Muthu Karthick (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more images & complete details, click on the links))

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Strobilanthes cordifolia (Vahl) J. R. I. Wood (Images by A. Lalithamba (Validation by JRI Wood) (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more images & complete details, click on the links))

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Strobilanthes cordifolia (Vahl) J. R. I. Wood(Images by A. Lalithamba (id by Mark Carine) (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more images & complete details, click on the links))

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Strobilanthes crossandra (Steud.) J. R. I. Wood, comb. nov. (Images by Dinesh Valke & Prashant Awale (Inserted by J.M.Garg))

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Strobilanthes cusia (Nees) Kuntze (Images by Prashant Awale (Inserted by J.Garg))

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Strobilanthes cuspidata (Benth.) T. Anders. (SW. India as per POWO)

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Strobilanthes dyeriana Mast., ex Gard. (Images by Aarti S. Khale & Shubhada Patwardhan (Identified by Gurcharan Singh) (Inserted by J.M.Garg))

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Strobilanthes foliosa T.Anderson (Images by Anurag N. Sharma (Inserted by Anurag N. Sharma & J.M.Garg))

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Strobilanthes glutinosa Nees(Images by Nidhan Singh (Identified by JRI Wood) & Mohina Macker (Identified by Krishan Lal) (Inserted by J.M.Garg))

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Strobilanthes hamiltoniana (Steud.) Bosser & Heine (Images by Janani Eswar (Indentified by Prabhu kumar KM) & P. Santhan (Inserted by J.M.Garg))

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Strobilanthes helicta T. Anderson (Images by Francisco Garin (Id by John Wood) (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more images & complete details, click on the links))

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Strobilanthes homotropa Nees (India (SW-Ghats (Karnataka, Kerala)) as per CoL)

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Strobilanthes heyneana Nees (Images by Anurag N Sharma & Dinesh Valke (Inserted by J.M.Garg))

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Strobilanthes hirta (Vahl) Blume (Images by Navendu Page & Suresh C Sharma (Inserted by J.M.Garg))

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Strobilanthes integrifolia (Dalz.) Kuntze (SW-India (Goa, Karnataka, Maharashtra) as per CoL)

(Images by Aarti S Khale, Prashant Awale & Rajesh Sachdev (Inserted by J.M.Garg))

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Strobilanthes ixiocephala Benth. (Images by Dinesh Valke (Inserted by J.M.Garg))

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Strobilanthes kunthiana T.Anderson ex Benth. (Images by Muthu Karthick, N, Identified by Giby Kuriakose (Inserted by J.M.Garg))

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Strobilanthes lachenensis C.B. Clarke

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Strobilanthes lamiifolia (Nees) T. Anderson(Images by Saroj Kasaju (Id by JRI Wood) (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more images & complete details, click on the links))

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Strobilanthes lanata Nees (Images by Muthu Karthick, Identified by Santhosh Kumar (Inserted by J.M.Garg))

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Strobilanthes lupulina Nees (Images by Dinesh Valke & TSP Kumar (Inserted by J.M.Garg))

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Strobilanthes micrantha Wight (Images by Prashant Awale (Identified by E S SANTHOSH KUMAR) (Inserted by J.M.Garg))

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Strobilanthes pavala (Roxb.) J. R. I. Wood, comb. nov. (Images by Nidhan Singh & Dinesh Valke (Inserted by J.M.Garg))

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Strobilanthes penstemonoides (Nees) T. Anderson (Images by Alka Khare, Identified by JRI Wood (Inserted by J.M.Garg))

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Strobilanthes perplexa J. R. I. Wood (Sumatera as per POWO)

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Strobilanthes reticulata Stapf (Images by Satsih Phadke & Prashant Awale (Inserted by J.M.Garg))

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Strobilanthes sabiniana (Wall. ex Lindl.) Nees (Images by Prashent Awale (Identified by JRI Wood) (Inserted by J.M.Garg))

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Strobilanthes scabra Nees (Images by Sourav Mahmud (Identified by Surajit Koley) (Inserted by J.M.Garg))

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Strobilanthes scrobiculata Dalzell ex C.B.Clarke (Images by Adittya Dharap (Identified by Shrikant Ingalhalikar) (Inserted by J.M.Garg))

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Strobilanthes sessilis var. ritchei C. B. Cl. (Images by tspkumar)

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Strobilanthes sinuata J. R. I. Wood, nom. nov. (Images by J.M.Garg (Identified by E S Santhosh Kumar) (Inserted by J.M.Garg))

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Strobilanthes tomentosa (Nees) J. R. I. Wood comb. nov. (Images by Gurcharan Singh (Identified by JRI Wood) & Nidhan Singh (Inserted by J.M.Garg))

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Strobilanthes urens (Roth) J. R. I. Wood, comb. nov. (Images by Nayan Singh, Aarti Khale & Sushant More (Inserted by J.M.Garg))

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Strobilanthes wightiana Nees (Images by N. Muthu Karthick (Identified by C. Kunhikannan) (Inserted by J.M.Garg))

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.

Forgotten types of Strobilanthes (Acanthaceae) in The Central National Herbarium, Kolkata, India by WINSTON D. ALBERTSON & JOHN. R. I. WOOD- Phytotaxa 43: 49–60 (2012)-
Abstract This paper draws attention to the presence of neglected types of Strobilanthes (Acanthaceae) in the Central National Herbarium (CAL) in Kolkata, focussing on those described in the 19th century by Thomas Anderson and Sulpiz Kurz from China, India and Myanmar. Eleven species are typified and illustrated. Their synonomy and distribution are discussed. Attention is drawn to close similarities between Strobilanthes elongata C.B. Clarke, S. neesii Kurz and S. spicata T. Anderson with species described from China. The name Strobilanthes anisophylla (Hooker) T. Anderson is reinstated.
 
Species detailed:
1. Strobilanthes aprica (Hance) T. Anderson ex Bentham (Syn: Gutzlaffia aprica Hance; Phlebophyllum apricum (Hance) Bentham)
2. Strobilanthes elongata C.B. Clarke (Syn: Strobilanthes paucinervia T. Anderson ex C.B. Clarke; Strobilanthes furcata Biswas)
3. Strobilanthes fimbriata Nees (syn: Strobilanthes fimbriata var. majuscula W.W. Smith; Strobilanthes macrostegia (Nees) C.B. Clarke; Strobilanthes neesii Kurz synon. nov.)
4. Strobilanthes karensium Kurz (Syn: Strobilanthes lilacina C.B. Clarke)
5. Strobilanthes lamioides T. Anderson
6. Strobilanthes brandisii T. Anderson
7. Strobilanthes mastersii T. Anderson (Strobilanthes scoriarum W.W. Smith; Goldfussia scoriarum (W.W. Smith) Bremekamp; Strobilanthes schweliensis W.W. Smith; Diflugossa schweliensis (W.W. Smith) Hossain; Strobilanthes aborensis Dunn)
8. Strobilanthes moschifera Blume (Syn: Adenostachya moschifera (Blume) Bremekamp; Strobilanthes haplanthoides T. Anderson; Strobilanthes debilis C.B. Clarke)
9. Strobilanthes polythrix T. Anderson
10. Strobilanthes remota T. Anderson
11. Strobilanthes spicata T. Anderson (Strobilanthes phyllocaulos C.B. Clarke; Pteracanthus phyllocaulos (C.B. Clarke) Bremekamp)
12. Strobilanthes violifolia T. Anderson (Pteracanthus violifolius (T. Anderson) Bremekamp; Echinacanthus parviflorus T. Anderson; non Strobilanthes parviflora Beddome; Clarkeasia parviflora (T. Anderson) J.R.I. Wood; Echinacanthus andersonii C.B. Clarke; Echinacanthus andersonii var. viscosus C.B. Clarke; Echinacanthus longistylus C.B. Clarke; Echinacanthus pumilio C.B. Clarke; Echinacanthus siamensis Imlay; Clarkeasia parviflora var. albescens Wood (1994: 191), synon. nov.)
13. Strobilanthes anisophylla (Wall. ex Hook.) T. Anderson (Syn: Ruellia anisophylla Wall. ex Hooker; Ruellia persicifolia Lindley; Strobilanthes persicifolia (Lindl.) J.R.I. Wood; Ruellia anisophylla Loddiges; Goldfussia anisophylla (Wall. ex Hook.) Nees)


.

New and little-known species of Strobilanthes (Acanthaceae) from India and South East Asia by J. R. I. Wood & R. W. Scotland- KEW BULLETIN VOL. 64: 3–47 (2009)-
Summary. Descriptions and information about 26 species of Strobilanthes Blume are provided. Sixteen species are described as new: Strobilanthes bilabiata J. R. I. Wood, S. fragrans J. R. I. Wood and S. trichantha J. R. I. Wood from Thailand, S. borii J. R. I. Wood and S. parvifolia J. R. I. Wood from India, S. chrysodelta, J. R. I. Wood, S. muratae J. R. I.Wood, S. ramulosa J. R. I. Wood, S. tanakae J. R. I. Wood and S. wardiana J. R. I. Wood from Burma, S. disparifolia J. R. I. Wood from Laos, S. fusca J. R. I. Wood from the Philippines, S. longipedunculata Terao ex J. R. I. Wood from Vietnam, S. longistaminea J. R. I. Wood and S. pusilla J. R. I. Wood from Indonesia and S. orientalis J. R. I. Wood from East Timor. Species placed in Aechmanthera Nees and Sericocalyx Bremek. are transferred to Strobilanthes, resulting in the new name Strobilanthes sulewesiana J. R. I. Wood for Sericocalyx collina Bremek. and the new combinations Strobilanthes tomentosa (Nees) J. R. I. Wood, Strobilanthes celebica (Bremek.) J. R. I. Wood and Strobilanthes schomburgkii (Craib) J. R. I. Wood for the species hitherto known respectively as Aechmanthera gossypina (Wall.) Nees, Sericocalyx celebicus Bremek. and S. schomburgkii (Craib) Bremek. The new combinations Strobilanthes barisanensis (Bremek.) J. R. I. Wood and S. persicifolia (Lindl.) J. R. I. Wood are made, the latter based on an earlier name for the relatively
well-known S. anisiphylla (G. Lodd.) T. Anderson. Kjellbergia celebica Bremek. is renamed Strobilanthes kjellbergii J. R. I. Wood. Some 22 species are illustrated with line drawings for the first time. Pollen of 16 species is illustrated with scanning electron micrographs. The more widespread species are mapped.
 
Indian species detailed:
1. Strobilanthes tomentosa (Nees) J. R. I. Wood comb. nov. (Syn: Aechmanthera tomentosa Nees in Wallich; Aechmanthera wallichii Nees; Ruellia gossypina Wall.; non Strobilanthes gossypina T. Anderson; Aechmanthera gossypina (Wall.) Nees; Aechmanthera wallichii Nees, nom. illeg. superfl. var. β gossypina (Wall.) Nees subvar. β ** fomentaria Nees; Aechmanthera wallichii Nees var. β gossypina (Wall.) Nees subvar. β * leuconeura Nees; Aechmanthera tomentosa var. wallichii C. B. Clarke; Aechmanthera leiosperma C. B. Clarke; Strobilanthes bodinieri H. Lév.; Strobilanthes blinii H. Lév.; Strobilanthes cavaleriei H. Lév.; Aechmanthera claudiae Bernardi); (Widespread)
2. Strobilanthes cruciata (Bremek.) Terao (Syn: Tetragoga cruciata Bremek.; Tetragoga nagaënsis Bremek.;  Tetragoga esquirolii sensu Hu) (Widespread)
3. Strobilanthes simonsii T. Anderson (Known from a few, widely scattered localities in Bhutan, NE India and SW China (Tibet/Xixang))
4. Strobilanthes parvifolia J. R. I. Wood sp. nov. (India, Arunachal Pradesh)
5. Strobilanthes borii J. R. I. Wood sp. nov. (Known only from the Naga Hills of NE India)
6. Strobilanthes persicifolia (Lindl.) J. R. I. Wood comb. nov. (syn: Ruellia persicifolia Lindl.; Ruellia anisophylla G. Lodd.; Goldfussia anisophylla (G. Lodd.) Nees; Strobilanthes anisophylla (G. Lodd.) T. Anderson); (Although widely cultivated in the tropics a nd occasionally in conservatories in cooler countries, S. persicifolia is not a common plant in the wild. It is known in India from the West Bengal Duars and a number of mostly old collections from the Khasi and Garo Hills of Meghalaya, and in Bhutan) 


FLOWERING PLANTS OF INDIA, DICOTYLEDONS, Vol-I (Acanthaceae-Avicenniaceae) authored by S. Karthikeyan, M. Sanjappa and S. Moorthy
and published by BSI, Kolkata in 2009
is an important document for names, authority and distribution of Acanthaceae
species in India.
As per this document (Karthikeyan et al., 2009) following species of Strobilanthes occur in India:
  1. Strobilanthes adnata C.B.Clarke
  2. S. affinis (Griff.) Terao ex J.R.I. Wood & J.R.Benn
  3. S. amabilis C.B.Clarke
  4. S. anamallaica J.R.I.Wood
  5. S. anceps Nees
  6. S. andamanensis Bor
  7. S. andersonii Bedd.
  8. S. angustifrons C.B.Clarke
  9. S. asymmetrica J.R.I.Wood & J.R.Benn.
  10. S. attenuata (Nees) Nees [synonym of S. urticifolia Wall. ex Kuntze]
  11. S. auticulata Nees
  12. S. aurita J.R.I. Wood
  13. S. barbata Nees
  14. S. bheriensis (Shakya) J.R.I. Wood
  15. S. bolumpattiana Bedd.
  16. S. borii J.R.I. Wood
  17. S. bracteata (Nees) J.R.I.Wood
  18. S. brunoniana Nees
  19. S. callosa Nees
  20. S. calvata J.R.I. Woof
  21. S. campaniformis J.R.I. Wood
  22. S. campanulata Wight
  23. S. canarica Bedd.
  24. S. capitata (Nees) T.Anderson [var. capitata; var. nitida]
  25. S. carnatica Carine, J.M.Alexander & Scotland
  26. S. ciliata Nees
  27. S. clarkei J.R.I. Wood
  28. S. claviculata C.B.Clarke
  29. S. consanguinea  (Nees)T.Anderson
  30. S. cruciata (Bremek) Terapo
  31. S. cuneata (Shakys) J.R.I. Wood
  32. S. cusia (Nees) Kuntze
  33. S. cuspidata (Benth.) T.Anderson
  34. S. cyphantha Diels
  35. S. decipiens J.R.I. Wood
  36. S. decurrens Nees
  37. S. denticulata (Nees) T.Anderson
  38. S. diandra (Nees) Alston
  39. S. discolor (nees) T.Anderson
  40. S. divaricata (Nees) T.Anderson
  41. S. dupeni Bedd. ex C.B.Clarke
  42. S. dyeriana Mast.
  43. S. echinata Nees
  44. S. elongata C.B.Clarke
  45. S. extensa (Nees) Nees
  46. S. fimbriata Nees
  47. S. foliosa (Wight) T.Anderson
  48. S. frondosa J.R.I. Wood
  49. S. gamblei Carine
  50. S. geniculata C.B.Clarke
  51. S. glabrata Nees
  52. S. glomerata (Nees) T.Anderson
  53. S. glutinosa Nees
  54. S. gracilis Bedd.
  55. S. hallbergii Blatt.
  56. S. hamiltoniana (Steud.) Bosser & Heine
  57. S. helicta T.Anderson
  58. S. heteromala T.Anderson
  59. S. heyneana Nees
  60. S. himalayana J.R.I.Wood
  61. S. homotropa Nees
  62. S. humilis (Nees) Gamble
  63. S. imbricata Nees
  64. S. imlayae J.R.I. Wood
  65. S. inflata T.Anderson
  66. S. integrifolia (Dalzell) Kuntze
  67. S. ixiocephala Benth.
  68. S. jeyporensis Bedd.
  69. S. khasyana (Nees) T.Anderson
  70. S. khoshooana (S.R.Paul) Karthik. & Moorthy
  71. S. kingdonii J.R.I.Wood
  72. S. kunthiana (Nees) T.Anderson
  73. S. lachenensis C.B.Clarke
  74. S. lamiifolia (Nees) T.Anderson
  75. S. lanata Nees
  76. S. lawsonii Gamble
  77. S. lupulina Nees
  78. S. lurida Wight [var. lurida; var. bourneae]
  79. S. macrostegia (Nees) C.B.Clarke [synonym of S. fimbriata Nees]
  80. S. maculata (Wall. ex Nees) Nees
  81. S. mastersii T.Anderson
  82. S. matthewiana Scotland
  83. S. meeboldii Craib
  84. S. membranacea Talbot
  85. S. micrantha Wight
  86. S. microcarpa T.Anderson
  87. S. microstachya Benth. ex Hohen.
  88. S. minor Talbot
  89. S. monadelpha Nees
  90. S. multidens C.B.Clarke
  91. S. neilgherrensis Bed
  92. S. neoasper Venu & P.Daniel
  93. S. newii Bedd. ex C.B.Clarke
  94. S. nobilis C.B.Clarke
  95. S. nutans (Nees) T.Anderson
  96. S. oligocephala T.Anderson
  97. S. oresbia W.W.Sm.
  98. S. oxycalycina J.R.I.Wood
  99. S. panichanga (Nees) T.Anderson
  100. S. paniculiformis J.R.I.Wood
  101. S. pappilosa T.Anderson
  102. S. parryorum C.E.C.Fisch.
  103. S. parvifolia J.R.I.Wood
  104. S. paucinervia T.Anderson ex C.B.Clarke
  105. S. pentstemonoides (Nees) T.Anderson [var. pentstemonoides; var. dalhousieanaa]
  106. S. parrottetiana Nees
  107. S. persicifolia (Lindl.) J.R.I. Wood
  108. S. polythrix T.Anderson
  109. S. pothigaiensis Gopalan & Chithra
  110. S. pterygorrhachis C.B.Clarke
  111. S. pubiflora J.R.I. Wood
  112. S. pulneyensis C.B.Clarke
  113. S. recurva C.B.Clarke
  114. S. reticulata Stapf
  115. S. rhombifolia C.B.Clarke
  116. S. rubescens T.Anderson {var. rubescens; var. microsperma]
  117. S. rubicunda (Nees) T.Anderson
  118. S. rufescens (Roth) T.Anderson
  119. S. sabiniana (Wall. ex Lindl.) Nees
  120. S. saccata J.R.I.Wood
  121. S. sanjappae Karthik. & Moorthy
  122. S. scaber Nees
  123. S. scoriarum W.W.Sm.
  124. S. scrobiculata Dazell ex C.B.Clarke
  125. S. secunda T.Anderson
  126. S. sessilis Nees
  127. S. sexennis Nees
  128. S. simonsii T.Anderson
  129. S. simplex J.R.I.Wood
  130. S. spicata T.Anderson
  131. S. stenophylla C.B.Clarke [synonym of S. atropurpureus var. stenophylla (C.B.Clarke) Y.F.Deng & J.R.I.Wood]
  132. S. subnudata C.B.Clarke
  133. S. tamburensis C.B.Clarke
  134. S. tenax Dunn
  135. S. thomsonii T.Anderson
  136. S. tibetica J.R.I.Wood
  137. S. tomentosa (Nees) J.R.I.Wood
  138. S. tristis (Wight) T.Anderson
  139. S. tubiflos (C.B.Clarke) J.R.I.Wood
  140. S. urceolaris Gamble
  141. S. urophylla (Nees) Nees
  142. S. violacea Bedd.
  143. S. virendrakumarana Venu & P.Daniel
  144. S. walkeri Arn. ex Nees
  145. S. wallichii Nees
  146. S. warreensis Dalzell
  147. S. wightiana Nees
  148. S. zenkeriana (Nees) T.Anderson
Scrutiny of these names in The Plant List indicate that some are synonyms as mentioned against the names. Two are now placed in genera other than Strobilanthes.

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A Revision of the Strobilanthes kunthiana-Group (Phlebophyllum  : (A Revision of the Strobilanthes kunthiana-Group (Phlebophyllum sensu Bremekamp) (Acanthaceae) by Mark A. Carine, Jake M. Alexander and Robert W. Scotland, Kew Bulletin, Vol. 59, No. 1 (2004), pp. 1-25) (Description & Keys
Strobilanthes canarica,
Strobilanthes carnatica,
Strobilanthes consanguinea,
Strobilanthes cuspidata,
Strobilanthes gamblei,
Strobilanthes jeyporensis,
Strobilanthes kunthiana,
Strobilanthes lanata,
Strobilanthes lawsonii &
Strobilanthes pushpangadanii)

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Binomial Habit Notes Ref. Distrib.
Strobilanthes
amabilis
Clarke
Shrub Western Ghats,
Evergreen Forests
Flora of Tamil
Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Coimbatore,
Nilgiri, Tirunelveli
Strobilanthes anamallaica 
J. R. I. Wood
Shrub Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests 
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Coimbatore,
Tirunelveli
Strobilanthes andersonii Bedd. Shrub Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Coimbatore
Strobilanthes asperrimus Nees (Not mentioned in Flora of India as above) Shrub Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Coimbatore
Strobilanthes barbatus Nees Shrub Western
Ghats, Moist Deciduous Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Coimbatore,
Dindigul, Namakkal, Nilgiri, Salem, Tirunelveli
Strobilanthes bolumpattiana Bedd. Shrub Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Coimbatore
Strobilanthes ciliatus Nees  (? Strobilanthes ciliata Nees) Shrub Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Clarke 1884
Nilgiri,
Tirunelveli
Strobilanthes consanguineaus (Nees) T.
Anders. (? Strobilanthes consanguinea T.Anderson)
Shrub Western
Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Moist Deciduous Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Clarke 1884
Coimbatore,
Dharmapuri, Dindigul,  Nilgiri, Salem,
Tirunelveli, Viluppuram, Virudhu nagar 
Strobilanthes cuspidatus (Benth.) Anders. ( ?Strobilanthes cuspidata T.Anderson) Shrub Western
Ghats, Dry Deciduous to Evergreen Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Coimbatore,
Dindigul, Nilgiri, Salem, Tirunelveli
Strobilanthes decurrens Nees Herb Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Coimbatore,
Kanniya kumari, Nilgiri, Tirunelveli, Virudhu nagar
Strobilanthes foliosus  (Wight) T. Anderson ( ? Strobilanthes foliosa T.Anderson) Shrub Western
Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Evergreen Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Dindigul,
Kanniya kumari, Nilgiri, Salem, Theni
Strobilanthes gracilis Bedd. is a synonym of Strobilanthes dimorphotricha Hance Shrub Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Coimbatore,
Dindigul, Nilgiri
Strobilanthes hamiltoniana  (Steud.) Bosser & Heine Shrub Western
Ghats, Cultivated, Native of North East India
P.
Venu, 2006
Nilgiri
Strobilanthes heteromallus T. Anderson ex
Clarke
Shrub Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Dindigul,
Nilgiri
Strobilanthes heyneanus Nees Shrub Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Gamble 1957
Coimbatore,
Nilgiri
Strobilanthes homotropus Nees (? Strobilanthes homotropa Nees) Shrub Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Madurai,
Nilgiri
Strobilanthes humilis (Nees) Gamble Shrub Western
Ghats, Moist Deciduous to Evergreen Forests, Endemic
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Gamble 1957
Coimbatore,
Tirunelveli
Strobilanthes isophylla (Nees) T. Anderson is a synonym of Strobilanthes persicifolia (Lindl.) J.R.I.Wood Shrub Western
Ghats, Cultivated, Native of North East India
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Nilgiri
Strobilanthes ixiocephala Benth. Strag gling
Shrub
Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Coimbatore
Strobilanthes kunthianum (Nees) Anders. (? Strobilanthes kunthiana T.Anderson ex Benth.) Shrub Western
Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Evergreen Forests, open grassy slopes
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Coimbatore,
Dindigul, Nilgiri, Salem, Theni, Tirunelveli
Strobilanthes lanatus Nees Shrub Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests, hill slopes
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Nilgiri
Strobilanthes lawsonii Gamble (? Strobilanthes lawsoni Gamble) Shrub Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Dindigul,
Nilgiri, Tirunelveli
Strobilanthes lupulinus Nees Under shrub Western
Ghats, Moist Deciduous to Evergreen Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Gamble 1957
Dindigul,
Tirunelveli
Strobilanthes luridus Wight Strag gling
Shrub
Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Coimbatore,
Dindigul, Kanniya kumari,  Nilgiri
Strobilanthes matthewiana R. W. Scotland Shrub Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests
P.
Venu, 2006
Dindigul
Strobilanthes micranthes Wight Shrub Western
Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Evergreen Forests, open grassy slopes
P.
Venu, 2007
Dindigul,
Nilgiri, Salem
Strobilanthes microstachya Benth. ex Hohen. Under shrub Western
Ghats, Evergren Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Coimbatore,
Dindigul, Kanniya kumari, Nilgiri, Tirunelveli
Strobilanthes neilgherrensis Bedd. Shrub Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Coimbatore,
Dindigul,  Nilgiri
Strobilanthes neoasper  Venu & P. Daniel (? Strobilanthes neoaspera Venu & P.Daniel) Shrub Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Coimbatore,
Nilgiri, Theni, Tirunelveli, Virudhu nagar
Strobilanthes papillosus T. Anderson (? Strobilanthes papillosa T.Anderson) Shrub Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Nilgiri
Strobilanthes perrottetianus Nees ( ? Strobilanthes perrottetiana Nees) Shrub Western
Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Evergreen Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Coimbatore,
Nilgiri, Tirunelveli, Salem
Strobilanthes pulneyensis C. B.Clarke Shrub Western
Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Evergreen Forests
P.
Venu, 2006
Dindigul,
Coimbatore, Nilgiri, Salem, Tirunelveli
Strobilanthes rubicundus (Nees) T. Anderson (?Strobilanthes rubicunda T.Anderson) Shrub Western
Ghats, Moist Deciduous Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Coimbatore,
Kanniya kumari, Nilgiri, Tirunelveli
Strobilanthes sessilis Nees var. sessilis Herb Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Dindigul,
Nilgiri
Strobilanthes sessilis Nees var. sessiloides (Wight) Bremek. Herb Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Nilgiri
Strobilanthes sexennis Nees Shrub Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests
P.
Venu, 2006
Nilgiri
Strobilanthes tristis (Wight) T. Anderson Shrub Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Coimbatore,
Dindigul, Kanniya kumari, Nilgiri, Tirunelveli, Virudhu nagar
Strobilanthes urceolaris Gamble Shrub Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Gamble 1957
Coimbatore,
Dindigul, Kanniya kumari, Nilgiri, Tirunelveli
Strobilanthes violaceus Bedd. (? Strobilanthes violacea Bedd.) Shrub Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Nilgiri
Strobilanthes walkeri Arn. Under shrub Western
Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Evergreen Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Nilgiri,
Salem,  Tiruvanna malai, Villupuram
Strobilanthes wightianus Nees  Shrub Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Nilgiri
Strobilanthes zenkerianus (Nees) T.
Anderson (? Strobilanthes zenkeriana T.Anderson)
Shrub Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests
P.
Venu, 2006
Coimbatore,
Dindigul, Nilgiri

 


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Botanical name Synonyms Family Common name

Strobilanthes atropurpureus (Syn: S. wallichii Nees as per Flora of China) Ruellia atropurpurea Acanthaceae Deep-Blue Curved Bells
Strobilanthes auriculata Perilepta auriculata Acanthaceae Eared Leaf Strobilanthes
Strobilanthes callosus (? Strobilanthes callosa) Carvia callosa Acanthaceae Karvy
Strobilanthes cusia Strobilanthes flaccidifolius Acanthaceae Assam Indigo
Strobilanthes dalhousieanus Goldfussia dalhousiana Acanthaceae Dalhousie Blue Bells
Strobilanthes frondosa Acanthaceae Leafy Strobilanthes
Strobilanthes glutinosus Ruellia glutinosa, Pseudaechmanthera glutinosa Acanthaceae Sticky Ruellia
Strobilanthes hamiltoniana Strobilanthes colorata, Ruellia hamiltoniana Acanthaceae Chinese Rain Bell
Strobilanthes ixiocephalus 



Thelepaepale ixiocephala Acanthaceae Sky Blue Karvy
Strobilanthes kunthiana Acanthaceae Kurinji
Strobilanthes maculata Ruellia maculata Acanthaceae Spotted Strobilanthes
Strobilanthes micranthus Acanthaceae Small Flowered Strobilanthes
Strobilanthes sabiniana Ruellia sabiniana, Strobilanthes sabiniana var. argentea Acanthaceae Sabine’s Strobilanthes
Strobilanthes urticifolia Strobilanthes attenuata, Strobilanthes alatus, Pteracanthus
urticifolius
Acanthaceae Blue Nettle
Strobilanthes wallichii Pteracanthus alatus, Ruellia alata, Goldfussia thomsonii Acanthaceae Wallich’s Conehead
Strobilanthes warreensis Nilgirianthus warreensis Acanthaceae Wadi Karvi

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Species with description & keys in Flora of Pakistan :
Strobilanthes atropurpureus Nees
Strobilanthes dalhousieanus (Nees) Clarke
Strobilanthes glutinosus Nees
Strobilanthes urticifolia Wall. ex Kuntze
Strobilanthes wallichii Nees


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Species in annotated checklist of the flowering plants of Nepal :

Strobilanthes acrocephalus (? Strobilanthes acrocephala T. Anderson is a synonym of Strobilanthes affinis (Griff.) Terao ex J.R.I. Wood & J.R. Benn.)

Strobilanthes angustifrons

Strobilanthes attenuata is a synonym of Strobilanthes urticifolia Wall. ex Kuntze

Strobilanthes attenuata subsp. nepalensis

Strobilanthes auriculata 

Strobilanthes bheriensis

Strobilanthes bracteata

Strobilanthes capitata

Strobilanthes cuneata

Strobilanthes divaricata

Strobilanthes glutinosa

Strobilanthes hamiltoniana

Strobilanthes lachenensis

Strobilanthes lamiifolia

Strobilanthes multidens

Strobilanthes nutans

Strobilanthes oligocephala

Strobilanthes penstemonoides var. dalhousieana

Strobilanthes penstemonoides var. pentstemonoides

Strobilanthes sabiniana

Strobilanthes saccata

Strobilanthes subnudata

Strobilanthes tamburensis

Strobilanthes thomsonii

Strobilanthes wallichii


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1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants edited by Kerry Scott Walter, Harriet J. Gillett
Strobilanthes hallbergii Blatt.- Rajasthan,
Strobilanthes urceolaris Gamble- Tamilnadu

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An Excursion Flora of Central Tamilnadu, India By K. M. Matthew (1995- Details with keys

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Strobilanthes Blume (Acanthaceae) in peninsular India by P. Daniel, Botanical Survey of India Botanical Survey of India, 2006 – Acanthaceae216 pages


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Floriculture in India By Gurcharan Singh Randhawa, Amitabha Mukhopadhyay (1986)-
Strobilanthes anisophylla (Lodd.) T.Anderson
Strobilanthes colorata (Nees) T. Anderson is a synonym of Strobilanthes hamiltoniana (Steud.) Bosser & Heine
Strobilanthes isophylla (Nees) T. Anderson is a synonym of Strobilanthes persicifolia (Lindl.) J.R.I.Wood

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A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon -, Volume 12 By M. D. Dassanayake (Strobilanthes by JRI Wood)- 1998- Details with keys
Strobilanthes diandra (Nees) Alston

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Strobilanthes: 4 posts by 2 authors.

I have updated eFI (efloraofindia) page on Strobilanthes

Attempts have been made to incorporate most of the species available in India & nearby areas with details & keys directly or through links as far as possible. It’s quite possible that there may be some discrepancy in the accepted names & synonyms taken from other links.

Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.

If someone can provide complete list of Indian species with source references it will be wonderful.

Any comments/ corrections are welcome.


I have added the list of species known from India based on Karthikeyan et al, 2009.


Thanks, … I can only say you are doing a very difficult & hard job.


I would like to help with your page on Strobilanthes but much work is required and I am travelling tomorrow and will be very busy over the next few months. Please remind in a couple of month’s time.


Thanks a lot, … That’s really nice of you. I would certainly remind you in a couple of months.


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Karthikeyan et al. (2009) have mentioned following species of Hemigraphis in India:
  1. Hemigraphis alternata (Burm.f.) T.Anderson (Syn. of Strobilanthes alternata (Burm. f.) E. Moylan ex
    J. R. I. Wood, comb nov. as per New Names and Combinations in Indian Acanthaceae by John R. I. Wood- Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature 23(3):385-395. 2014)
  2. H. crenata (Benth. ex Hohen.) Bremek. (Syn. of Strobilanthes crossandra (Steud.) J. R. I. Wood, comb. nov. as per New Names and Combinations in Indian Acanthaceae by John R. I. Wood- Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature 23(3):385-395. 2014)
  3. H. crossandra (Steud.) Bremek. (Syn. of Strobilanthes crossandra (Steud.) J. R. I. Wood, comb. nov. as per New Names and Combinations in Indian Acanthaceae by John R. I. Wood- Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature 23(3):385-395. 2014)
  4. H. hirta (Vahl.) T. Anderson (Syn. of Strobilanthes hirta (Vahl) Blume in view of New Names and Combinations in Indian Acanthaceae by John R. I. Wood- Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature 23(3):385-395. 2014)
  5. H. latebrosa (B. Heyne ex Roth) Nees [vars. latebrosa, beddomei, ebracteata, incana] (Syn. of Strobilanthes pavala (Roxb.) J. R. I. Wood, comb. nov. as per New Names and Combinations in Indian Acanthaceae by John R. I. Wood- Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature 23(3):385-395. 2014)
  6. H. rapanda (L.) Hallier f. (Syn. of Strobilanthes sinuata J. R. I. Wood, nom. nov. as per New Names and Combinations in Indian Acanthaceae by John R. I. Wood- Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature 23(3):385-395. 2014)
  7. H. rupestris B. Heyne ex T. Anderson (Syn. of Strobilanthes pavala (Roxb.) J. R. I. Wood, comb. nov. as per New Names and Combinations in Indian Acanthaceae by John R. I. Wood- Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature 23(3):385-395. 2014)
  8. H. urens (Roth) J.R.I. Wood (Syn. of Strobilanthes urens (Roth) J. R. I. Wood, comb. nov. as per New Names and Combinations in Indian Acanthaceae by John R. I. Wood- Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature 23(3):385-395. 2014)
  9. H. venosa C.B.Clarke (Syn. of Strobilanthes venosa (Heyne ex C. B. Clarke) J. R. I. Wood, comb. nov. as per New Names and Combinations in Indian Acanthaceae by John R. I. Wood- Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature 23(3):385-395. 2014)
Reference:
Karthikeyan, S., Sanjappa, M. and Moorthy, S. 2009. Flowering Plants of India, Dicotyledons, vol-I (Acanthaceea- Avicenniaceae). Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata. p.p. 19-20.

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Binomial Habit Notes References Distribution
Hemigraphis latebrosa (Heyne ex Roth) Nees (Syn. of Strobilanthes pavala (Roxb.) J. R. I. Wood, comb. nov. as per New Names and Combinations in Indian Acanthaceae by John R. I. Wood- Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature 23(3):385-395. 2014) Straggling Undershrub Western Ghats, Evergreen Forests Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 Coimbatore

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FRLHT Indian Medicinal Plants Nomenclature Database with images/ herbarium, distribution, local names etc. :

Hemigraphis latebrosa NEES. (Syn. of Strobilanthes pavala (Roxb.) J. R. I. Wood, comb. nov. as per New Names and Combinations in Indian Acanthaceaeby John R. I. Wood- Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature 23(3):385-395. 2014)


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Botanical name Synonyms Family Common name
Hemigraphis crenata (Syn. of Strobilanthes crossandra (Steud.) J. R. I. Wood, comb. nov. as per New Names and Combinations in Indian Acanthaceaeby John R. I. Wood- Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature 23(3):385-395. 2014) Hemigraphis elegans, Ruellia crenata Acanthaceae Scalloped Hemigraphis
Hemigraphis hirta (Syn. of Strobilanthes hirta (Vahl) Blume in view of New Names and Combinations in Indian Acanthaceae by John R. I. Wood- Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature 23(3):385-395. 2014) Ruellia hitra, Ruellia sarmentosa Acanthaceae Hairy Hemigraphis
Hemigraphis latebrosa (Syn. of Strobilanthes pavala (Roxb.) J. R. I. Wood, comb. nov. as per New Names and Combinations in Indian Acanthaceaeby John R. I. Wood- Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature 23(3):385-395. 2014) Ruellia labetrosa Acanthaceae Shade Loving Hemigraphis
Hemigraphis repanda (Syn. of Strobilanthes sinuata J. R. I. Wood, nom. nov. as per New Names and Combinations in Indian Acanthaceae by John R. I. Wood- Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature 23(3):385-395. 2014) Ruellia repanda Acanthaceae Dragon’s Breath

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Hemigraphis hirta (Vahl) T. Anderson (Syn. of Strobilanthes hirta (Vahl) Blume in view of New Names and Combinations in Indian Acanthaceae by John R. I. Wood- Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature 23(3):385-395. 2014)

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Hemigraphis latebrosa (Syn. of Strobilanthes pavala (Roxb.) J. R. I. Wood, comb. nov. as per New Names and Combinations in Indian Acanthaceae by John R. I. Wood- Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature 23(3):385-395. 2014)

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Flora of Eastern Karnataka, Volume 2 By N. P. Singh (1988)- Details with keys-

Hemigraphis crenata (Syn. of Strobilanthes crossandra (Steud.) J. R. I. Wood, comb. nov. as per New Names and Combinations in Indian Acanthaceaeby John R. I. Wood- Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature 23(3):385-395. 2014)

Hemigraphis latebrosa (Syn. of Strobilanthes pavala (Roxb.) J. R. I. Wood, comb. nov. as per New Names and Combinations in Indian Acanthaceae by John R. I. Wood- Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature 23(3):385-395. 2014)


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Flora of Ranga Reddi District Andhra Pradesh, India By T. Pullaiah, M. Silar Mohammed (2000)- Details-

Hemigraphis latebrosa (Syn. of Strobilanthes pavala (Roxb.) J. R. I. Wood, comb. nov. as per New Names and Combinations in Indian Acanthaceae by John R. I. Wood- Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature 23(3):385-395. 2014)


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Flora of Medak District, Andhra Pradesh, India By T. Pullaiah, Chintala Prabhakar, B. Ravi Prasad Rao (1998)- Details-

Hemigraphis latebrosa (Syn. of Strobilanthes pavala (Roxb.) J. R. I. Wood, comb. nov. as per New Names and Combinations in Indian Acanthaceae by John R. I. Wood- Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature 23(3):385-395. 2014)


Hemigraphis hirta (Syn. of Strobilanthes hirta (Vahl) Blume in view of New Names and Combinations in Indian Acanthaceae by John R. I. Wood- Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature 23(3):385-395. 2014)


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Aquatic and Semi-aquatic Plants of the Lower Ganga Delta: Its Taxonomy … By Kumudranjan Naskar (1990)- Details-

Hemigraphis hirta (Syn. of Strobilanthes hirta (Vahl) Blume in view of New Names and Combinations in Indian Acanthaceae by John R. I. Wood- Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature 23(3):385-395. 2014)


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Floristic Plants of the World By Rashtra Vardhana (2006)- Brief details-

Hemigraphis latebrosa (Syn. of Strobilanthes pavala (Roxb.) J. R. I. Wood, comb. nov. as per New Names and Combinations in Indian Acanthaceae by John R. I. Wood- Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature 23(3):385-395. 2014)


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Floristic Diversity of Chhattisgarh: Angiosperms by K. K. Khanna, Anand Kumar, Ajay Kumar JhaBishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, 01-Jan-2005Angiosperms660 pages
Hemigraphis rupestris Heyne ex T. Anderson in J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 9: 462. 1867. H latebrosa (Heyne ex Roth) Nees var. rupestris (Heyne ex T. Anderson) C.B. Clarke in Hook./, Fl. Brit. India 4: 424. 1884. Perennial, erect or decumbent herbs. …………. (Syn. of Strobilanthes pavala (Roxb.) J. R. I. Wood, comb. nov. as per New Names and Combinations in Indian Acanthaceae by John R. I. Wood- Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature 23(3):385-395. 2014)
Hemigraphis venosa C.B. Clarke in Hook./, Fl. Brit. India 4: 423. 1884. …………….. (Syn. of Strobilanthes venosa (Heyne ex C. B. Clarke) J. R. I. Wood, comb. nov. as per New Names and Combinations in Indian Acanthaceae by John R. I. Wood- Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature 23(3):385-395. 2014)

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Flowering Plants of Thrissur Forests: Western Ghats, Kerala, India by N. Sasidharan (Botanist.), V. V. Sivarajan Scientific Publishers, 1996 – Botany579 pages-

Hemigraphis crossandra (Steud.) Bremek., Mat. Mon. Strob. 137. 1944; Sant., Bot. Mem. Uni. Bombay 2:27. … (Syn. of Strobilanthes crossandra (Steud.) J. R. I. Wood, comb. nov. as per New Names and Combinations in Indian Acanthaceaeby John R. I. Wood- Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature 23(3):385-395. 2014)


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Hemigraphis (Acanthaceae) : 4 posts by 2 authors.
I have updated eFI (efloraofindia) page on Hemigraphis (Pl. click this link in blue colour to see the details).

Attempts have been made to incorporate most of the species available in India & nearby areas with details & keys directly or through links as far as possible. It’s quite possible that there may be some discrepancy in the accepted names & synonyms taken from other links.

Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.

If someone can provide complete list of Indian species with source references it will be wonderful.

Any comments/ corrections are welcome.


I have added list of Indian species.


Thanks a lot, … Is H. urens (Roth) J.R.I. Wood related in any way with Gantelbua urens as per reference: Flora of Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh, India (2000- Gantelbua urens (Heyne ex Roth) Bremek. syn. Ruellia urens Heyne ex Roth; Hemigraphis dura T. Anders.) ?


Yes ..! Synonyms of H. urens (Roth) J.R.I.Woods in this document are:

Ruellia urens Roth
Ruellia dura Nees
Hemigraphis dura (Nees) T.Anderson

Gantelbua urens (Roth) Bremek.


Thanks a lot, … This solves an old mystery in other threads on Gantelbua urens.


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I have updated the accepted names on efi as per New Names and Combinations in Indian Acanthaceae John R. I. Wood (2014).
However, more still needs to done.

If any of the members come across any such papers, pl. send me a copy so that I can do the needful. 


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Pl. go through Strobilanthes page with images of species in efloraofindia (done mainly by me).

If you find any mis-identification, pl. let us know.

If anybody can send images of other species of this genera (for incorporation in the website), it will be really nice. Also, if anybody is interested to take up the activity of inserting images on efloraofindia pages from efloraofindia posts, pl. let us know.


Great …, solved many of my ID Issues.


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