Euphorbia antiquorum L. (Images by tspkumar)

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Euphorbia bisellenbeckii Bruyns (Cultivated) (Image by Aarti Khale – validation by N.P.Balakrishnan)

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Euphorbia caducifolia Haines (Images by (Dinesh Valke – Id by N.P.Balkrishnan) & (Nidhan Singh – Id by Gurcharan Singh), (For more photos & complete details, click on the links))- Shrub wiithout trunk with branches arising from base, smaller leaves (3-8 cm long) and longer spines 0.5-1 cm..E caducifolia; Tree with distinct trunk, leaves 10-25 cm long, spines shorter than 0.5 cm……E. nivulia.  

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Euphorbia candelabrum Trémaux ex Kotschy (Cultivated) (Images by Surajit Koley – Id by N.P.Balakrishnan (For more photos & complete details, click on the link), (inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))

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Euphorbia cashmeriana Royle (Images by Balkar Singh, (Satish Phadke – Id by Prashant Awale), (Nidhan Singh – Id by N.P.Balakrishnan), (For more photos & complete details, click on the links))

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Euphorbia concanensis Janarth. & S.R.Yadav (Images by Prashant Awale & Dinesh Valke, (For more photos & complete details, click on the links))

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Euphorbia clarkeana Hook.f. (Afghanistan to India, Maldives: Afghanistan, India, Maldives, Pakistan, West Himalaya as per POWO)

   


Euphorbia cooperi N.E.Br. ex A.Berger (Images by Gurcharan Singh & (Nidhan Singh – Id by Gurcharan Singh), (inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))

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Euphorbia cornigera Boiss. (Images by (Prashant Awale – validation by Dinesh Valke), (Nidhan Singh – Id by Gurcharan Singh & N.P.Balkrishnan) & (Nidhan Singh – validation by N.P.Balkrishnan), (For more photos & complete details, click on the links))- As per efi thread: The warty surface of the ovary and fruits, which is characteristic of Euphorbia cornigera. In E. wallichii the ovary and fruits are smooth.

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Euphorbia corrigioloides Boiss. (Images by Muthu Karthick – Id by N.P.Balakrishnan)- It is related to and similar to E. rosea Retz., but can be distinguished by the limbs of glands which are of the same size in contrast to the two sizes in E. rosea. Further, E. corrigioloides possess reddish a blotch on the upper surface at the middle of leaves, which are absent in E. rosea. The branching pattern is also different. In E. corrigioloides several branches arise from rootstock, which do not show much branching above. Whereas in E. rosea the rootstock produces only one stem, which repeatedly branches dichotomously above.

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Euphorbia cotinifolia L. (Cultivated) (Images by (Pudji Widodo – Id by Pankaj Kumar), Gurcharan Singh & Aarti Khale, (For more photos & complete details, click on the links), (inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))

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Euphorbia cotinifolia subsp. cotinoides (Miq.) Christenh. (Cultivated) (Images by tspkumar)

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Euphorbia cyathophora Murray (Images by Gurcharan Singh & D.S.Rawat, (inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))- As per efi threadEuphorbia cyathophora is characterised by red patches at the bases of leaves around the cyathia. In E. pulcherrima, the leaves around the cyathia are completely coloured, red, yellow or yellow-orange; 

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Euphorbia cylindrifolia Marn.-Lap. & Rauh (Cultivated) (Images by (Aarti Khale – validation by N.P.Balakrishnan) & (Promila Chaturvedi – Id by Dan Rhoads & Linda Gleisser))

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Euphorbia decaryi Guillaumin (Cultivated) (Images by Aarti Khale – validation by N.P.Balakrishnan)

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Euphorbia deccanensis V.S.Raju (Images by (A.Lalithamba – validation by N.P.Balakrishnan) & (Renee Vyas – Id by N.P.Balakrishnan))

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Euphorbia donii Oudejans (Images by Anurag Sharma – Id by N.P.Balakrishnan, (inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))

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Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. (Images by Gurcharan Singh, (For more photos & complete details, click on the links), (inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))

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Euphorbia elegans Spreng. (Images by Mayur Nandikar, (Mohina Macker – Id by N.P.Balakrishnan) & (Satish Phadke – Id by N.P.Balakrishnan))- It is characterised by imbricating upper leaves, concealing the cyathia and the entire petaloid pink limbs of glands.

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Euphorbia esula L. (Cultivated) (Images by Gurcharan Singh & (Gurcharan Singh – validation by N.P.Balakrishnan),For more photos & complete details, click on the links, (inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))

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Euphorbia fianarantsoae Ursch & Leandri (Cultivated) (Images by D.S.Rawat, (inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))

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Euphorbia flanaganii N.E.Br. (Cultivated) (Images by Gurcharan Singh & (Aarti Khale – validation by N.P.Balakrishnan), (For more photos & complete details, click on the links, (inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))

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Euphorbia fusiformis Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don (Images by Neil Soares, Shrikant Ingalhalikar & (Adittya Dharap – validation by N.P.Balakrishnan)For more photos & complete details, click on the links, (inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))- As per efi thread : Cymes once dichotomous, bracts ovate-lanceolate…………..Euphorbia fusiformis. Cymes 3 times dichotomous, bracts triangular-lanceolate…..Euphorbia panchganiensis 

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Euphorbia helioscopia L. (Images by (Chitra Shanker – Id by Gurcharan Singh), Gurcharan Singh & D.S.Rawat, (For more photos & complete details, click on the links, (inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))

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Euphorbia heterophylla L. (Images by Gurcharan Singh & (D.S.Rawat – Id by Gurcharan Singh), (inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))

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Euphorbia hirta L. (Images by Karuna Kanta Das, Nidhan Singh & (Bhagyashri Ranade – Id by Gurcharan Singh), For more photos & complete details, click on the links, (inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))

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Euphorbia hispida Boiss. (Images by Gurcharan Singh, (inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))

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Euphorbia horrida Boiss. (Cultivated) (Image by Aarti Khale – Id by Linda Gleisser & P S Sangwan)

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Euphorbia hypericifolia L. (Images by (Anurag Sharma – Id by Nidhan Singh & Tapas Chakrabarty) & (Gurcharan Singh – Id by N.P.Balakrishnan), (For more photos & complete details, click on the links, (inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))-

As per efi thread : In Euphorbia hypericifolia, the leaves are longer, lanceolate and narrowed towards apex. In E. indica the leaves are oblong and shorter; As per efi thread : In E. hypericifolia the leaves are narrowed towards upper portion and the stems are erect and unbranched, whereas in E. indica, the stems are decumbent and branched from base;

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Euphorbia hyssopifolia L. (Images by Aarti Khale – Id by Tapas Chakrabarty & N.P.Balakrishnan)- In E. hyssopifolia L. The infl. of cyathia are subtended by small floral leaves and the stems are straw-coloured. In E. hypericifolia L., the infl. of cyathia are not subtended by small floral leaves and the stems are reddish.

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Euphorbia indica Lam. (Images by Nidhah Singh – Id by N.P.Balakrishnan)- As per efi thread : In E. rosea two limbs of glands are larger and elongate, whereas in E. indica all limbs of glands are of equal size; As per efi thread : In Euphorbia hypericifolia, the leaves are longer, lanceolate and narrowed towards apex. In E. indica the leaves are oblong and shorter; As per efi thread : In E. hypericifolia the leaves are narrowed towards upper portion and the stems are erect and unbranched, whereas in E. indica, the stems are decumbent and branched from base;  

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Euphorbia ingens E.Mey. ex Boiss. (Cultivated) (Images by (Aarti Khale – validation by N.P.Balakrishnan), (Dinesh Valke – Id by N.P.Balkrishnan) & (Satish Phadke – validation by N.P.Balakrishnan))-  Trees usually taller than 4 m; branches mostly 4 angled, spines minute (less than 3 mm) or absent 

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Euphorbia jacquemontii Boiss. (Images uploaded by Tapas Chakrabarty (photo : A. B. D. Selvam),  Anurag N Sharma & Suresh Rana (all ids by N P Balakrishanan) (Inserted by J.M.Garg & Surajit Koley) (For more photos & complete details, click on the links))- The long lanceolate leaves with distinct midrib and visible lateral nerves whitish in colour and yellowish pseuboumbel leaves are characteristics of this species

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Euphorbia katrajensis Gage (India (Maharashtra) as per POWO)
     


Euphorbia lacei Craib (Images by (Prashant Awale – Id by N.P. Balkrishnan) & (A.Lalithamba – validation by N.P.Balakrishnan))

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Euphorbia lactea Haw. (Images by Gurcharan Singh, Aarti Khale & (Siva Siva – Id by Pudji Widodo), (inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))- As per efi thread: The main differences between these two species are that in E. lactea the leaves are less than 1 cm long and early caducous; whereas in E. trigona the leaves are more than 3 cm long and not early caduceus.  

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Euphorbia lathyris L. (Images by Gurcharan Singh – validation by N.P.Balakrishnan, (inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))

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Euphorbia leucocephala Lotsy (Images by Samir Takaochi, (Jency Samuel – Id by Nidhan Singh) & Satish Phadke, (For more photos & complete details, click on the links, (inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))

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Euphorbia luteoviridis D.G.Long (Images by D.S.Rawat – Id by N.P.Balakrishnan, (inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))

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Euphorbia maddenii Boiss. (Images by (Nidhan Singh – validation by Gurcharan Singh) & (Dinesh Valke – validation by N.P.Balakrishnan), (For more photos & complete details, click on the links, (inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))

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Euphorbia milii Des Moul. (Cultivated) (Images by tspkumar)

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Euphorbia milii Des Moul. (Cultivated) (Images by tspkumar)

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Euphorbia milii Des Moul. (Cultivated) (Images by (Raman Arunachalam – validation by Tapas Chakrabarty) & (D. Radha Krishna Reddy – Id by Chitra Shanker), (For more photos & complete details, click on the links, (inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))

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Euphorbia nana Royle (images by Tapas Chakrabarty & Mayur D Nandikar)


Euphorbia neriifolia L. (Images by (Aarti Khale – Id by Tapas Chakrabarty), (D.S.Rawat – Id by N.P.Balakrishnan) & Gurcharan Singh, (For more photos & complete details, click on the links, (inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))- Shrub or small tree with slightly angled stem with spirally arranged tubercles on faint ribs.

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Euphorbia nivulia Buch.-Ham. (Images by (Surajit Koley – validation by Gurcharan Singh), (Muthu Karthick – Id by Vijayasankar Raman) & (Prashant Awale – Id by Gurcharan Singh), (For more photos & complete details, click on the links, (inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))

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Euphorbia notoptera Boiss. (Images by (Adittya Dharap – Id by Dinesh Valke & Tapas Chakrabarty) & (Dinesh Valke – validation by Tapas Chakrabarty), (For more photos & complete details, click on the links, (inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))

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Euphorbia officinarum subsp. echinus (Hook.f. & Coss.) Vindt (Cultivated) (Images by Aarti Khale – validation by N.P.Balakrishnan)

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Euphorbia peplus L. (Images by Gurcharan Singh & (Nidhan Singh – validation by N.P.Balkrishnan), (For more photos & complete details, click on the links, (inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))- Here the floral leaves (ray leaves) are not markedly different in size and shape from the cauline leaves.

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Euphorbia polygona Haw. (Cultivated) (Images by Aarti Khale – Id by N.P.Balakrishnan)

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Euphorbia prostrata Aiton (Images by (Bhagyashri Ranade – Id by Nidhan Singh) & Gurcharan Singh, (For more photos & complete details, click on the links, (inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))- In Euphrobia prostrata the fruits burst open the cyathium and ripen outside it while in E. thymifolia the fruits mature inside the cyathium

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Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch (Images by Dinesh Valke, Mani NairAarti Khale & (Aarti Khale – validation by N.P.Balakrishnan), (For more photos & complete details, click on the links, (inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))- As per efi thread : Euphorbia cyathophora is characterised by red patches at the bases of leaves around the cyathia. In E. pulcherrima, the leaves around the cyathia are completely coloured, red, yellow or yellow-orange

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Euphorbia pycnostegia Boiss. (Images by (Prashant Awale – Id by N.P.Balakrishnan) (For more photos & complete details, click on the links, (inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))

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Euphorbia pycnostegia var. zornioides (Boiss.) Santapau (Images by Adittya Dharap – Id by N.P.Balakrishnan, (For more photos & complete details, click on the link, (inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))- The description given by Fr. Santapau on E.pycnostegia var. zorniodes in Flora of Khandala is as follows: “Very similar to E.pycnostegia from which it is separated by smooth, non-tuberculate seeds. Leaves are opposite, but branches quite often are only produced in the axil of one of them; size of leaves upto 55×17 mm “

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Euphorbia quadrialata Pax (Cultivated) (Images by Aarti Khale – Id by N.P.Balakrishnan)

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Euphorbia resinifera O.Berg (Cultivated) (Images by Gurcharan Singh, (For more photos & complete details, click on the link, (inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))

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Euphorbia ritchiei (P.R.O.Bally) Bruyns (Cultivated) (Image by Aarti Khale – Id by P.S.Sangwan & John)

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Image by Aarti Khale 

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Euphorbia rosea Retz. (Images by Prashant Awale – Id by Vijayasankar Raman)- The distinct feature of this species is that two limbs of glands are much larger than other. As per efi thread : In E. rosea two limbs of glands are larger and elongate, whereas in E. indica all limbs of glands are of equal size;

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Euphorbia rothiana Spreng. (Images by (Muthu Karthick – Id by N.P.Balkrishnan) & (Mohina Macker – validation by Tapas Chakrabarty), (For more photos & complete details, click on the links, (inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))

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Euphorbia royleana Boiss. (Images by D.S.RawatGurcharan Singh, (For more photos & complete details, click on the links, (inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))-  flat space in the valley between the wings is its distinctive feature.

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Euphorbia serpens Kunth (Images by Gurcharan Singh, (inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))- This annual prostrate herb is distinct by triangular fringed stipule formed of two united stipules, solitary cyathia, transversly oblong glands and glabrous capsule. This species can be easily distinguished by the orbicular to oblong-ovate leaves with retuse (notched) apex.    

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Euphorbia stenoclada Baill. (Cultivated) (Images by (Gurcharan Singh – validation by N.P.Balkrishnan) & (Nidhan Singh – validation by Gurcharan Singh), (inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))- a leafless shrub from Madagascar with rigid spiny tipped branches.

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Euphorbia stracheyi Boiss. (Images by (Gurcharan Singh – validation by N.P.Balakrishnan) & (Krishan Lal – validation by N.P.Balakrishnan), (inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))- The plant shows variation in the colour of cyathia and upper leaves from yellowish green, olive green, orange red to dark purplish, probably due to the severity of the cold in the habitat

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Euphorbia susan-holmesiae Binojk. & Gopalan (Images by Muthu Karthick – Id by N.P.Balakrishnan, (For more photos & complete details, click on the links, (inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))

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Euphorbia thomsoniana Boiss. (Images by (Narendra Joshi – Id by Gurcharan Singh, validation by N.P.Balakrishnan), (For more photos & complete details, click on the link, (inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))

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Euphorbia thymifolia L. (Images by (DInesh Valke – validation by Tapas Chakrabarty) & (Anurag Sharma – Id by N.P. Balakrishnan))- E. thymifolia, though allied to E. prostrata and E. heyneana, it can be easily distinguished by the slightly pinkish and completely hairy stems and fruits. E. prostrata has deep green stems and fruits hairy only on keels. E. heyneana is pale green and quite glabrous.

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Euphorbia tibetica Boiss. (Images by (Tabish Qureshi – Id by Gurcharan SIngh & Amit Chauhan) & (Narendra Joshi – Id by Amit Chauhan))

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Euphorbia tirucalli L. (Images by Raman Arunachalam & (Gurcharan Singh – validation by N.P.Balakrishnan), (For more photos & complete details, click on the links, (inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))

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Euphorbia tortilis Rottler ex Ainslie (Images by (Santhan P Id by N.P.Balakrishnan), Gurcharan Singh & (A.Lalithamba – validation by N.P.Balkrishnan), (For more photos & complete details, click on the links, (inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))- The 3-4 angled twisted segments of stem and branches is its unique feature.

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Euphorbia tortirama R.A.Dyer (Cultivated) (Images by Aarti Khale – validation by N.P.Balakrishnan)

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Euphorbia trigona Mill. (Cultivated) (Images by Dinesh Valke, (Balkar Singh – validation by Tanay Bose) & (Aarti Khale – validation by N.P.Balakrishnan))- Differs from E. antiquorum in more greener stems, straighter wings and smaller leaves, 5-6 mm long, which persist for longer time and more uniformally distributed on wings.

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Euphorbia viguieri Denis (Cultivated) (Images by Dinesh Valke & (Gurcharan SIngh – Id by N.P.Balakrishnan), (For more photos & complete details, click on the links, (inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))

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Euphorbia wallichii Hook.f. (Images by (Suresh Rana – Id by N.P.Balakrishnan), (Alok Mahendroo – validation by Tanay Bose & Gurcharan Singh) & (Balkar Singh – validation by Gurcharan Singh), (For more photos & complete details, click on the links, (inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))

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Euphorbia xylophylloides Brongn. ex Lem. (Cultivated) (Images by Gurcharan Singh – validation by N.P.Balakrishnan, (inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))

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.
Stems unarmed; without stipular spines
     All leaves of same colour
Leaves longer than 8 cm, green…….
E. umbellata
        Leaves up to 8 cm long
Stem and leaves uniformly red, leaves in whorls of three, petiole almost as
              long as blade, leaves ovate, apex acute to obtuse……E. cotinifolia subsp. cotinoides
Stem and leaves green, leaves alternate, petiole much shorter than blade
Leaves shorter than 2 cm, less than 2 mm broad, branches straight, mostly leafless
(leaves early deciduous)
                 Branches flattened……….E. xylophylloides
                     Branches not flattened……….E. tirucalli
Leaves longer than 3 cm, more than 2 cm broad, branches zigzag, mostly with leaves…… E. tithymaloides
All leaves not of same colour; lower leaves green, upper partly or uniformally coloured; leaves longer than 8 cm
Leaves below the inflorescence uniformally coloured (red, white or yellow); leaves not lobed.E. pulcherrima
Leaves below the inflorescence coloured only at base; leaves lobed or not
Base of upper leaves pale green or pale white; leaves lobed or not……….E. heterophylla
Base of upper leaves red; leaves lobed………
E. cyathophora
Stems armed with spines
   Branches spine-tipped………E. stenoclada
   Branches not spine-tipped  
      Spines borne singly on stem or wings
          Spines on stem , not flattened, usually longer than 1 cm; two showy bracts around cyathium……..E. milii
        Spines on wings, somewhat flattened, showy bracts absent
               Leaf scars semilunar with distinct gap from wings, sparsely distributed, peduncle longer,
                 spines often projecting and longer than 1 cm………E. viguieri
            Leaf scars transversely oblong, almost touching wings, closely placed, peduncle shorter.
                 spines mostly shorter than 1 cm……….E. neohumbertii
Spines borne on raised shield, usually shorter than 1 cm, two showy bracts lacking
Stem rounded, not angled or winged
               Shrub without trunk with branches arising from base, smaller leaves (3-8 cm long)
and longer spines 0.5-1 cm………….
E caducifolia
               Tree with distinct trunk, leaves 10-25 cm long, spines shorter than 0.5 cm……….E. nivulia
Stem angled or winged
                Angles not produced into wing, spirally arranged:……..
E. neriifolia
                Angles produced into wings
Wings 3-4
The wings running straight, sinuate, regularly dentate
                             Trees taller than 4 m; stems usually 4-angled; spines absent or minute…….E. ingens 
                             Shrubs or small trees less than 4 m tall, usually 3-angled; spines longer than 4 mm
                                  Stems green without white bands
                                         Leaves usually clustered, rarely seen; spines black………E. antiquorum
                                 Leaves spaced, mostly present; spines grey-brown ……….E. trigona
                                  Stems white wholly or partially
The stems with white bands on faces
                                                 Branches ascending, parallel to and close to the main stem
                                                    leaves obovate-elliptic, 10-30 mm long……..E. trigona. 
                                                 Branches ascending but not parallel to and close to the main
                                                    stem. Leaves scale-like, c. 4 mm long.                         
                                                           Apex of stem not cristate (without crowns at tips)………..E. lactea
                                                           Apex of stem cristate (with crowns at tips)….E lactea cv. ‘Cristata’
The  stems uniformly greyish white………………..E. lactea cv. ‘White Ghost’
The wings running spirally, …………E. tortilis
Wings 5-6, undulate………..E. royleana

Key in Bracketed Format 

Revised identification key for woody species of “Euphorbiaby Dr. N. Balakrishnan

 

1a.       Stems unarmed, without stipular spines         2

  b.       Stems armed with spines         9

2a.       All leaves not of the same colour; lower leaves green, upper partly or uniformly coloured        3

 b.        All leaves all of the same colour         5

3a.       Leaves below the inflorescences red, yellow, cream-coloured or white; leaves not lobed    E. pulcherrima

 b.        Leaves below the inflorescences coloured only at base; leaves lobed or not     4

4a.       Bases of upper leaves red; leaves lobed     E. cyathophora

 b.        Bases of upper leaves pale green or pale white; leaves lobed or not    E. heterophylla

5a.       Leaves more than 8 cm long        E. umbellata

 b.        Leaves less than 8 cm long         6

6a.       Stem and leaves uniformly purplish red when young to greenish pink when mature; leaves  in whorls of three, petiole almost as
long as leaf-blade              E. cotinifolia subsp. cotinoides

 b.        Stem and leaves always green; leaves alternate; petioles much shorter than leaf-blade         7

7a.       Leaves longer than 3 cm, more than 2 cm broad; branches zigzag, usually with leaves      E. tithymaloides

 b.        Leaves shorter than 2 cm, less than 7 mm broad, early caducous; branches straight, usually leafless     8

8a.       Branches flattened    E. xylophylloides

 b.        Branches cylindrical     E. tirucalli

9a.       Branches spine-tipped      E. stenoclada

 b.        Branches not spine-tipped      10

10a.    Spines borne singly on stem or wings        11

  b.      Spines borne on raised shield, usually shorter than 1 cm    13  

11a.    Spines on stem not flattened, showy bracts present below cyathia    E. milii

  b.      Spines on wings of branches somewhat flattened, showy bracts absent    12

12a.    Leaf-scars semilunar, with distinct gap from wing-margins, sparsely distributed; peduncle longer; spines often projecting
and longer than 1 cm           E.viguieri

  b.      Leaf-scars transversely oblong, extending from one wing-margin to the other, closely placed; peduncles shorter, spines mostly shorter than 1 cm        E. neohumbertii

13a.    Stem rounded, not angled or winged    14

  b..     Stem  angled or winged     15

14a.    Shrubs without trunk; branchlets arising from base; leaves small, 3 – 8 cm long;  spines long, 0.5 – 1 cm long   E.caducifolia

  b.      Trees with distinct trunk; leaves large, 10 – 25 cm long; spines short, up to 5 mm long   E. nivulia

15a.    Angles not produced into wings, spirally arranged     E. neriifolia

  b.      Angles produced into wings   16

16a.    Wings of branches 5 – 6, undulate     E. royleana

  b.      Wings of branches 3 – 4     17

17a.    Wings of branches running spirally  E. tortilis

  b.      Wings of branches running straight, sinuate, regularly dentate    18

18a     Trees taller than 4 m; stems usually 4-angled; spines absent or minute     E. ingens

    b.   Shrubs or small trees less than 4 m tall, usually 3-angled; spines longer than 4 mm    19

19a.    Branches green, without white bands    20

  b.      Branches white, wholly or partially    21

20a.    Leaves usually clustered, rarely seen; spines black      E.antiquorum

  b.      Leaves spaced, usually present; spines grey-brown   E. trigona

21a.    Branches uniformly greyish white  E. lactea cv. White Ghost

  b.      Branches not uniformly greyish white, but with patches of white bands in valleys between wings      22

22a.    Branches ascending, parallel to and close to the main stem; leaves obovate-elliptic, 10 – 30 mm long      E.trigona

  b.      Branches ascending but not parallel to and close to the main stem; leaves scale-like, ca 4 mm long    23

23a.    Apex of stem not cristate (without crowns at tips)      E.lactea

  b.      Apex of stem cristate (with crowns of tips      E. lactea cv. Cristata

 


.
A key to the identification of woody species of Euphorbia occurring in India and introduced species in Gardens was prepared by me in 2011 and underwent alot of discussion in which …, … and others participated actively 
The discovery of several more species in two years made it necessary to further revise the key. This has been uploaded on our website in indented key format.
Dr. N. Balakrishnan has been kind enough to revise and set the key in bracketed key format. Both versions are available on our website. Members can make use of the format which suits them.

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Species as per Flora of India Vol 23 (Editors N. P. Balakrishnan, T. Chakrabarty, M. Sanjappa, P. Lakshminarsimhan & P. Singh- by Botanical Survey of India (2012)):
Euphorbia agowensis Hochst ex Boiss.
var. agowensis 301
var. pseudoholstii (Pax) Bally & S.Carter
Euphorbia antiquorum L.
Euphorbia balakrishnanii Binojk. & R.Gopalan
Euphorbia boissieriana (Woronow) Prokh.
Euphorbia caducifolia Haines
Euphorbia cashmeriana Royle
Euphorbia cattimandoo Elliot ex Wight
Euphorbia clarkeana Hook.f.
Euphorbia coccinea B.Heyne ex Roth
Euphorbia concanensis Janarth. & S.R.Yadav 281agowensis Hochst ex Boiss.
Euphorbia cornigera Boiss.
var. cornigera
var. cognata (Klotzsch ex Klotzsch & Garcke) Binojk. & N.P.Balakr.
Euphorbia corrigioloides Boiss.
Euphorbia cotinifolia L. ssp. cotinoides (Miq.) Christenh.
Euphorbia cristata B.Heyne ex Roth
Euphorbia cyathophora J.Murr.
Euphorbia deccanensis V.S.Raju
var. deccanensis
var. nallamalayana (J.L.Ellis) V.S.Raju
Euphorbia donii Oudejans
Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam.
Euphorbia elegans Spreng.
Euphorbia epiphylloides Kurz
Euphorbia erythroclada Boiss.
Euphorbia falcata L.
Euphorbia fulgens Karw. ex Klotzsch (Cultivated)
Euphorbia fusiformis Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don
var. fusiformis 332
var. khandallensis (Blatt. & Hallb.) Binojk. & N.P.Balakr.
Euphorbia grandicornis Goebel ex N.E.Br. (Cultivated)
Euphorbia granulata Forssk.
Euphorbia helioscopia L.
Euphorbia heterophylla L.
Euphorbia heyneana Spreng.
ssp. heyneana
ssp. nilagirica (Miq.) Panigrahi          
Euphorbia hirta L.
Euphorbia hispida Boiss.
Euphorbia hypericifolia L.
Euphorbia hyssopifolia L.
Euphorbia indica Lam.
Euphorbia jacquemontii Boiss.
Euphorbia jodhpurensis Blatt. & Hallb.
Euphorbia kanaorica Boiss.
Euphorbia katrajensis Gage
Euphorbia khasyana Boiss.
Euphorbia lacei Craib
Euphorbia laciniata Panigrahi
Euphorbia lactea Haw.
Euphorbia lathyris L.
Euphorbia lawsonii Binojk. & Dwarakan
Euphorbia leucocephala Lotsy
Euphorbia longistyla Boiss.
Euphorbia luteoviridis D.G.Long
Euphorbia maddenii Boiss.
Euphorbia marginata Pursh (Cultivated)
Euphorbia mauritanica L.
Euphorbia meenae S.Carter
Euphorbia micractina Boiss.
Euphorbia milii Des Moul.
Euphorbia nana Royle
Euphorbia neriifolia L.
Euphorbia nivulia Buch.-Ham.
Euphorbia notoptera Boiss.
Euphorbia osyridea Boiss.
Euphorbia pallens Dillwyn
Euphorbia pamirica (Prokh.) Prokh.
Euphorbia peltata Roxb.
Euphorbia peplus L.
Euphorbia perbracteata Gage
Euphorbia prolifera Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don
Euphorbia prostrata Aiton
Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch
Euphorbia pycnostegia Boiss.
var. pycnostegia
var. zornioides (Boiss.) Santapau
Euphorbia rosea Retz.
Euphorbia rothiana Spreng.
Euphorbia royleana Boiss.
Euphorbia santapaui A.N.Henry
Euphorbia sebastinei Binojk. & N.P.Balakr.
Euphorbia senguptae N.P.Balakr. & Subr.
Euphorbia serpens Kunth
Euphorbia sharmae U.C.Bhattach.
Euphorbia sikkimensis Boiss.
Euphorbia stracheyi Boiss.
Euphorbia susan-holmesiae Binojk. & R.Gopalan
Euphorbia thomsoniana Boiss.
Euphorbia thymifolia L.
Euphorbia thyrsoidea Boiss.
Euphorbia tibetica Boiss.
Euphorbia tirucalli L.
Euphorbia tortilis Rottler ex Ainslie
Euphorbia trigona Mill.                       
Euphorbia vajravelui Binojk. & N.P.Balakr.
Euphorbia wallichii Hook.f.

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Binomial Habit Notes References Distribution
Euphorbia
agowensis
Hochst. ex Boiss.
Herb Western Ghats,
Evergreen Forests, rocky  Localities
Flora of Tamil
Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Nilgiri
Euphorbia antiquorum L. Tree Dry
Evergreen to Thorn Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
All
districts
Euphorbia balakrishnanii Binojk. &
Gopalan
Herb Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests, Endemic 
M.S.
Binojkumar & R. Gopalan, 1998
Tirunelveli
Euphorbia barnhartii Croizat = Euphorbia lacei Craib Tree Western
Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Dry rocky Localities
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Coimbatore,
Dharmapuri, Madurai,  Salem, Theni
Euphorbia chamaesyce L. (? Euphorbia prostrata Aiton syn: E. chamaesyce auct. non L. 1753 as per Flora of India Vol. 23) Herb Open  Localities,
Dry Localities
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
All
districts
Euphorbia corrigioloides Boiss. Herb Dry
Evergreen Forests,  Exposed Localities
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Coimbatore,
Cuddalore,  Dharmapuri, Kancheepuram,
Ramanathapuram,  Thanjavur,
Tiruchchirappalli, Tirunelveli, Thiruvallur, Tiruvannamalai, Viluppuram
Euphorbia cotinifolia L. subsp. cotinoides (Miq.) Christenh. Shrub Plains
to Low Altitude, Cultivated, Native of Africa
M.S.
Binojkumar & N.P. Balakrishnan, 1991
All
districts
Euphorbia cristata Heyne ex Roth Herb Plains,
Dry Localities
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Mayuranathan 1929
Kancheepuram,
Thiruvallur, Tiruvannamalai
Euphorbia cyathophora Murr. Herb Plains,
Cultivated / Naturalized, Native of Tropical America
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
All
districts
Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. Herb Plains,
Open  Localities
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Fischer 1921, Mayuranathan 1929,  Livingstone 1994
Coimbatore,
Kancheepuram
Euphorbia helioscopia L. Herb Western
Ghats, High Altitude, Naturalized, Native of Eurasia 
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Nilgiri
Euphorbia heterophylla L. Herb Plains,
Open  Localities /  Moist Localities, Naturalized, Native of
Tropical America
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
All
districts
Euphorbia heyneana Spreng. subsp. heyneana Herb Plains,
Dry Localities
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Coimbatore,
Kancheepuram, Madurai, Salem, Thanjavur, Thiruvallur, Tiruvannamalai
Euphorbia heyneana Spreng. subsp. nilagirica (Miq.) Panigrahi Herb Western
Ghats, Open Localities
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987, Gamble 1957
Nilgiri
Euphorbia hirta L. Herb Plains,
Moist Localities
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
All
districts
Euphorbia indica Lam. Herb Plains,
Moist Localities
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
All
districts
Euphorbia laciniata Panigrahi Under shrub Plains,
Dry  Localities
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Gamble 1957, Matthew 1983
Dharmapuri,
Salem, Tiruchchirappalli, Tirunelveli
Euphorbia longistyla Boiss. Herb Plains,
Moist Localities
  Madurai
Euphorbia milii Des Under shrub Plains
to  High Altitude, Cultivated, Native
of Madagascar
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
All
districts
Euphorbia neriifolia L. Tree Plains,
Cultivated, Native of Indo – Malaysian Region
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Coimbatore,
Viluppuram 
Euphorbia nivulia Buch.-Ham. Tree Dry
Evergreen to Dry Deciduous
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Mayuranathan 1929
Coimbatore,
Dharmapuri, Nilgiri, Kancheepuram,
Salem, Tiruchchirappalli, Tirunelveli, Thiruvallur,  Tiruvannamalai, Virudhunagar
Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd.ex Klotzsch Under shrub Western
Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Cultivated, Native of Tropical America
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Coimbatore,
Dindigul, Erode, Kanniyakumari,
Nilgiri, Salem, Theni, Tirunelveli, Virudhunagar
Euphorbia pycnostegia Boiss. var. zornioides (Boiss.) Sant. Herb Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Gamble 1957
Coimbatore
Euphorbia rosea Retz. Herb Dry
Sandy / Rocky Localities
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Chennai, Cuddalore,  Kancheepuram, Kanniyakumari, Madurai,
Nagapattinam, Puddukkottai, Ramanathapuram, Thanjavur, Thoothukkudi,  Tirunelveli,   Thiruvallur,   Thiruvarur,  Tiruvannamalai
Euphorbia rothiana Spreng. Herb Western
Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Evergreen Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Matthew 1983
Coimbatore,
Kanniyakumari, Dindigul, Theni, Nilgiri, Virudhunagar , Salem, Namakkal,
Tirunelveli
Euphorbia santapaui Henry Tree Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Tirunelveli
Euphorbia serpens H.B.K. Herb Dry
Localities
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Matthew 1983
All
districts
Euphorbia thymifolia L. Herb Dry
Localities
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
All
districts
Euphorbia tirucalli L. Shrub/ Small
tree
Plains,
Cultivated
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
All
districts
Euphorbia tortilis Rottl. Herb Dry
Evergreen to Dry Deciduous Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987;  Fischer
1921, Mayuranathan 1929, Gamble 1957, Matthew 1983,
Coimbatore,
Kancheepuram, Tiruchchirappalli, Tirunelveli, Tiruvannamalai
Euphorbia trigona Mill. Shrub Western
Ghats, Dry Deciduous Forests
Matthew,
1999
Dindigul
Euphorbia vajravelui Binojk. &
Balakr. 
Tree Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests
S.M.Rajendran,
S.C.Agarwal & H.N.V
erma 2002
Tirunelveli

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Euphorbia chamaesyce L.  (? Euphorbia prostrata Aiton syn: E. chamaesyce auct. non L. 1753 as per Flora of India Vol. 23 (2013).)
Euphorbia cognata BOISS. is a synonym of Euphorbia cornigera Boiss. var. var. cognata (Klotzsch ex Klotzsch & Garcke) Binojk as per Flora of India Vol. 23 (2013).
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Euphorbia pilulifera L. is a synonym of Euphorbia hirta L. as per Flora of India Vol. 23 (2013).
 
 
 
 
Euphorbia sanguinea HOCHST. & STEUD. (? Euphorbia heyneana Spreng. ssp. nilagirica (Miq.) Panigrahi with E. sanguinea Boiss. var. nilagirica (Miq.) Boiss. in DC. as syn. as per Flora of India Vol. 23 (2013).)        
 
 
 
 
 

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Botanical name Synonyms Family Common name
Euphorbia actinoclada (not native of India) Euphorbiaceae Spreading Branch Spurge
Euphorbia caducifolia Euphorbiaceae Leafless Milk Hedge
Euphorbia concanensis Chamaesyce concanensis Euphorbiaceae Konkan Spurge
Euphorbia cooperi (not native of India) Euphorbiaceae Lesser Candelabra Tree
Euphorbia cornigera Euphorbia pilosa var. cornigera Euphorbiaceae Horned Spurge
Euphorbia cotinifolia Euphorbiaceae Caribbean Copper Plant
Euphorbia cristata Euphorbiaceae Candelabra Spurge
Euphorbia cyathophora Poinsettia cyathophora Euphorbiaceae Painted Leaf Poinsettia
Euphorbia decaryi (not native of India) Euphorbiaceae Wrinkled Leaf Spurge
Euphorbia dracunculoides Euphorbia lanceolata, Tithymalus dracunculoides Euphorbiaceae Dragon Spurge
Euphorbia helioscopia Euphorbiaceae Sun Spurge
Euphorbia heterophylla Euphorbia geniculata, Euphorbia prunifolia, Poinsettia heterophylla Euphorbiaceae Wild Poinsettia
Euphorbia hirta Euphorbiaceae Asthma Weed
Euphorbia hispida Euphorbia emodi, Chamaesyce emodi, Chamaesyce hispida Euphorbiaceae Bristly Spurge
Euphorbia laeta is a synonym of Euphorbia rothiana Spreng. Euphorbia rothiana Euphorbiaceae Common Hill Spurge
Euphorbia lathyris Euphorbia lathyrus Euphorbiaceae Caper Spurge
Euphorbia leucocephala Euphorbiaceae Snow Bush
Euphorbia milii lutea Euphorbiaceae Yellow Crown of Thorns
Euphorbia milii splendens Euphorbiaceae Orchid Crown of Thorns
Euphorbia milli Euphorbiaceae Crown of Thorns
Euphorbia neohumbertii  (not native of India) Euphorbiaceae Little Palm Cactus
Euphorbia neriifolia Euphorbiaceae Indian Spurge Tree

Euphorbia nivulia

  Euphorbiaceae Leafy Milk Hedge
Euphorbia notoptera Euphorbiaceae Winged Seed Spurge
Euphorbia peplus Euphorbiaceae Radium Weed
Euphorbia prostrata Euphorbiaceae Prostrate Sandmat
Euphorbia pulcherrima Euphorbiaceae Poinsettia
Euphorbia pycnostegia Chamaesyce pycnostegia Euphorbiaceae Covered-Flower Spurge
Euphorbia rosea Chamaesyce rosea Euphorbiaceae Rosy Spurge
Euphorbia royleana Euphorbiaceae Danda Thor
Euphorbia serpens Euphorbia bombaiensis, Euphorbia orbiculata var. jawaharii Euphorbiaceae Matted Sandmat
Euphorbia sikkimensis Euphorbiaceae Sikkim Spurge
Euphorbia spp. Euphorbiaceae Crown of Thorns red-green
Euphorbia stracheyi Euphorbia himalayensis, Tithymalus himalayensis Euphorbiaceae Himalayan Prostrate Spurge
Euphorbia tibetica Tithymalus tibeticus, Galarhoeus tibeticus Euphorbiaceae Tibetan Spurge
Euphorbia viguieri (not native of India) Euphorbiaceae Viguier’s Spurge
Euphorbia wallichii Euphorbiaceae Wallich Spurge

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Euphorbia griffithii (Not mentioned in Flora of India Vol. 23 (2013)).
Euphorbia parviflora (Euphorbia indica Lam. Syn: E. parviflora auct. non L. 1759: Roxb. as per Flora of India Vol. 23 (2013)).
Euphorbia pseudo-sikkimens (Not mentioned in Flora of India Vol. 23 (2013)).
Euphorbia pseudosikkimensis (Not mentioned in Flora of India Vol. 23 (2013)).

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Euphorbia atoto ( ? Euphorbia pallens Dillwyn syn: E. articulata Dennst.; E. atoto auct. non G. Forst., 1786: Hook.f.; E. halophila Miq.; Chamaesyce pallens (Dillwyn) V.S.Raju as per Flora of India Vol. 23 (2013)).
Euphorbia bifida (Not mentioned in Flora of India Vol. 23 (2013)).
Euphorbia griffithii (Not mentioned in Flora of India Vol. 23 (2013)).

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Euphorbia floral morphology Diagram: Attaching a genral Euphorbia sp. floral morphology diagram from the classic book of Botany By D. H. Lawrence. We have had a very rich contribution of the various species of Euphorbia and this thought would add to  the understanding. Besides we have already had the simple keys developed and under further construction?! by … yesterday.


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A revision of geophytic Euphorbia species from India – International (pdf) by Soumen Aditya- Euphorbia World Vol. 6 n. 1 – April 2010


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(With Keys of
Euphorbia chamaesyce L. (? Euphorbia prostrata Aiton syn: E. chamaesyce auct. non L. 1753 as per Flora of India Vol. 23)
Euphorbia geniculata Ortega is a synonym of Euphorbia heterophylla ,
Euphorbia heyneana Spreng. as per Flora of India Vol. 23 (2013).
Euphorbia hypericifolia L. as per Flora of India Vol. 23 (2013).

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Euphorbia antiquorum and its Allies – FGaS by Meena Singh (Comparision of
Euphorbia susan-holmesiae Binojk. & Gopalan
Euphorbia tortilis &
Euphorbia vajravelui Binojk. & N.P.Balakr.)

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I have updated eFI (efloraofindia) page on  Euphorbia in line with Flora of India Vol. 23 (2012).

Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details. Any comments are welcome.


A great job done which will serve our nation and our purpose.


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An Excursion Flora of Central Tamilnadu, India By K. M. Matthew (1995)- Details with keys


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Flora of Ranga Reddi District Andhra Pradesh, India By T. Pullaiah, M. Silar Mohammed (2000)- Details with keys-

Encyclopaedia of world medicinal plants, Volume 1 By T. Pullaiah (2006)- Details-
Euphorbia chamaesyce L. (? Euphorbia prostrata Aiton syn: E. chamaesyce auct. non L. 1753 as per Flora of India Vol. 23 (2013))
Euphorbia pilosa L. (? Euphorbia cornigera Boiss. syn: E. pilosa L. var. cornigera (Boiss.) Hook.f.; E. pilosa auct. non L. as per Flora of India Vol. 23 (2013))

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Flora of Medak District, Andhra Pradesh, India By T. Pullaiah, Chintala Prabhakar, B. Ravi Prasad Rao (1998)- Details with keys-

1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants edited by Kerry Scott Walter, Harriet J. Gillett
Euphorbia panchganiensis Blatt. & McCann is a synonym of Euphorbia nana Royle – Rare- Maharastra

Euphorbia : 1 post by 1 author.

I have updated eFI (efloraofindia) page on Euphorbia

Attempts have been made to incorporate most of the species available in India & nearby areas with details & keys directly or through links as far as possible. It’s quite possible that there may be some discrepancy in the accepted names & synonyms taken from other links.

Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.

Any comments/ corrections are welcome.

Thanks to Dr. N. P. Balakrishnan & Dr. Tapas Chakrabarty for the wonderful work on Euphorbiaceae.


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Re: completed insertion of images of identified species of Euphorbia : 1 post by 1 author.
Some species were done by other members

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Pl. go through Euphorbia page (Euphorbiaceae) with  images of species in efloraofindia (done mainly by …).

If you find any mis-identification, pl. let us know.

If anybody can send images of other species of this genera (for incorporation in the website), it will be really nice. Also, if anybody is interested to take up the activity of inserting images on efloraofindia pages from efloraofindia posts, pl. let us know.


 

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