Solanum L., Sp. Pl. 1: 184. 1753


Unarmed or armed herbs, shrubs, climbers or small trees. Prickles when present straight or curved, with or without broad base. Hairs simple, branched or glandular. Leaves simple or compound, alternate, sometimes paired, mostly petiolate. Inflorescence axillary, extra-axillary or leaf-opposed, simple racemose, cymose or paniculate clusters, rarely solitary, sessile or on a peduncle. Flowers usually bisexual and actinomorphic, 5-merous. Calyx lobed or parted variously, often persistent and enlarged in fruit. Corolla mostly rotate or stellate. Stamens 5, inserted on corolla tube; anthers connivent, dehiscing by apical pores. Carpels 2, united. Ovary 2-4 chambered, with swollen oblique plancenta. Ovules numerous, placentation axile. Fruit a berry. Seeds discoid or lenticular with curved embryo.
More than 1500 species, mostly of tropical and subtropical climates. More than 32 species in India, wild or cultivated
Key to Indian Species of Solanum (Wild or cultivated*.)
   
1a Plants herbaceous throughout (2)
1b Plants partly or wholly woody (8)
     
2a Prickles absent (3)
2b Prickles present (7)
     
3a Leaves simple, entire or slightly lobed (4)
3b Leaves pinnate compound (6)
     
4a Flowers <5 mm across; anthers 1.5 mm long; fruiting pedicels erect or reflexed; berry 6 -7 mm, black, shining 1. S. americanum
4b Flowers > 5 mm across; anthers 2-3 mm long; fruiting pedicels reflexed; berry > 7mm; green, yellow, orange or black, not shining (5)
     
5a Infl. 3-5 flowered; peduncle in fruit <13 mm; berry longer than broad, red, orange or green 2. S. villosum (L.) Moench.
5b Infl. 5-20 flowered; peduncle in fruit > 15 mm; berry broader than long, dull purple, black or yellowish green 3. S. nigrum L.
     
6a Flowers yellow; plants densely hairy; underground tubers absent 4. S. lycopersicum L.*
6b Flowers white or purplish;plants sparsely hairy; underground tubers absent 5. S. tuberosum L.*
     
7a Flowers mauve; berry ovoid-oblong,4-7 cm long, yellow, pointed, with basal lobes; leaves entire or slightly lobed 6. S. mammosum L.*
7b Flowers white; berry globose, 1-1.5 cm, bright red, enclosed in prickly calyx; leaves deeply pinnately lobed 7. S. sisymbrifolium Lam.
     
8a Plants woody only at base, herbaceous above (9)
8b Plants mostly woody (10)
     
9a Usually unarmed, sometimes armed in wild; floccose-pubescent; leaves sinuate; flowers usually solitary, rarely few-flowered; corolla 2-4 cm across, bluish; berry globose or ovoid, more than 6 cm long 8. S. melongena  L.
9b Usually armed with hooked prickles; plant scurfy; lleaves sinuately lobed; flowers in clusters of 2-6, 2 cm across, white; berry globose, scarlet or yellow, 4-6 cm across 9. S. integrifolium Poir. (Syn. of Solanum aethiopicum L.)
     
10a The Plants climbing or scrambling (11)
10b The plants woody shrubs or trees (15)
     
11a Prickles absent (12)
11b Prickles present (14)
     
12a Leaves simple or lobed at base (13)
12b Leaves pinnate, flowers lilac; berry globose, bright red, 7-9 mm across 10. S. seaforthianum  Andr.*
     
13a Flowers white or tinged blue;corolla lobes spreading 11. S. laxum  Spreng.*
13b Flowers violet, spotted with green; corolla lobes reflexed; berry ovoid, scarlet, 8-10 mm across 12. S. dulcamara  L.*
     
14a Leaves pinnate; prickles curved; flowers lilac 5-6 cm across; berry globose, 7-10 cm across 13. S. wendlandii  Hook.f.*
14b Leaves 3-5 lobed; flowers bluish-violet, 2.5-3 cm across; berry globose, 6-8 mm across 14. S. trilobatum  L.
     
15a Plants unarmed (16)
15b Plants armed with prickles (21)
     
16 Flowers white (17)
16b Flowers blue or purple (19)
     
17a Glabrous shrubs, leaves less than 10 cm long (18)
17b Stellate-pubescent shrubs; leaves longer than 10 cm, crowded towards tips of branches, with yellowish hairs beneath; flowers creamy white; berry globose, 1 cm across, yellow, covered with stellate hairs 15. S. erianthum  D. Don
     
18a Leaves narrow-oblong to oblanceolate,less than 2 cm broad, entire peduncle almost absent; fls 1-3 together, 1-1.5 cm across; berry 1-2 cm across, scarlet or orange 16. S. pseudocapsicum L.*
18b Leaves elliptic, more than 2 cm broad, in unequal pairs; peduncle distinct, 3-12 mm long; flowers more than 3, 4-6 mm across; berry 7-12 mm across, erect, orange, slightly bilobed 17. S. diphyllum L.*
     
19a Flowers 2-3 cm across; one anther 8 mm long, 4 half as long; berry globose, glossy red, 1.5 cm across; stem with ashy-grey tomentum; leaves 3-8 cm long 18. S. pubescens  Willd.
19b Flowers less than 1.5 cm across; all anthers equal (20)
     
20a Leaves axils with pairs of small auricle-like leaves; leaves 15-30 cm long, 7-11 cm broad, softly pubescent, upper surface dark green, lower pale green; corollblue, 9-11 mm across; berry globose, 1.5 cm across, orange-yellow, densely stellate pubescent 19. S. mauritianum  Scop.
20b Leaf axils without auricles; leaves shoter than 12 cm, deeply lobed; flowers 8-10 mm across, purple 20. S. kurzii Brace
     
21a Prickles on stem straight, without broad base (22)
21b Prickles on stem curved or straight, with broad base (23)
     
22a Flowers white, 22-30 mm across, corolla lobes lanceolate; taller shrub; calyx prickly; berry globose, 20-30 mm across, pale green with dark green markings, yellow or orange red when ripe 21. S. capsicoides
22b Flowers blue or violet, 20-25 mm across, corolla lobes ovate-triangular; Small spreading shrub up to 50 cm with yellow prickles; calyx prickly leaves deeply lobed, greenish and glabrescent; berry globose, yellow, 15-20 mm across 22. S. virginianum  L.
   
23a Flowers white or pink (24)
23b Flowers blue or purple (28)
   
24a Berry densely covered with hairs, globose, 2-3 cm across, orange when ripe; leaves longer than 20 cm, with acutely triangular lobes; infl. 6-15-flowered; corolla 2-3.5 cm across 23. S. lasiocarpum
24b Berry glabrous (25)
   
25a Leaves shallowly lobed (26)
25b Leaves deeply lobed almost to middle (27)
     
26a Leaves coarsely sinuate with uually 7 triangular lobes, unequal sided at base; inflorescence with numerous flowers (up to 100), dichotomous; flowers 2-2.5 cm across, white; berry 8-12 mm across, globose, yellow turning orange 24. S. torvum  Sw.
26b Leaves elliptic-ovate, sinuate or with 2-4 pairs of lobes, base oblique; flowers in raceme-like cyme, 5-20-fld; corolla 6-12 mm across; white with occasional purple veins on outer surface; berry subglobose, 8-11 mm green or white when young, red when ripe, in clusters of up to 20 fruits 25. S. anguivi  Lam.
     
27a Plant ferruginous, leaves deeply pinnately lobed; corolla 3 cm across, white; berry globose, 1.5 cm across, yellowish brown; prickles short, curved down 26. Solanum chrysotrichum Sch.
27b Plant hirsute; prickles straight as well as curved; glandular hairs present; prickles up to 5 mm long on stem, straight and up 18 mm long on petiole and both surfaces of leaf; leaf hairy on both surface; infl. 1-5-fld, peduncle reduced; corolla white, berry pale yellow, 2-3 cm across 27. S. viarum  Dunal
 
28a Prickles straight, on stem and leaves beneath; flowers deep purple, fading into blue and finally white, 6-9 cm across; Berry 3-4 cm across, globose, red or remaining green 28. S. wrightii  Benth*
28b prickles curved (29)
     
29a
29b

30a

30b

Prickles on both stem and leaves; leaves lobed, unequal at base;
Prickles only on stem, not on leaves

 All flowers bisexual, fruits more than one per inflorescence, erect; corolla blue-purple, 2-2.5 cm across; berry globose, orange, 1 cm across.
Only basal flower bisexual, fruit one per inflorescence, deflexed; corolla purple; 3-3.5 cm across; berry globose, yellow, 2-3 cm across

(30)
(31)

29. S. violaceum  Ortega

30. S. incanum L. 

     
31a Tree-like, prickles short, stout; leaves oblong-lanceolate, entire, glossy above, silvery white beneath; cymose clusters on 2-3 cm long peduncle; flowers mauve, 1 cm across; berry 9-11 mm across, globose, glossy, red when mature 31. S. giganteum  Jacq.
31b Small shrub; hairs stellate; leaves small, about 4 cm long, cordate; infl. 1-3 fld; fls 2 cm across 32. S. gracilipes Decne. (syn. of Solanum cordatum Forssk.)


 

Binomial Habit Notes References Distribution



















































































































































































































































































Solanum americanum Mill Herb Plains to Low Altitude, Naturalized , Native of Tropical America  Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 All districts
Solanum anguivi Lam. Shrub Plains, Dry Localities/ Cleared Forests R. Vijaya Sankar, 2007 Tiruvannamalai
Solanum aviculari G. Forst. Shrub Western Ghats, Evergreen Forests, Cultivated, Native of Australia   Nilgiri
Solanum barbisetum Nees Shrub Western Ghats, Evergreen Forests,  Naturalized, Native of Tropical America  Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Gamble 1957 Nilgiri
Solanum capsicastrum Link & Schau. = Solanum pseudocapsicum Shrub Western Ghats, Evergreen Forests,  Naturalized, Native of Tropical America  Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 Nilgiri
Solanum capsicoides Mart. Herb / Under shrub Western Ghats, Evergreen Forests,  Naturalized, Native of Tropical America  Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 Nilgiri 
Solanum clavatum Rusby Shrub Western Ghats, Evergreen Forests,  Cultivated, Native of Tropical America  Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 Nilgiri
Solanum convolvulus Sendtner is a synonym of Solanum flaccidum Vell. Climber Western Ghats, Evergreen Forests,  Cultivated, Native of Tropical America  Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 Nilgiri
Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav. Herb / Under shrub Plains , Dry Localities Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 Coimbatore, Madurai, Theni
Solanum erianthum D.Don Shrub / small tree Moist Deciduous Forests Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 Coimbatore, Dharmapuri, Dindigul, Erode, Kanniyakumari, Namakkal, Nilgiri, Salem, Theni, Tirunelveli, Tiruvannamalai, Vellore, Viluppuram, Virudhunagar
Solanum giganteum Jacq. Shrub / small tree Moist Deciduous to Evergreen Forests  Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 Dharmapuri, Dindigul, Namakkal,  Nilgiri, Theni,  Salem
Solanum grandiflorum Ruiz & Pavon Under shrub Western Ghats, Evergreen Forests Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 Coimbatore, Nilgiri
Solanum hispidum Pers. = Solanum asperolanatum Ruiz & Pav. Shrub / small tree Eastern Ghats, Dry Deciduous to Moist Deciduous Forests, Open  Localities, Naturalized, Native of Tropical America Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 Salem, Viluppuram
Solanum insanum J.B.Fisch. (? Solanum insanum L.) Sub shrub Plains,  Cultivated Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 All districts
Solanum jasminoides Paxt. = Solanum laxum  Twining Shrub Western Ghats, Evergreen Forests,  Cultivated/ Naturalized, Native of Tropical America Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 Dindigul, Nilgiri
Solanum kurzii Brace ex Prain = Solanum violaceum Shrub Western Ghats, Evergreen Forests, Cultivated, Native of Himalaya Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 Nilgiri
Solanum lasiocarpum Dunal Herb Western Ghats, Evergreen Forests   Coimbatore, Dindigul, Kanniyakumari, Tirunelveli
Solanum macrocarpon  L.  Herb Western Ghats, Evergreen Forests, Cultivated, Native of Tropical Africa   Tirunelveli
Solanum macrophyllum Dunal = Solanum lanceifolium  Tree Western Ghats, Evergreen Forests, Cultivated, Native of Tropical America Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 Nilgiri
Solanum marginatum L.f. Shrub Western Ghats, Evergreen Forests, Cultivated, Native of Tropical America Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 Nilgiri
Solanum mauritianum Scop. Shrub Western Ghats, Naturalized, Native of Tropical Africa Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 Coimbatore, Nilgiri
Solanum melongena L. var. melongena Herb Plains,  Cultivated Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 All districts
Solanum pseudo-capsicum L. var. difflorum (Vell.) Bitter Shrub Western Ghats, Naturalized, Native of Tropical America   Dindigul, Nilgiri
Solanum pseudo-capsicum L.var. pseudo-capsicum Shrub Western Ghats, Naturalized, Native of Tropical America Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 Dindigul 
Solanum pubescens Willd. Shrub Dry Deciduous to Moist Deciduous Forests, Open  Localities Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 Coimbatore, Dharmapuri, Dindigul, Erode, Kanniyakumari, Namakkal, Nilgiri, Salem, Theni, Tirunelveli, Tiruvannamalai, Vellore, Viluppuram, Virudhunagar
Solanum robustum H. Wendl. Shrub Western Ghats, Evergreen Forests   Nilgiri
Solanum seaforthianum Andr. Shrub Western Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Deciduous to Moist Deciduous Forests, Naturalized,  Native of Tropical America Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 Dharmapuri, Dindigul, Nilgiri, Theni, Salem, Tiruvannamalai
Solanum sisymbrifolium Lam. Under shrub Western Ghats, Evergreen Forests, Naturalized, Native of  Tropical America Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 Coimbatore, Dindigul, Nilgiri
Solanum stramoniifolium Jacq. Herb Western Ghats, Moist Deciduous to Evergreen Forests Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Gamble 1957 Coimbatore, Dindigul, Erode, Kanniyakumari,  Nilgiri,  Theni, Tirunelveli, Virudhunagar
Solanum torvum Sw. Shrub Plains to Low Altitude, Cultivated, Native of Tropical America Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 All districts
Solanum trilobatum L. Climbing Under shrub Dry Evergreen to Dry Deciduous Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 All districts
Solanum tuberosum L. Herb Western Ghats, Evergreen Forests,  Cultivated, Native of Tropical America Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 Dindigul, Nilgiri
Solanum vagum Heyne ex Nees Shrub / Under shrub Western Ghats, Evergreen Forests Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 Tirunelveli, Virudhunagar
Solanum viarum Dunal  Under shrub Western Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Moist Deciduous Forests, Naturalized, Native of Tropical America Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 Coimbatore, Kanniyakumari, Nilgiri, Salem
Solanum violaceum Ortega Subsp. multiflorum (C. B. Clarke) K. M. Matthew Herb Western Ghats, Evergreen Forests, Open  Localities Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 Coimbatore, Dindigul, Nilgiri, Tirunelveli
Solanum violaceum Ortega Subsp. violaceum Under shrub Dry Deciduous Forests Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 All districts
Solanum virginianum L. Herb/ Under shrub Plains, Dry Localities Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 All districts
Solanum wendlandii Hook.f. Climbing shrub Western Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Naturalized, Native of Tropical America Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 Dindigul, Salem
Solanum wrightii Benth. Shrub / small tree Western Ghats, Evergreen Forests,  Cultivated, Native of Tropical America Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Gamble 1957, Matthew 1999 Nilgiri




 



















































































































































































































































































Solanum pubescens HEYNE. EX WALP. (? Solanum pubescens Willd.)










































 

 

Botanical name Synonyms Family Common name

































































































































Solanum betaceum Cyphomandra betacea, Solanum crassifolium, Cyphomandra crassifolia Solanaceae Tree Tomato
Solanum carolinense L. Solanaceae Horse Nettle
Solanum diphyllum Solanaceae Twoleaf Nightshade
Solanum erianthum Solanaceae Big Eggplant
Solanum giganteum Solanum niveum Solanaceae Red Bitter Berry
Solanum laxum Solanum jasminoides, Solanum boerhaviifolium, Solanum triphyllum Solanaceae Potato Vine
Solanum macranthum Solanaceae Potato Tree
Solanum mammosum Solanum platanifolium, Solanum globiferum, Solanum mammosissimum Solanaceae Nipple Fruit
Solanum mauritianum Solanum auriculatum, Solanum tabacifolium, Solanum verbascifolium var. auriculatum Solanaceae Tree Tobacco
Solanum melongena Solanaceae Brinjal
Solanum nigrum Solanaceae Black Nightshade
Solanum pseudocapsicum Solanaceae Jerusalem Cherry
Solanum seaforthianum Solanum venustum, Solanum prunifolium, Solanum cyrrhosum Solanaceae Brazilian Nightshade
Solanum sisymbriifolium Solanaceae Sticky Nightshade
Solanum torvum Solanaceae Turkey Berry
Solanum trilobatum Solanaceae Purple Fruited Pea Eggplant
Solanum tuberosum Solanaceae Potato
Solanum viarum Solanum viridiflorum, Solanum khasianum var. chatterjeeanum Solanaceae Tropical Soda Apple
Solanum villosum Solanum alatum, Solanum luteum, Solanum nigrum var. villosum Solanaceae Yellow Nightshade
Solanum violaceum Solanum chinense Solanaceae Indian Nightshade
Solanum virginianum Solanum surattense, Solanum xanthocarpum Solanaceae Thorny Nightshade
Solanum wendlandii Solanaceae Giant Potato Creeper

 

 

Solanum wightii (No distribution in India)


 
























Abstract : While preparing an inventory of fl owering plants of the Kolli hills, Namakkal district, Tamil Nadu, Southern India, some specimens of Solanum L. were collected and identifi ed as S. cordatum Forssk. On scrutiny of literature, it is revealed that this species is known only from Gujarat in India and forms a new record to Southern India. Hence, a detailed description, phenology and illustration are provided to facilitate easy identifi cation of the species.


Solanum diphyllum (Solanaceae) – A new record for Southern India by M. Reema Kumari – Rheedea Vol. 23(1) 50-51 2013-
AbstractSolanum diphyllum L., a tropical American species, is added here to the flora of Southern India from Bangalore, Karnataka. Its occurrence in Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu is discussed. A detailed description and photograph of the species are provided for easy identification.

Fruits and/or leaves of 31 species of Solanum that grow in India have been assayed for total alkaloid content and the presnce of solasodine in them has.






Solanum clavatum Rusby






Solanum glaucum



Solanum hispidum Pers. = Solanum asperolanatum Ruiz & Pav.











Solanum robustum H. L. Wendl. 








Solanum vagum Heyn. ex Nees



 
Pharmacognostical And Phdytochemical Comparison of Roots of Solanum Species Used in Ayurvedic Formulations by *Jayanthy A. Sulaiman C.T. and Rema Shree A. B.- International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research 2012; 4(1);28-37
ABSTRACT : Pharmacognostical studies play an important role in the identification of the genuine plant of various Ayurvedic raw drugs. Adulteration/substitution exists for many ayurvedic raw drugs due to the non-availability of genuine herbs in required quantities and controversy in the selection of source plants. Solanum species are involved in ayurvedic preparations as the members of laghupanchamula group of plants. Present paper deals with the comparison of the roots of most commonly used species of Solanum by studying the micro-morphological, anatomical, physicochemical characters and chemical comparison by TLC and HPLC studies.


Species discussed:







 



Solanum diffusum Ruiz & Pav. is a synonym of Solanum ternatum Ruiz & Pav.



Solanum esculentum Dunal is a synonym of Solanum melongena















Solanum sanctum L. is a synonym of Solanum incanum L.








Indian Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated Dictionary edited by C.P. Khare (2007)- Details-
……………..
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Solanum trilobatum …………

Gardening in India By George Marshall Woodrow, G Marshall (1999)- Details-






 
An Excursion Flora of Central Tamilnadu, India By K. M. Matthew (1995)- Details-
…………..


 
Vegetables edited by G. J. H. Grubben (2005)- Great Details-
 
1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants edited by Kerry Scott Walter, Harriet J. Gillett
Solanum kurzii PRAIN. (= Solanum violaceum) – Indeterminate- Tamilnadu


 
Flora of Medak District, Andhra Pradesh, India By T. Pullaiah, Chintala Prabhakar, B. Ravi Prasad Rao (1998)- Details with keys


 
Antidiabetic Plants in India and Herbal Based Antidiabetic Research By T. Pullaiah, K. Chandrasekhar Naidu (2003)- Details-


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Medicinal Plants, Volume 1 (2005)- Great Details-
 
Solanum : 1 post by 1 author.

I have updated eFI (efloraofindia) page on Solanum

Attempts have been made to incorporate most of the species available in India & nearby areas with details & keys directly or through links as far as possible. It’s quite possible that there may be some discrepancy in the accepted names & synonyms taken from other links.

Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.

If someone can provide complete list of Indian species with source references it will be wonderful.

Any comments/ corrections are welcome.


Solanum Americanum Mill. (Images by Gurcharan Singh and Surajit Koley– inserted by Gurcharan Singh)

Solanum anguivi Lam. (Images by Dinesh Valke (Id by Varun Sharma) (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more photos & complete details, click on the links))

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Solanum betaceum Cav. (images by Aarti KhaleNidhan Singh ; Inserted by Gurcharan Singh)


 

olanum capsicoides All. (images by Prashant AwaleYazdi Palia; inserted by Gurcharan Singh)

 Solanum chrysotrichum Schltdl. (Images by Gurcharan SinghNidhan Singh inserted by Gurcharan Singh)


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