Solanum aethiopicum L. (Introduced) (Native range is a cultigen from NE. Tropical Africa: Eritrea, Ethiopia; Introduced into: Angola, Assam, Benin, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colorado, Congo, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Illinois, Ivory Coast, Kentucky, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Vietnam, Windward Is., Zambia, Zaïre as per POWO)

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Solanum americanum Mill. (Fruiting calyx reflexed) (Images by Gurcharan Singh and Surajit Koley– inserted by Gurcharan Singh)


Solanum anguivi Lam. 

(Images by Dinesh Valke (Id by Varun Sharma) (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more photos & complete details, click on the links))

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Solanum asperolanatum Ruiz & Pav. (Introduced) (Mexico to Guatemala, W. South America: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Peru; Introduced into: Azores, Cape Provinces, India, Queensland as per POWO)

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Solanum betaceum Cav. (Introduced) (S. Tropical America: Argentina Northwest, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela, Windward Is.; Introduced into: Angola, Assam, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Cayman Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, East Himalaya, Ethiopia, Ghana, Great Britain, Guatemala, Gulf of Guinea Is., Honduras, India, Italy, Jamaica, Jawa, KwaZulu-Natal, Madagascar, Malawi, Marianas, Mauritius, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Myanmar, Netherlands, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, New Zealand North, Niue, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rwanda, Réunion, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sumatera, Taiwan, Tanzania, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Vietnam, Zaïre, Zimbabwe as per POWO)

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Solanum capsicoides All. (images by Prashant AwaleYazdi Palia; inserted by Gurcharan Singh)

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Solanum chrysotrichum Schltdl. (Images by Gurcharan SinghNidhan Singh inserted by Gurcharan Singh)

 


Solanum cordatum Forssk. (NE. Tropical Africa to N. Kenya, W. Yemen, Afghanistan to N. India: Afghanistan, Djibouti, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, Oman, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Socotra, Somalia, Yemen as per POWO)

 


Solanum diphyllum L. (Introduced) (Mexico to Central America: Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua; Introduced into: Bahamas, China South-Central, Dominican Republic, Florida, India, Philippines, Taiwan, Texas, Vietnam, West Himalaya as per POWO)

       
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Solanum dulcamara L. (Introduced) (Albania, Austria, Belgium, Baleares, England, Bulgaria, Corsica, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece (incl. Kiklades), East Aegaean Isl., Ireland, Switzerland, Netherlands, Spain, Hungary, Italy, Serbia & Kosovo, Montenegro, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Hercegovina, Portugal, Malta, Norway, Poland, Romania, Sardinia, Sicily, Sweden, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, C-, N-, W- & E-European Russia, Crimea, Belarus, Ukraine, Northern Caucasus, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia [Caucasus], Siberia (W-Siberia), Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan (I), Australia (I) (Tasmania (I)), Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, New Zealand (I), China (Henan, SW-Sichuan, Xinjiang, NW-Yunnan), SE-Tibet, Turkey (E-Anatolia, Inner Anatolia, N-Anatolia, NE-Anatolia, NW-Anatolia: Bithynia, S-Anatolia, SE-Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia, W-Anatolia), European Turkey, Israel (Rift Valley), Jordania (W-Jordania), Lebanon (Antilebanon, C-Lebanon, coastal W-Lebanon), Azores (Terceira), Myanmar [Burma] (Mandalay, Yangon), Pakistan (Kurram, Hazara, Murree), Jammu & Kashmir (Kashmir, Poonch), Vietnam, USA (I) (California (I), Colorado (I), Connecticut (I), District of Columbia (I), Delaware (I), Florida (I), Georgia (I), Iowa (I), Idaho (I), Illinois (I), Indiana (I), Kansas (I), Kentucky (I), Massachusetts (I), Maryland (I), Maine (I), Michigan (I), Minnesota (I), Missouri (I), Montana (I), North Carolina (I), North Dakota (I), Nebraska (I), New Hampshire (I), New Jersey (I), New Mexico (I), Nevada (I), New York (I), Ohio (I), Oklahoma (I), Oregon (I), Pennsylvania (I), Rhode Island (I), South Dakota (I), Tennessee (I), Utah (I), Virginia (I), Vermont (I), Washington State (I), Wisconsin (I), West Virginia (I), Wyoming (I)), Canada (I) (British Columbia (I), New Brunswick (I), Newfoundland (I), Nova Scotia (I), Ontario (I), Prince Edward Isl. (I), Quebec(I), Saskatchewan (I)) as per Catalogue of Life)

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Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav. (Introduced) (U.S.A. to Mexico, S. South America: Alabama, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Chile Central, Chile North, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Oregon, Paraguay, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Uruguay, Utah, Washington; Introduced into: Albania, Algeria, Aruba, Bahamas, Cape Provinces, Cuba, Cyprus, East Aegean Is., Egypt, Free State, Greece, Gulf States, Hawaii, India, Iran, Kriti, KwaZulu-Natal, Leeward Is., Morocco, Namibia, Netherlands Antilles, New South Wales, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Pakistan, Palestine, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Sinai, South Australia, Tunisia, Victoria, Western Australia as per POWO)

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Solanum erianthum D. Don (Introduced) (Tropical & Subtropical America: Bahamas, Belize, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Florida, Galápagos, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá, Puerto Rico, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is.; Introduced: Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Borneo, Cambodia, Cameroon, Caroline Is., China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Ghana, Guinea, Hainan, India, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Laos, Liberia, Malaya, Myanmar, Nepal, New South Wales, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Queensland, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Vietnam as per POWO)

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Solanum giganteum Jacq. (Introduced)

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Solanum incanum L. (Native to: Afghanistan, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gabon, Gulf States, India, Iran, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Socotra, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe; Introduced into: Andaman Is., Taiwan, Vietnam as per POWO)

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Solanum insanum L. (W. Indian Ocean, Tropical & Subtropical Asia: China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Hainan, India, Laos, Madagascar, Malaya, Mauritius, Myanmar, Philippines, Réunion, South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam, West Himalaya as per POWO)

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Solanum laciniatum Aiton (Cultivated)

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Solanum laxum Spreng. (Introduced) (SE. & S. Brazil to NE. Argentina: Argentina Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Paraguay, Uruguay; Introduced into: Azores, Bolivia, Brazil West-Central, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Colombia, Ecuador, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Nepal, New South Wales, Pakistan, Peru, Queensland, Tanzania, Zimbabwe as per POWO)

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Solanum lycopersicum L. (Introduced) (Peru; Introduced into: Alabama, Alaska, Andaman Is., Angola, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Austria, Azores, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belarus, Benin, Bolivia, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Burkina, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Chagos Archipelago, Chatham Is., Christmas I., Colombia, Comoros, Connecticut, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Fiji, Florida, Galápagos, Georgia, Gilbert Is., Gulf of Guinea Is., Haiti, Hawaii, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iowa, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Korea, Laccadive Is., Laos, Leeward Is., Line Is., Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Maine, Malawi, Mali, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Maryland, Massachusetts, Mauritania, Mauritius, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nauru, Nebraska, Nepal, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Caledonia, New Hampshire, New York, New Zealand North, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niue, North Carolina, North Dakota, Nova Scotia, Ogasawara-shoto, Ohio, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Panamá, Pennsylvania, Philippines, Pitcairn Is., Puerto Rico, Québec, Rhode I., Réunion, Saskatchewan, Selvagens, Society Is., South Carolina, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tennessee, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Utah, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vermont, Vietnam, Virginia, Wake I., Wisconsin, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe as per POWO)

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Solanum macrocarpon L. (Cultivated) (Tropical Africa, Comoros, Madagascar: Angola, Benin, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Comoros, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe; Introduced into: Egypt, Guatemala, Jamaica, Mauritius, Réunion as per POWO)

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Solanum mammosum L. (Introduced) (Tropical America: Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Nicaragua, Panamá, Peru, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Windward Is.; Introduced into: Burundi, China South-Central, China Southeast, Fiji, Ghana, Jawa, Kenya, Laos, Malawi, Malaya, Mauritius, Mozambique, Myanmar, Philippines, Queensland, Réunion, Taiwan, Uganda, Vietnam, Zaïre, Zimbabwe as per POWO)
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Solanum mauritianum Scop. (Introduced) (SE. & S. Brazil to Argentina (Buenos Aires): Argentina Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Uruguay; Introduced into: Angola, Azores, California, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Comoros, Cook Is., East Himalaya, Ecuador, Fiji, Florida, Free State, Hawaii, Jawa, Kenya, Madagascar, Madeira, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, New Caledonia, New South Wales, New Zealand North, Nigeria, Norfolk Is., Northern Provinces, Peru, Philippines, Queensland, Rwanda, Réunion, Sierra Leone, South Australia, Sri Lanka, Tonga, Uganda, Vietnam, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe as per POWO)
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Solanum melongena L. (China South-Central, Laos, Malaya, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam; Introduced into: Assam, Bangladesh, Cambodia, East Himalaya, India, Kazakhstan, Laccadive Is., Sri Lanka, Tadzhikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Zaïre as per POWO)

Images by BalkarSingh, Gurcharan Singh, Dinesh Valke & Surajit Koley (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more images & complete details,
click on the links) 

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Solanum multiflorum Roth (S. India, Andaman Islands: Andaman Is., India; Introduced into: East Himalaya as per POWO)

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Solanum muricatum Aiton (Introduced. Colombia to Peru: Colombia, Ecuador, Peru as per POWO)

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Solanum nigrum L. (Fruiting calyx appressed or slightly deflexed) (Temp. Eurasia, Macaronesia, N. & NE. Tropical Africa: Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Andaman Is., Assam, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Central European Rus, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Gulf States, Hungary, India, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Madeira, Manchuria, Morocco, Myanmar, Nepal, Netherlands, Nicobar Is., North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Norway, Ogasawara-shoto, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Romania, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Selvagens, Sicilia, Sinai, South China Sea, South European Russi, Spain, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Western Sahara, Yemen, Yugoslavia as per POWO)

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Solanum pseudocapsicum L. (Introduced. Bolivia to Brazil and S. South America: Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Bolivia, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Chile Central, Chile North, Juan Fernández Is., Paraguay, Uruguay; Introduced into: Alabama, Assam, Azores, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Connecticut, Czechoslovakia, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Florida, France, Free State, Georgia, Great Britain, Greece, Hawaii, Honduras, India, Iran, Jawa, Kenya, Kriti, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Massachusetts, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Myanmar, Nepal, New South Wales, New York, North Carolina, North Caucasus, Northern Provinces, Pakistan, Panamá, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Queensland, Réunion, South Australia, South Carolina, Spain, Taiwan, Tanzania, Texas, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Turkey, Venezuela, Victoria, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe as per POWO)

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Solanum pubescens Willd. (Yemen, Indian Subcontinent: India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Yemen as per POWO)

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Solanum robustum H.L.Wendl. (Introduced- Notes: Western Ghats, Evergreen Forests as per India Biodiversity Portal)

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Solanum seaforthianum Andrews (Florida to Caribbean, Mexico to Venezuela, Brazil (Fernando de Noronha): Belize, Brazil Northeast, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Florida, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá, Puerto Rico, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.; Introduced into: Bermuda, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Central African Repu, China South-Central, China Southeast, Comoros, Cyprus, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Ghana, Guyana, Hawaii, India, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Northern Provinces, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Queensland, Réunion, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe as per POWO)

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Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. (Introduced) (S. Tropical America: Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Chile Central, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay; Introduced into: Alabama, Arizona, Assam, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belgium, Benin, California, Cape Provinces, China South-Central, China Southeast, Costa Rica, Cuba, Delaware, East Himalaya, Florida, Free State, Georgia, Germany, India, Jawa, Kenya, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Mississippi, Morocco, Nepal, New Jersey, New South Wales, New York, North Carolina, North Caucasus, Northern Provinces, Ontario, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Queensland, South Carolina, Swaziland, Taiwan, Texas, Transcaucasus, Uzbekistan, Virginia, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Zaïre as per POWO)

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Solanum torvum Sw. (Mexico to N. South America, Caribbean, E. Brazil: Bahamas, Belize, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, Cayman Is., Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Leeward Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá, Puerto Rico, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Windward Is.; Introduced into: Alabama, Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caroline Is., China South-Central, China Southeast, Comoros, Congo, East Himalaya, Fiji, Florida, Gabon, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Hawaii, India, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Laccadive Is., Laos, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maryland, Mauritius, Myanmar, Nepal, New Caledonia, New South Wales, Nigeria, Northern Territory, Pakistan, Philippines, Queensland, Rwanda, Réunion, Senegal, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Tibet, Togo, Vietnam, Zaïre as per POWO)

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Solanum trilobatum L. (India, Sri Lanka, Indo-China to Peninsula Malaysia: India, Laos, Malaya, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Vietnam as per POWO)

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Solanum tuberosum L. (Introduced) (Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Bolivia, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela; Introduced into: Assam, Bangladesh, Belgium, Dominican Republic, East European Russia, East Himalaya, France, Great Britain, Haiti, Hawaii, Illinois, India, Ireland, Laos, Minnesota, New York, Tadzhikistan, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, Zaïre as per POWO)

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Solanum viarum Dunal (Introduced) (Mature berries yellow) (S. Tropical America to N. Argentina: Argentina Northeast, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay; Introduced into: Assam, East Himalaya, Honduras, India, KwaZulu-Natal, Myanmar, Sierra Leone, Swaziland, Vietnam, Zaïre as per POWO)

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Solanum villosum Mill. (Macaronesia, N. Africa to Eritrea and Mozambique, Europe to China and Arabian Peninsula, Indian Subcontinent: Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Belarus, Bulgaria, Burundi, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Central European Rus, Chad, China North-Central, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Gulf States, Hungary, India, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Kriti, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Madeira, Malawi, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Nigeria, North Caucasus, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Qinghai, Romania, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, Somalia, South European Russi, Spain, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Tanzania, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Sahara, Xinjiang, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe as per POWO)

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Solanum violaceum Ortega (Arabian Peninsula to Taiwan and Philippines: Assam, Bangladesh, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Hainan, India, Jawa, Laos, Myanmar, Pakistan, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Yemen as per POWO)

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Solanum virginianum L. (NE. Tropical Africa, Arabian Peninsula, S. Iran to S. Central China and Indo-China: Afghanistan, Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China South-Central, East Himalaya, Egypt, Gulf States, Hainan, India, Iran, Japan, Jawa, Malaya, Myanmar, Nepal, Oman, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Yemen as per POWO)
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Solanum wendlandii Hook. f. (Introduced) (Colombia (Antioquia, Cauca, Cundinamarca, Norte de Santander), Venezuela (Distrito Federal, Merida, Miranda, Nueva Esparta), Costa Rica, Panama, Mexico (Campeche, Chiapas, Guerrero, Jalisco, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, San Luis Potosi, Tabasco, Veracruz), Jamaica (I), Peru, Puerto Rico (I), Haiti (I), Dominican Republic (I), Nicaragua, Honduras, New Caledonia (I), Marquesas Isl. (I) (Nuku Hiva (I)), Ecuador (I), Cuba (I), Palau Isl. (I) (Koror (I)), Niue (I), Mauritius (I), La Runion (I), Zambia (I), Zimbabwe (I), Malawi (I), Mozambique (I), Uganda (I), Kenya (I), Egypt (I), Cameroon (I), Rwanda (I), Angola (I), Java (I), Nepal (I) as per CoL)

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Solanum wrightii Benth. (Introduced) (Bolivia: Introduced into: Cameroon, China Southeast, Congo, Costa Rica, Gabon, Ghana, Jawa, Kenya, Malawi, Myanmar, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Uganda, Venezuela, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe as per POWO)

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Solanum L., Sp. Pl. 1: 184. 1753

Unarmed or armed herbs, shrubs, climbers or small trees. Prickles when present straight or curved, with or without broad base. Hairs simple, branched or glandular. Leaves simple or compound, alternate, sometimes paired, mostly petiolate. Inflorescence axillary, extra-axillary or leaf-opposed, simple racemose, cymose or paniculate clusters, rarely solitary, sessile or on a peduncle. Flowers usually bisexual and actinomorphic, 5-merous. Calyx lobed or parted variously, often persistent and enlarged in fruit. Corolla mostly rotate or stellate. Stamens 5, inserted on corolla tube; anthers connivent, dehiscing by apical pores. Carpels 2, united. Ovary 2-4 chambered, with swollen oblique plancenta. Ovules numerous, placentation axile. Fruit a berry. Seeds discoid or lenticular with curved embryo.
More than 1500 species, mostly of tropical and subtropical climates. More than 32 species in India, wild or cultivated
Key to Indian Species of Solanum (Wild or cultivated*.)
1a Plants herbaceous throughout (2)
1b Plants partly or wholly woody (8)
2a Prickles absent (3)
2b Prickles present (7)
3a Leaves simple, entire or slightly lobed (4)
3b Leaves pinnate compound (6)
4a Flowers <5 mm across; anthers 1.5 mm long; fruiting pedicels erect or reflexed; berry 6 -7 mm, black, shining 1. S. americanum
4b Flowers > 5 mm across; anthers 2-3 mm long; fruiting pedicels reflexed; berry > 7mm; green, yellow, orange or black, not shining (5)
5a Infl. 3-5 flowered; peduncle in fruit <13 mm; berry longer than broad, red, orange or green 2. S. villosum (L.) Moench.
5b Infl. 5-20 flowered; peduncle in fruit > 15 mm; berry broader than long, dull purple, black or yellowish green 3. S. nigrum L.
6a Flowers yellow; plants densely hairy; underground tubers absent 4. S. lycopersicum L.*
6b Flowers white or purplish;plants sparsely hairy; underground tubers absent 5. S. tuberosum L.*
7a Flowers mauve; berry ovoid-oblong,4-7 cm long, yellow, pointed, with basal lobes; leaves entire or slightly lobed 6. S. mammosum L.*
7b Flowers white; berry globose, 1-1.5 cm, bright red, enclosed in prickly calyx; leaves deeply pinnately lobed 7. S. sisymbrifolium Lam.
8a Plants woody only at base, herbaceous above (9)
8b Plants mostly woody (10)
9a Usually unarmed, sometimes armed in wild; floccose-pubescent; leaves sinuate; flowers usually solitary, rarely few-flowered; corolla 2-4 cm across, bluish; berry globose or ovoid, more than 6 cm long 8. S. melongena  L.
9b Usually armed with hooked prickles; plant scurfy; lleaves sinuately lobed; flowers in clusters of 2-6, 2 cm across, white; berry globose, scarlet or yellow, 4-6 cm across 9. S. integrifolium Poir. (Syn. of Solanum aethiopicum L.)
10a The Plants climbing or scrambling (11)
10b The plants woody shrubs or trees (15)
11a Prickles absent (12)
11b Prickles present (14)
12a Leaves simple or lobed at base (13)
12b Leaves pinnate, flowers lilac; berry globose, bright red, 7-9 mm across 10. S. seaforthianum  Andr.*
13a Flowers white or tinged blue;corolla lobes spreading 11. S. laxum  Spreng.*
13b Flowers violet, spotted with green; corolla lobes reflexed; berry ovoid, scarlet, 8-10 mm across 12. S. dulcamara  L.*
14a Leaves pinnate; prickles curved; flowers lilac 5-6 cm across; berry globose, 7-10 cm across 13. S. wendlandii  Hook.f.*
14b Leaves 3-5 lobed; flowers bluish-violet, 2.5-3 cm across; berry globose, 6-8 mm across 14. S. trilobatum  L.
15a Plants unarmed (16)
15b Plants armed with prickles (21)
16 Flowers white (17)
16b Flowers blue or purple (19)
17a Glabrous shrubs, leaves less than 10 cm long (18)
17b Stellate-pubescent shrubs; leaves longer than 10 cm, crowded towards tips of branches, with yellowish hairs beneath; flowers creamy white; berry globose, 1 cm across, yellow, covered with stellate hairs 15. S. erianthum  D. Don
18a Leaves narrow-oblong to oblanceolate,less than 2 cm broad, entire peduncle almost absent; fls 1-3 together, 1-1.5 cm across; berry 1-2 cm across, scarlet or orange 16. S. pseudocapsicum L.*
18b Leaves elliptic, more than 2 cm broad, in unequal pairs; peduncle distinct, 3-12 mm long; flowers more than 3, 4-6 mm across; berry 7-12 mm across, erect, orange, slightly bilobed 17. S. diphyllum L.*
19a Flowers 2-3 cm across; one anther 8 mm long, 4 half as long; berry globose, glossy red, 1.5 cm across; stem with ashy-grey tomentum; leaves 3-8 cm long 18. S. pubescens  Willd.
19b Flowers less than 1.5 cm across; all anthers equal (20)
20a Leaves axils with pairs of small auricle-like leaves; leaves 15-30 cm long, 7-11 cm broad, softly pubescent, upper surface dark green, lower pale green; corollblue, 9-11 mm across; berry globose, 1.5 cm across, orange-yellow, densely stellate pubescent 19. S. mauritianum  Scop.
20b Leaf axils without auricles; leaves shoter than 12 cm, deeply lobed; flowers 8-10 mm across, purple 20. S. kurzii Brace
21a Prickles on stem straight, without broad base (22)
21b Prickles on stem curved or straight, with broad base (23)
22a Flowers white, 22-30 mm across, corolla lobes lanceolate; taller shrub; calyx prickly; berry globose, 20-30 mm across, pale green with dark green markings, yellow or orange red when ripe 21. S. capsicoides
22b Flowers blue or violet, 20-25 mm across, corolla lobes ovate-triangular; Small spreading shrub up to 50 cm with yellow prickles; calyx prickly leaves deeply lobed, greenish and glabrescent; berry globose, yellow, 15-20 mm across 22. S. virginianum  L.
23a Flowers white or pink (24)
23b Flowers blue or purple (28)
24a Berry densely covered with hairs, globose, 2-3 cm across, orange when ripe; leaves longer than 20 cm, with acutely triangular lobes; infl. 6-15-flowered; corolla 2-3.5 cm across 23. S. lasiocarpum
24b Berry glabrous (25)
25a Leaves shallowly lobed (26)
25b Leaves deeply lobed almost to middle (27)
26a Leaves coarsely sinuate with uually 7 triangular lobes, unequal sided at base; inflorescence with numerous flowers (up to 100), dichotomous; flowers 2-2.5 cm across, white; berry 8-12 mm across, globose, yellow turning orange 24. S. torvum  Sw.
26b Leaves elliptic-ovate, sinuate or with 2-4 pairs of lobes, base oblique; flowers in raceme-like cyme, 5-20-fld; corolla 6-12 mm across; white with occasional purple veins on outer surface; berry subglobose, 8-11 mm green or white when young, red when ripe, in clusters of up to 20 fruits 25. S. anguivi  Lam.
27a Plant ferruginous, leaves deeply pinnately lobed; corolla 3 cm across, white; berry globose, 1.5 cm across, yellowish brown; prickles short, curved down 26. Solanum chrysotrichum Sch.
27b Plant hirsute; prickles straight as well as curved; glandular hairs present; prickles up to 5 mm long on stem, straight and up 18 mm long on petiole and both surfaces of leaf; leaf hairy on both surface; infl. 1-5-fld, peduncle reduced; corolla white, berry pale yellow, 2-3 cm across 27. S. viarum  Dunal
28a Prickles straight, on stem and leaves beneath; flowers deep purple, fading into blue and finally white, 6-9 cm across; Berry 3-4 cm across, globose, red or remaining green 28. S. wrightii  Benth*
28b prickles curved (29)
29a
29b30a30b
Prickles on both stem and leaves; leaves lobed, unequal at base;
Prickles only on stem, not on leavesAll flowers bisexual, fruits more than one per inflorescence, erect; corolla blue-purple, 2-2.5 cm across; berry globose, orange, 1 cm across.
Only basal flower bisexual, fruit one per inflorescence, deflexed; corolla purple; 3-3.5 cm across; berry globose, yellow, 2-3 cm across
(30)
(31)29. S. violaceum  Ortega30. S. incanum L.
31a Tree-like, prickles short, stout; leaves oblong-lanceolate, entire, glossy above, silvery white beneath; cymose clusters on 2-3 cm long peduncle; flowers mauve, 1 cm across; berry 9-11 mm across, globose, glossy, red when mature 31. S. giganteum  Jacq.
31b Small shrub; hairs stellate; leaves small, about 4 cm long, cordate; infl. 1-3 fld; fls 2 cm across 32. S. gracilipes Decne. (syn. of Solanum cordatum Forssk.)

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Solanum key for India


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BSI Flora of India Checklist Vol. 2 (1993) (Distribution):

Name Distribution
Solanum multiflorum Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh
Solanum aculeatissimum Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim
Solanum aethiopicum Cultivated species
Solanum americanum var. americanum: Throughout India.
var. odishense Kalidass & P. Murugan: Odisha (syn. of Solanum americanum Mill. as per POWO)
Solanum anguivi Mizoram
Solanum arundo Goa, Gujarat (No distribution shown in India by POWO and CoL)
Solanum asperolanatum Assam, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh
Solanum aviculare Cultivated species
Solanum barbisetum Assam, Jammu & Kashmir, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tripura, Uttarakhand , Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal
Solanum capsicoides Assam, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh
Solanum chacoense Cultivated species
Solanum cordatum Gujarat, Punjab
Solanum denticulatum Cultivated species (Cultivated- syn. of Lycianthes denticulata (Blume) Bitter as per POWO)
Solanum diphyllum Gujarat, Maharashtra, West Bengal
Solanum dubium Gujarat, Maharashtra (syn. of Solanum jamaicense Mill. as per POWO– No distribution shown in India)
Solanum dulcamara Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, Nagaland, Punjab, Sikkim, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh
Solanum elaeagnifolium Gujarat, Karnataka, Jammu & Kashmir, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu
Solanum erianthum Throughout India
Solanum exarmatum Kerala
Solanum forskalii Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan
Solanum giganteum Gujarat, Haryana, Maharashtra, Punjab, Rajasthan
Solanum glaucophyllum Maharashtra, Tripura, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal
Solanum griffithii Assam, Sikkim (syn. of Solanum praetermissum Kerr ex Barnett as per POWO)
Solanum incanum Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Jammu & Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Pondicherry, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh
Solanum jacquemontii Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Rajasthan (syn. of Solanum cordatum Forssk. as per POWO)
Solanum jasminoides Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal (syn. of Solanum laxum Spreng. as per POWO)
Solanum kurzii Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tripura (syn. of Solanum violaceum Ortega as per POWO)
Solanum lasiocarpum Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Kamataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal
Solanum macrocarpon Cultivated species
Solanum mammosum Cultivated species
Solanum marginatum Cultivated species
Solanum mauritianum Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal
Solanum melongena Cultivated species
Solanum nigrum Throughout India
Solanum pseudocapsicum var. pseudocapsicum (Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Kerala, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Punjab, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal)
var. diflorum (Vell.) Bitter (Tamil Nadu)
Solanum pubescens Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu
Solanum robustum Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh (No distribution shown in India by POWO and CoL)
Solanum rostratum Uttar Pradesh (No distribution shown in POWO and CoL)
Solanum seaforthianum Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashta, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal
Solanum sisymbrifolium Assam, Kerala, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal
Solanum spirale Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland
Solanum torvum Throughout India
Solanum trilobatum Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Pondicherry, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal
Solanum triquetrum Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh (No distribution shown in India in POWO and CoL)
Solanum tuberosum Throughout India
Solanum vagum Endemic to India: Tamil Nadu (syn. of Solanum giganteum Jacq. as per POWO)
Solanum viarum Throughout India
Solanum villosum var. villosum Edmonds (Throughout India)
var. punicerum (Kirschl.) Edmonds (Throughout India) (syn. of Solanum villosum Mill. as per POWO)
Solanum violaceum Throughout India
Solanum virginianum Throughout India
Solanum wendlandii Cultivated species
Solanum wightii Endemic to India: Kerala, Tamil Nadu
Solanum wrightii Bihar, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, West Bengal

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Flora of Peninsular India:
Solanum aculeatissimum
Solanum americanum
Solanum anguivi
Solanum aviculare
Solanum barbisetum
Solanum capsicastrum (syn. of Solanum pseudocapsicum L. as per POWO)
Solanum capsicoides
Solanum chrysotrichum
Solanum clavatum (Cultivated- syn. of Solanum aligerum Schltdl. as per POWO)
Solanum convolvulus (Cultivated- syn. of Solanum flaccidum Vell. as per POWO)
Solanum denticulatum (Cultivated- syn. of Lycianthes denticulata (Blume) Bitter as per POWO)
Solanum diphyllum
Solanum dulcamara
Solanum elaeagnifolium
Solanum erianthum
Solanum ferox (syn. of Solanum lasiocarpum Dunal as per POWO)
Solanum giganteum
Solanum grandiflorum
Solanum hispidum (syn. of Solanum asperolanatum Ruiz & Pav. as per POWO)
Solanum hovei
Solanum incanum
Solanum indicum (syn. of Solanum violaceum Ortega as per POWO)
Solanum indicum var. multiflorum (syn. of Solanum multiflorum Roth as per POWO)
Solanum insanum J.B.Fisch. (? Solanum insanum L. as per POWO)
Solanum jasminoides (syn. of Solanum laxum Spreng. as per POWO)
Solanum khasianum (syn. of Solanum myriacanthum Dunal as per POWO)
Solanum kurzii (syn. of Solanum violaceum Ortega as per POWO)
Solanum lasiocarpum
Solanum macrocarpon
Solanum macrophyllum (syn. of Solanum albidum Dunal as per POWO)
Solanum mammosum
Solanum marginatum
Solanum mauritianum
Solanum melongena var. insanum (syn. of Solanum insanum L. as per POWO)
Solanum melongena var. melongena
Solanum muricatum (Cultivated)
Solanum myriacanthum
Solanum nigrum
Solanum pseudocapsicum
Solanum pseudocapsicum var. diflorum (syn. of Solanum pseudocapsicum L. as per POWO)
Solanum pubescens
Solanum robustum
Solanum seaforthianum
Solanum sisymbriifolium
Solanum stramoniifolium
Solanum torvum
Solanum trilobatum
Solanum tuberosum
Solanum vagum (syn. of Solanum giganteum Jacq. as per POWO)
Solanum verbascifolium (syn. of Solanum donianum Walp. as per POWO and no distribution shown in India)
Solanum viarum
Solanum violaceum
Solanum violaceum subsp. multiflorum (syn. of Solanum multiflorum Roth as per POWO)
Solanum virginianum
Solanum wendlandii
Solanum wightii
Solanum wrightii


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Binomial Habit Notes Ref. Distrib.
Solanum americanum Mill Herb Plains to Low Altitude, Naturalized , Native of Tropical America  Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 All districts
Solanum anguivi Lam. Shrub Plains, Dry Localities/ Cleared Forests R. Vijaya Sankar, 2007 Tiruvanna malai
Solanum aviculari G. Forst. Shrub Western Ghats, Evergreen Forests, Cultivated, Native of Australia   Nilgiri
Solanum barbisetum Nees Shrub Western Ghats, Evergreen Forests,  Naturalized, Native of Tropical America  Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Gamble 1957 Nilgiri
Solanum capsicastrum Link & Schau. = Solanum pseudocapsicum Shrub Western Ghats, Evergreen Forests,  Naturalized, Native of Tropical America  Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 Nilgiri
Solanum capsicoides Mart. Herb / Under shrub Western Ghats, Evergreen Forests,  Naturalized, Native of Tropical America  Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 Nilgiri 
Solanum clavatum Rusby (Cultivated- syn. of Solanum aligerum Schltdl. as per POWO) Shrub Western Ghats, Evergreen Forests,  Cultivated, Native of Tropical America  Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 Nilgiri
Solanum convolvulus Sendtner is a synonym of Solanum flaccidum Vell. Climb er Western Ghats, Evergreen Forests,  Cultivated, Native of Tropical America  Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 Nilgiri
Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav. Herb / Under shrub Plains, Dry Localities Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 Coimbatore, Madurai, Theni
Solanum erianthum D.Don Shrub / small tree Moist Deciduous Forests Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 Coimbatore, Dharmapuri, Dindigul, Erode, Kanniya kumari, Namakkal, Nilgiri, Salem, Theni, Tirunelveli, Tiruvanna malai, Vellore, Viluppuram, Virudhu nagar
Solanum giganteum Jacq. Shrub / small tree Moist Deciduous to Evergreen Forests  Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 Dharmapuri, Dindigul, Namakkal, Nilgiri, Theni,  Salem
Solanum grandiflorum Ruiz & Pavon Under shrub Western Ghats, Evergreen Forests Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 Coimbatore, Nilgiri
Solanum hispidum Pers. = Solanum asperolanatum Ruiz & Pav. Shrub / small tree Eastern Ghats, Dry Deciduous to Moist Deciduous Forests, Open  Localities, Naturalized, Native of Tropical America Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 Salem, Viluppuram
Solanum insanum J.B.Fisch. (? Solanum insanum L.) Sub shrub Plains,  Cultivated Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 All districts
Solanum jasminoides Paxt. = Solanum laxum  Twin ing Shrub Western Ghats, Evergreen Forests,  Cultivated/ Naturalized, Native of Tropical America Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 Dindigul, Nilgiri
Solanum kurzii Brace ex Prain = Solanum violaceum Shrub Western Ghats, Evergreen Forests, Cultivated, Native of Himalaya Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 Nilgiri
Solanum lasiocarpum Dunal Herb Western Ghats, Evergreen Forests   Coimbatore, Dindigul, Kanniya kumari, Tirunelveli
Solanum macrocarpon  L.  Herb Western Ghats, Evergreen Forests, Cultivated, Native of Tropical Africa   Tirunelveli
Solanum macrophyllum Dunal (syn. of Solanum albidum Dunal as per POWO) Tree Western Ghats, Evergreen Forests, Cultivated, Native of Tropical America Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 Nilgiri
Solanum marginatum L.f. Shrub Western Ghats, Evergreen Forests, Cultivated, Native of Tropical America Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 Nilgiri
Solanum mauritianum Scop. Shrub Western Ghats, Naturalized, Native of Tropical Africa Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 Coimbatore, Nilgiri
Solanum melongena L. var. melongena Herb Plains,  Cultivated Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 All districts
Solanum pseudo-capsicum L. var. difflorum (Vell.) Bitter Shrub Western Ghats, Naturalized, Native of Tropical America   Dindigul, Nilgiri
Solanum pseudo-capsicum L.var. pseudo-capsicum Shrub Western Ghats, Naturalized, Native of Tropical America Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 Dindigul 
Solanum pubescens Willd. Shrub Dry Deciduous to Moist Deciduous Forests, Open  Localities Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 Coimbatore, Dharmapuri, Dindigul, Erode, Kanniya kumari, Namakkal, Nilgiri, Salem, Theni, Tirunelveli, Tiruvanna malai, Vellore, Viluppuram, Virudhu nagar
Solanum robustum H. Wendl. (No distribution shown in India by POWO and CoL) Shrub Western Ghats, Evergreen Forests   Nilgiri
Solanum seaforthianum Andr. Shrub Western Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Deciduous to Moist Deciduous Forests, Naturalized,  Native of Tropical America Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 Dharmapuri, Dindigul, Nilgiri, Theni, Salem, Tiruvanna malai
Solanum sisymbrifolium Lam. Under shrub Western Ghats, Evergreen Forests, Naturalized, Native of  Tropical America Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 Coimbatore, Dindigul, Nilgiri
Solanum stramoniifolium Jacq. Herb Western Ghats, Moist Deciduous to Evergreen Forests Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Gamble 1957 Coimbatore, Dindigul, Erode, Kanniya kumari,  Nilgiri,  Theni, Tirunelveli, Virudhu nagar
Solanum torvum Sw. Shrub Plains to Low Altitude, Cultivated, Native of Tropical America Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 All districts
Solanum trilobatum L. Climb ing Under shrub Dry Evergreen to Dry Deciduous Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 All districts
Solanum tuberosum L. Herb Western Ghats, Evergreen Forests,  Cultivated, Native of Tropical America Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 Dindigul, Nilgiri
Solanum vagum Heyne ex Nees (syn. of Solanum giganteum Jacq. as per POWO) Shrub / Under shrub Western Ghats, Evergreen Forests Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 Tirunelveli, Virudhu nagar
Solanum viarum Dunal  Under shrub Western Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Moist Deciduous Forests, Naturalized, Native of Tropical America Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 Coimbatore, Kanniya kumari, Nilgiri, Salem
Solanum violaceum Ortega Subsp. multiflorum (C. B. Clarke) K. M. Matthew (syn. of Solanum multiflorum Roth as per POWO) Herb Western Ghats, Evergreen Forests, Open  Localities Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 Coimbatore, Dindigul, Nilgiri, Tirunelveli
Solanum violaceum Ortega Subsp. violaceum Under shrub Dry Deciduous Forests Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 All districts
Solanum virginianum L. Herb/ Under shrub Plains, Dry Localities Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 All districts
Solanum wendlandii Hook.f. Climb ing shrub Western Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Naturalized, Native of Tropical America Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 Dindigul, Salem
Solanum wrightii Benth. Shrub/ small tree Western Ghats, Evergreen Forests, Cultivated, Native of Tropical America Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Gamble 1957, Matthew 1999 Nilgiri

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FRLHT Indian Medicinal Plants Nomenclature Database with images/ herbarium, distribution, local names etc. :

Solanum albicaule KOTSCHY EX DUNAL is a synonym of Solanum forskalii Dunal

Solanum capsicoides ALL.
Solanum carolinense L.
Solanum ciliatum LAMK. = Solanum capsicoides

Solanum ferox L. (syn. of Solanum lasiocarpum Dunal as per POWO)
Solanum giganteum JACQ
Solanum hirsutum ROXB. (syn. of Solanum ferox L.)

Solanum indicum L. (syn. of Solanum violaceum Ortega as per POWO)
Solanum khasianum C.B. CLARKE (syn. of Solanum myriacanthum Dunal as per POWO)
Solanum lasiocarpum DUNAL
Solanum lycopersicum LINN.
Solanum mauritianum SCORP.

Solanum pubescens HEYNE. EX WALP. (? Solanum pubescens Willd.)
Solanum sarmentosum NEES is a synonym of Solanum lanceifolium
Solanum seaforthianum ANDR.
Solanum sisymbrifolium LAM.
Solanum spirale ROXB.
Solanum surattense BURM. F. = Solanum virginianum

Botanical name Synonyms Family Common name
Solanum betaceum Cyphomandra betacea, Solanum crassifolium, Cyphomandra crassifolia Solanaceae Tree Tomato
Solanum carolinense L. Solanaceae Horse Nettle
Solanum diphyllum Solanaceae Twoleaf Nightshade
Solanum erianthum Solanaceae Big Eggplant
Solanum giganteum Solanum niveum Solanaceae Red Bitter Berry
Solanum laxum Solanum jasminoides, Solanum boerhaviifolium, Solanum triphyllum Solanaceae Potato Vine
Solanum macranthum Solanaceae Potato Tree
Solanum mammosum Solanum platanifolium, Solanum globiferum, Solanum mammosissimum Solanaceae Nipple Fruit
Solanum mauritianum Solanum auriculatum, Solanum tabacifolium, Solanum verbascifolium var. auriculatum Solanaceae Tree Tobacco
Solanum melongena Solanaceae Brinjal
Solanum nigrum Solanaceae Black Nightshade
Solanum pseudocapsicum Solanaceae Jerusalem Cherry
Solanum seaforthianum Solanum venustum, Solanum prunifolium, Solanum cyrrhosum Solanaceae Brazilian Nightshade
Solanum sisymbriifolium Solanaceae Sticky Nightshade
Solanum torvum Solanaceae Turkey Berry
Solanum trilobatum Solanaceae Purple Fruited Pea Eggplant
Solanum tuberosum Solanaceae Potato
Solanum viarum Solanum viridiflorum, Solanum khasianum var. chatterjeeanum Solanaceae Tropical Soda Apple
Solanum villosum Solanum alatum, Solanum luteum, Solanum nigrum var. villosum Solanaceae Yellow Nightshade
Solanum violaceum Solanum chinense Solanaceae Indian Nightshade
Solanum virginianum Solanum surattense, Solanum xanthocarpum Solanaceae Thorny Nightshade
Solanum wendlandii Solanaceae Giant Potato Creeper


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Solanum wendlandii
Solanum wightii (No distribution in India)

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Solanum griffithii (syn. of Solanum praetermissum Kerr ex Barnett as per POWO)

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Rheedea Vol. 20 (1) 56-58 2 0 1 0 Solanum cordatum (Solanaceae) – A new record to Southern India by A. Ramachandran and M.B. Viswanathan
Abstract : While preparing an inventory of fl owering plants of the Kolli hills, Namakkal district, Tamil Nadu, Southern India, some specimens of Solanum L. were collected and identifi ed as S. cordatum Forssk. On scrutiny of literature, it is revealed that this species is known only from Gujarat in India and forms a new record to Southern India. Hence, a detailed description, phenology and illustration are provided to facilitate easy identifi cation of the species.

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Solanum diphyllum (Solanaceae) – A new record for Southern India by M. Reema Kumari – Rheedea Vol. 23(1) 50-51 2013-
AbstractSolanum diphyllum L., a tropical American species, is added here to the flora of Southern India from Bangalore, Karnataka. Its occurrence in Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu is discussed. A detailed description and photograph of the species are provided for easy identification.

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Fruits and/or leaves of 31 species of Solanum that grow in India have been assayed for total alkaloid content and the presnce of solasodine in them has.
Solanum arundo Mattei (No distribution shown in India by POWO and CoL)
Solanum clavatum Rusby (Cultivated- syn. of Solanum aligerum Schltdl. as per POWO)
Solanum ferox L. (syn. of Solanum lasiocarpum Dunal as per POWO)
Solanum glaucum
Solanum hispidum Pers. = Solanum asperolanatum Ruiz & Pav.
Solanum indicum L. (syn. of Solanum violaceum Ortega as per POWO)
Solanum khasianum C.B. CLARKE (syn. of Solanum myriacanthum Dunal as per POWO)
Solanum robustum H. L. Wendl. (No distribution shown in India by POWO and CoL)
Solanum vagum Heyn. ex Nees (syn. of Solanum giganteum Jacq. as per POWO)
Solanum verbascifolium L. = Solanum donianum Walp.
Solanum wendlandii

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Pharmacognostical And Phdytochemical Comparison of Roots of Solanum Species Used in Ayurvedic Formulations by *Jayanthy A. Sulaiman C.T. and Rema Shree A. B.- International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research 2012; 4(1);28-37
ABSTRACT : Pharmacognostical studies play an important role in the identification of the genuine plant of various Ayurvedic raw drugs. Adulteration/substitution exists for many ayurvedic raw drugs due to the non-availability of genuine herbs in required quantities and controversy in the selection of source plants. Solanum species are involved in ayurvedic preparations as the members of laghupanchamula group of plants. Present paper deals with the comparison of the roots of most commonly used species of Solanum by studying the micro-morphological, anatomical, physicochemical characters and chemical comparison by TLC and HPLC studies.
Species discussed:
Solanum indicum L. (syn. of Solanum violaceum Ortega as per POWO)

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Solanum diffusum Ruiz & Pav. is a synonym of Solanum ternatum Ruiz & Pav.
Solanum esculentum Dunal is a synonym of Solanum melongena
Solanum ferox L. (syn. of Solanum lasiocarpum Dunal as per POWO)
Solanum sanctum L. is a synonym of Solanum incanum L.
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Indian Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated Dictionary edited by C.P. Khare (2007)- Details-
Solanum dubium Dunal (syn. of Solanum jamaicense Mill. as per POWO– No distribution shown in India)
……………..
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Solanum trilobatum …………

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Gardening in India By George Marshall Woodrow, G Marshall (1999)- Details-

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An Excursion Flora of Central Tamilnadu, India By K. M. Matthew (1995)- Details-
…………..
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Vegetables edited by G. J. H. Grubben (2005)- Great Details-
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1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants edited by Kerry Scott Walter, Harriet J. Gillett
Solanum kurzii PRAIN. (= Solanum violaceum) – Indeterminate- Tamilnadu

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Flora of Medak District, Andhra Pradesh, India By T. Pullaiah, Chintala Prabhakar, B. Ravi Prasad Rao (1998)- Details with keys
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Antidiabetic Plants in India and Herbal Based Antidiabetic Research By T. Pullaiah, K. Chandrasekhar Naidu (2003)- Details-
……………….

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…………………..

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Medicinal Plants, Volume 1 (2005)- Great Details-
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Solanum : 1 post by 1 author.

I have updated eFI (efloraofindia) page on Solanum

Attempts have been made to incorporate most of the species available in India & nearby areas with details & keys directly or through links as far as possible. It’s quite possible that there may be some discrepancy in the accepted names & synonyms taken from other links.

Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.

If someone can provide complete list of Indian species with source references it will be wonderful.

Any comments/ corrections are welcome.


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Solanum page with comparative images:
Pl. go through Solanum (Solanaceae) page with comparative images of species in efloraofindia. On clicking the link of species, one can check the complete details. Genus pages generally give details of most of the species found in India along with keys provided by Singh ji.
I request you to pl. go through & point out mistakes, if any. I hope this will aid in identification in future. If anybody can send images of other species of this genus (for incorporation in the website), if any, or can identify unidentified images, it will be really nice.
Lot of credit goes to Gurcharan Singh ji, for identifying a lot of the Solanum posts.


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