Keys of Asclepiadaceae in Flora of Bhutan:
1. Large erect shrubs, small trees, erect to sprawling herbs or epiphytes 2
+ Twining shrubs . . . . .. 8
2. Large erect shrubs or small trees more than 50cm tall . . . . . . ..9. Calotropis
+ Epiphytes or terrestrial herbs, sprawling or erect, but usually less than 50cm tall (to 1m in Vincetoxicum) . . . . .. 3
3. Succulent-leaved epiphytes; stem sprawling or trailing; flowers in showy umbels; corolla fleshy or waxy . .. 19. Hoya
+ Leaves coriaceous to membranous; or if fleshy then flowers small and inconspicuous . . . .. 4
4. Sprawling herbs, terrestrial or epiphytic . . . .. 5
+ Erect to arching herbs . . .. 6
5. Terrestrial herbs; leaves in two ranks without extrafloral nectaries; flowers purplish; corolla tube short, lobes filiform .. .. 3. Streptocaulon
+ Epiphytes; leaves usually fleshy, with extrafloral nectaries appearing as a black spot at base of leaf; flowers yellow; corolla tube globose, lobes minute …. 22. Dischidia
6. Leaves ovate-acute, not acuminate; inflorescences sessile and crowded in the upper leaf axils; flowers small and green, c 0.5cm broad …. 8. Vincetoxicum
+ Leaves lanceolate-acuminate; inflorescences pedunculate; flowers larger, white or orange and purple . . . . . .. 7
7. Erect-stemmed herbs; flowers purple with an orange-yellow centre; lobes short, reflexed . . . .. 10. Asclepias
+ Erect herb with arching stems; flowers white with long pendulous lobes …. 13. Pentasacme
8. Corolla tube usually elongated and variously inflated; lobes narrow and fused at apex forming a crown over corolla mouth; fruits long and slender …..
+ Corolla tube usually short and campanulate; lobes not fused at apex; fruits various . . . . . . .. 9
9. Mature leaf bases distinctly cordate with a wide sinus . . . . .. 10
+ Mature leaf bases cuneate, rounded or truncate, sometimes cordate but not with a wide sinus . . . . . .. 14
10. Flowers large, showy, in few-flowered inflorescences; plant glabrous …. 11
+ Flowers small, in many-flowered inflorescences; plant pubescent or not ….. 12
11. Peduncles more than 3cm long, stout; coronal scales long and horn-like, overtopping anther column . . . . . .. 11. Raphistemma
+ Peduncles less than 3cm long, more slender; coronal scales truncate forming a low membranous ring at base of anther column . . . .. 12. Holostemma
12. Woody herbs; inflorescence a crowded, umbellate cluster, coronal scales long, overtopping gynostegium; plants glabrous or almost so; fruits with
soft spines or flanges . . . . . . .. 7. Cynanchum
+ Tall, twining undershrubs; inflorescences various, coronal scales not as above, plants pubescent (or at least on main leaf veins); fruits smooth or striate … 13
13. Inflorescence a crowded umbellate cluster; corolla lobes more than 8mm long .. 16. Telosma
+ Inflorescence a lax, many-flowered cyme; corolla lobes to 3.5mm long …. 17. Marsdenia
14. Flowers small, less than 7mm broad . . . . .. 15
+ Flowers larger, more than 8mm broad . . . . .. 22
15. Inflorescence a crowded spike; stems and leaves bluish-tinged (particularly evident in dried material) . . . .. 17. Marsdenia
+ Inflorescence a branched cyme or umbellate cluster . . . . . . . .. 16
16. Inflorescence an umbellate cluster .. . . . .. 17
+ Inflorescence a laxly branched cyme . . . .. 19
17. Inflorescence and leaves sessile .. . . . .. 2. Hemidesmus
+Inflorescence and leaves stalked . . . . . 18
18. Leaves and stem glabrous or with a short adpressed puberulence; inflorescence at least 9-flowered . . . .. 14. Gymnema
+ Leaves and stem densely covered with spreading hairs; inflorescence few flowered . . . . . . . .. 24. Tylophora
19. Mature stems distinctly pustular or lenticellate . . . . . . .. 20
+ Stems smooth or at most striate . . . .. 21
20. Inflorescence branches red-brown pubescent; corolla densely white pubescent within . . . . . .. 6. Genianthus
+ Inflorescence branches pale puberulent; corolla glabrous . . .. 17. Marsdenia
21. Plant glabrous; corolla lobes coriaceous and twisted in bud; flowers small, c 5mm broad . . . . .. 15. Gongronema
+ Plant usually pubescent; corolla lobes rotate, membranous, unopened flower buds globose; flowers minute less than 4mm broad . . .. 24 Tylophora
22. Flowers large, more than 2cm broad, pale pink to dark purple . . . . . . . .. 23
+ Flowers smaller, less than 2cm broad, white, greenish or yellow (pink-red in Marsdenia lucida) .. . . . . . .. 24
23. Leaves glabrous; inflorescence pedunculate . . . . . .. 18. Treutlera
+ Leaves rusty-brown pubescent; inflorescence sessile or almost so …. 19. Dittoceras
24. Leaves pubescent, at least on main veins . . . . . . .. 25
+ Leaves glabrous . . . . . .. 26
25. Calyx lobes scarcely pubescent; corolla lobes lanceolate . . . . . .. 16. Telosma
+ Calyx lobes densely pubescent; corolla lobes lanceolate to triangular …… 17. Marsdenia
26. Inflorescence a many-flowered umbel . . . . . . .. 27
+ Inflorescence a few- to many-flowered cyme, or if umbellate then subsessile ……. 28
27. Young stems without pale pustules; leaves elliptic-oblong; coronal scales minute . . . . .. 14. Gymnema
+ Young stems with pale pustules; leaves widely ovate; coronal scales fleshy and stellately spreading . . . . . .. 21. Wattakaka
28. Corolla lobes slender, erect and often twisted . . . . .. 29
+ Corolla lobes triangular to narrowly so, spreading ……… .. 30
29. Cyme branches and leaves glabrous; pollen granular . . . . .. 1. Cryptolepis
+ Cyme branches and lower leaf surfaces rusty-brown pubescent; pollen in waxy pollinia . . . .. 5. Toxocarpus
30. Leaves without extra floral nectaries, veins unwinged converging into an intra marginal vein; pollen granular . . . . . . ..4. Periploca
+ Leaves with extra floral nectaries, veins winged below, intra marginal vein absent; pollen in waxy pollinia . . . . . ..23. Heterostemma
Images of species from genera other than Allamanda, Alstonia, Caralluma, Carissa, Ceropegia, Hoya, Plumeria, Rauvolfia, Tabernaemontana, & Wrightia (pl. click on these links to see their images)
Decalepis khasiana (Kurz) Ionta ex Kambale (Assam to S. China and Indo-China: Assam, Bangladesh, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Laos, Myanmar as per POWO)
Dischidia vidalii Becc. (Cultivated)
Gymnema napalense Wall. (Himalaya to S. China: Assam, Bangladesh, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Hainan, India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Tibet, Vietnam, West Himalaya as per POWO)
Heterostemma alatum Wight & Arn. (India (Himalayas, NE-India, Upper Gangetic Plains, Darjeeling), Sikkim, Nepal as per CoL)
Heterostemma tanjorense Wight & Arn. (India, Sri Lanka as per POWO)
Marsdenia lucida Edgew. ex Madden (Nepal, Bhutan, India (Himalayas, Upper Gangetic Plains) as per CoL)
Micrechites polyanthus (Bl.) Miq. (Himalaya to W. Malesia: Andaman Is., Assam, Borneo, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Hainan, Jawa, Laos, Malaya, Myanmar, Nepal, Sumatera, Thailand, Vietnam as per POWO)
Pentatropis capensis (L. f.) Bullock (Indian Subcontinent as per WCSP; Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka as per POWO)
Pentatropis nivalis (J.F. Gmel.) D.V. Field & J.R.I. Wood (Sahel to Tanzania, Comoros, Madagascar, Egypt to W. India as per WCSP; Afghanistan, Burkina, Chad, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Guinea, Gulf States, India, Iran, Kenya, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sinai, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen as per POWO)
Periploca aphylla subsp. aphylla
Pottsia laxiflora (BI.) O. Kuntze (Assam to S. China and Lesser Sunda Islands (Bali): Assam, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China South-Central, China Southeast, Hainan, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Myanmar, Sumatera, Thailand, Vietnam as per POWO)
Vincetoxicum arnottianum (Wight) Wight (Pakistan to W. Himalaya and India (Punjab): India, Pakistan, West Himalaya as per POWO)
Vincetoxicum kenouriense (Wight) Wight (Endemic to a long geographic range in the Hindukush Himalayas from Bhutan in the east to Pakistan in the west. The western limit of this species is district Swat (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province), Pakistan. It occurs on higher elevations between 1500 and 3000 m. The habitats of the species are commonly the Himalayan moist temperate forests (evergreen forests of conifers between 1500 to 3000 m elevations), rarely subalpine or open alpine lands (above 3000 m). We collected it from open stony alpine slopes and stream side slopes in a V-shaped mountain valley. The associated vegetation was either alpine herbs or conifers, and herbaceous to shrubby flora as per Taxonomy of Vincetoxicum s.str. (Asclepiadoideae, Apocynaceae) from southern Asia including three new species and resurrected names– Sayed Afzal Shah, Amir Sultan, Jun Wen , Zahid Ullah , Surat Un Nisa, Zhumei Ren , Muhammad Maqsood Alam, Javed Iqbal, Abdul Samad Mumtaz – June 2021PhytoKeys 179(1):35-73)
Family of the week:Apocynaceae : 2 posts by 2 authors.
Apocynaceae : Oleander family or dogbane family.
Around 60 species in India.
Herbs : e.g.Lochnera
Shrubs :e.g. Nerium
Trees : Alstonia
Climbers : Vallaris
Sometimes stems are armed with sharp spines as in Carissa.
Latex is present in unsegmented tubes and the vascular bundles are bicollateral.
Leaves are usually opposite decussate ;sometimes whorled or scattered (Plumeria).They are simple entire without stipules.
Flowers arranged in axillary or terminal cymose or panicled inflorescences ;rarely solitary.
They are bracteate, bisexual, perfect, actinomorphic, pentamerous and hypogynous.
Calyx is gamosepalous- 5 lobed. Corolla isgamopetalous 5 lobed salver shaped but sometimes campanulate/ bell or funnel shaped. Stamens are distinct and as many as corolla lobes and alternate with them and adnate to the corolla tube. Filaments are short. Anthers introrse and adherent to the stigma. Gynoecium-usually bicarpellary with superior ovary ar rarely partly inferior ovary (Plumeria). When distinct each ovary is unilocular with ventral placenta. Stigma is massive variable in shape and often bilobed.
A hypogynous nectariferous disc is present which is annular, cup shaped, lobed or of distinct glands. Fruit is of two follicles dehiscing by ventral suture, sometimes berry or capsule.
Seeds are flat often winged or with a tuft of hairs at one end.
Pollination and seed dispersal: Flower is adapted for insect pollination
Apocynum :for insect pollination.
Nerium :adapted for long tongued lepidoptera.
Vinca : When insect enters its proboscis into the corolla tube it is smeared with adhesive matter and when withdrawn, it is cemented with pollens.
Winged seeds and hairs favour distribution by wind.
Economic importance and uses:
Members of the family provide a large number of ornamentals and some useful drugs.
Vinca rosea (Catharanthus roseus: Periwinkle, Sadafuli) An ever blooming perennial herb with rosy purple flowers. Some anticancer drugs are extracted from it.
Thevetia peruviana: Yellow oleander, Peeli Kaner. Leafy evergreen shrub with yellow to orange flowers widely planted in gardens. Uses in rheumatism and dropsy.
Nerium indicum (Kanher) Ornamental shrub with white to pink red flowers again widely planted in gardens.
Plumeria (Frangipani, white champa, Chapha):A common garden plant with Fragrant flowers in different colours.
Tabernaemontana divaricate (Crape jasmine,Chandani:Syn.Ervatamia coromaria) white waxy flowers: common garden plant.
Carissa congesta : (Syn. C.carandas, Karaunda, Karawand.)Sweet edible fruits, widely found shrub of Sahyadris.
Rauvolfia serpentine (Sarpagandha) Found in tropical Himalayas also widely cultivated. Digitalis a common medicine for heart is procured from it.
Holarrhena antidysenterca: (Kutaj or Kuda) As the name suggests: Extract from root and bark is used in dysentery.
Wrightia tinctoria: Leaves are the source of a blue dye Indigo.
Alstonia scholaris: An evergreen tree with dense crown, often planted in gardens and as avenue tree. Wood is used in packing and the bark has medicinal value.
Family of the Month/Week- Apocynaceae (including Asclepiadaceae) : 14 posts by 5 authors.
as per the decision of the Group we are celebrating November as a Month of Apocynaceae. In this regard I have to coordinate the matter. We will be posting identified or unidentified members of the family as per posting guidelines in the First Week of November. As most of you are aware, According to APG classification, the Asclepiadaceae is now a former plant family, presently treated as a subfamily (subfamily Asclepiadoideae) in the family Apocynaceae. Please see the link given for more info.
For our purpose on the efloraindia, we will be dealing with the family Apocynaceae as a whole.
However I am giving details of both the families separately in two mails with links and other info. This will enable us to understand both these groups of plants in a precise way. In our group (Efloraindia) all members are not from the Botany background, so here only little info is being given on the latest classification from the paper cited above. You can download this paper fully from springer website
Abstract of the above paper
The Asclepiadaceae, as traditionally defined, have repeatedly been shown to be an apomorphic derivative of the Apocynaceae. It has often been recommended that the Asclepiadaceae be subsumed within the Apocynaceae in order to make the latter monophyletic. To date, however, no comprehensive, unified classification has been established. Here we provide a unified classification for the Apocynaceae, which consists of 424 genera distributed among five subfamilies: Rauvolfioideae, Apocynoideae, Periplocoideae, Secamonoideae, and Asclepiadoideae. Keys to the subfamilies and tribes are provided, with lists of genera that (as far as we have been able to ascertain) are recognized in each tribe.
For more details about APG Classification and Characters of Families pls see the link
Here is the info about Asclepiadaceae (as it is described traditionally). Now subfamily of Apocynaceae–Asclepiadoideae
Aclepiadaceae (The Milk Weed Family)
These are erect or twining shrubs or perennial herbs, very rarely trees. Sometime fleshy and with reduced non-functional or obsolescent leaves. Leaves opposite or whorled, entire or very rarely lobed or irregularly dentate, exstipulate.
Inflorescence cymose, often umbelliform. Sometimes more or les racemosely fascicles along a simple or branched rachis.
Flowers generally pentamerous.
Calyx 5 free, 5-partite and slightly fused at base.
Corolla 5 fused, pentafid, short tube
Androecium united in a ring and adnate to style apex. The short filaments ornamented with a nectariferous CORONA of varied forms, the whole forming a pentangular stigmatic disc (GYNOSTEGIUM). Pollen in tetrads united in waxy masses (POLLINIA) attached by caudicles of varied forms to sutured corpuscles derived from style apex
Gynoecium formed of 2 free carples united by their style apices and enclosed by the staminal tube. Stigmas connate to form a pentangular disc with which the anthers coherent to form the GYNOSTEGIUM.
Fruit an etaerio of two often widely divergent follicles of which sometime one is occasionally abortive
Seeds many small usually having a tuft of long hairs which help in dispersal.
Some links on the pics and other information on the family (asclepiadaceae) from net
Regarding the posts already appeared on Efloraindia some 30 different threads/mails are there. I will be posting them tomorrow for the information and reference of the members. Today, … has posted som member of the Apocynaceae. These threads have not been included as these are very much recent.
Till then please prepare your pics to post on Efloraindia keeping in mind posting guidelines. Particularly size of the images.
links to the earlier discussed species in Efloraindia ………………………………
Family of the Month/Week- Apocynaceae (including Asclepiadaceae) Part-2 : 10 posts by 6 authors.
Here is the Information on Apocynaceae
Apocynaceae (The Oleander Family or Periwinkle Family or Dogbane family)
Usually twining shrubs, lianas, rarely erect small trees, rarely subshrubs or herbs. Plant with latex.
Bicollateral vascular bundles in stem
Leaves simple, opposite, rarely whorled or alternate, exstipulate
Inflorescences cymose, terminal or axillary, sometimes corymbose. Bract and bracteoles present
Flowers regular bisexual, generally pentamerous rarely tetramerous, sometime with corona
Calyx 5, rarely 4, with basal glands, fused but divided almost to the base
Corolla 5, rarely 4, lobed, salverform or funnel shaped twisted or rarely valvate aestivation. The throat or interior of the tube often hairy or other scaly outgrowths (Corona)
Stamens 5 or rarely 4, epipetalous, free or filaments rarely united, short; anthers mostly arrow shaped, usually connate around the stigma and apparently adnate to it, ring-like often glandular disc present
Gynoecium 2 Carpels, free below and united by styles only or completely fused. When Apocarpous each ovary is one celled with marginal placentation. In Syncarpous condition ovary may be one celled with parietal placentation or 2 celled with axile placentation.. Anatropous ovules. Style simple, thickned above into a dumb-bell shaped stigmatic head, ring of hairs below it
Fruit a dry or fleshy drupe, berry, follicle or capsules or two indehiscent mericarps.. Seeds often hairy or winged.
Plant parts of Some members of this Plant Family are POISONOUS
Full key of the family can be downloaded from the link
Some Internet Links on the family
Species & genera pages of Apocynaceae are now with images : 7 posts by 3 authors.
Species & genera pages of Apocynaceae in efloraofindia are now with images.
It involves inserting images on around 180 species pages (say around 600 images) & 72 genera pages. Some of which was already done by others. It also involved a lot of cleansing work like deletion of duplicate / wrong pages, correctly identify some of the threads either directly or through resurfacing, putting them at their proper place, proper formatting of the species pages etc.
I request our members to pl. take up one family each & try to make efloraofindia more constructive. We will be rendering what ever assistance is required by the members, in this matter.
Congrats …! A big family is completed.
Thanks, … You are an inspiration & had made our job so easy with your time & energy.
Thanks, …, You have doing such a wonderful job, which is going to help a lot of people in future.